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Family Malvaceae
Grewia laevigata Vahl

Scientific names Common names
Grewia laevigata Vahl       Alagat (Iloilo)
Grewia mallococa Blanco       Talimughat lingin (Agusan)
Grewia multiflora Blanco       Two-lobed crossberry (Engl.)
Grewia odorata Blume        
Grewia ovalifolia  Juss.        
Grewia pedicellata Roxb.        
Grewia racemosa Noronha        
Grewia scabrida Wall. ex Kurz     
Grewia umbellata Roxb. ex DC.     
Mallococca parva Blanco        
Grewia laevigata Vahl is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online
There is a confusing sharing of synonyms with several Grewia species: Grewia multiflora, G. laevigata, G. serullata, G. sepiaria, etc., along with a confusing sharing and misattribution of common names.

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Monsimais, Khing-ar-khial.
BORNEO: Akar gerigu, Akar lapit, Karai, Lapion, Sumpit babi, Tanchot..
INDIA: Anekkattimaram, Vallichadachchi.
INDONESIA: Simpaling.
MALAY: Akar sekapu, Akar sempelas.

Gen info
- Grewia is a large flowering plant genus in the mallow family Malvaceae.
- The genus was named by Carl Linnaeus in honor of the English botanist Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712), whose study of pollen laid the grooundwork for modern-day palynology. (2)

- Etymology: The genus name Grewia  commemorates Nehemiah Grew. The specific epithet laevigata means "smooth" or "hairless".

• Grewia laevigata is a climbing shrub up to 15 m long. Leaves are alternate; stalked leaves have slightly leathery leaf blades that are oval or oblong-egg-shaped, pale below, and 7.6-11 by 3.8-5 cm. Flowers are yellowish-white, 1.9 cm long, and grow in clusters of 6-8. Fruits are round, green, green, and contain one seed each. (3)

• Shrub to small tree, up to 10 m high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 7–15 by 2.5–5 cm; glabrous or glabrescent; apex cuspidate-acuminate or acute, base obtuse and equal or slightly unequal-sided; margin serrate to serrulate; 3-nerved at base; secondary nerves 4–6 pairs, arched; scalariform veins distinct on lower surface; petioles 5–10 mm long, glabrescent. Inflorescence axillary, very slender and loose or erect 1.5–4 cm long; flower buds oblong, always swollen near base, 4–13 by 2–5 mm. Sepals linear-lanceolate, 10–20 by 1.5–3 mm. Petals oblong, 3–7 by 1.5 mm, glabrous except near base on both surfaces, ciliate along margin. Stamens glabrous. Ovary globose or ovoid, ± 4 by 2 mm, hairy, Fruit rounded , 2–4-lobed, black and woody or dull green and leathery. (Flora of Thailand)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Often abundant in low and medium elevation thickets; along seashores.

- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas Is., Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)

- Considered wound healing, hemostatic.
- Studies have suggested anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, roots, fruits.

- Fruits are edible, fresh and raw.
- Fruits fermented with traditional beer; also used with goat's milk to make berry yoghurt. ()
- In Agusan del Sur, Philippines, bark, leaves, and roots use for cramps and spasm, muscle pain, weakness and fatigue, as labor and delivery enhancer, postpartum care and recovery. (6)
- In Bangladesh, pills made from bark, root, and leaf used for treatment of pain and paralysis. (4)
- The Tonchongya tribal community of Bangladesh, eat fruits for dyspepsia and liver disease. (5)
- Leaf decoction drunk to reduce postpartum pains.
- Leaves applied to cuts and abrasions.
- Fiber: Bark yields a good fiber for making ropes.

- Rituals: In Indonesia, leaves used in rituals Oukup (a traditional postpartum sauna excercised by te Batak Karo to restore the mother's health) and erpangir ku lau (ritual of bathing in spring water treated with various plant ingredients) to drive bad things ouand bring good things in.

Wound Healing / Anti-Inflammatory:
Study evaluated the wound healing and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Grewia umbellata. Anti-inflammatory activity of AE and EE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg using carrageenan induced hind paw edema model showed 99.76 and 93.70% wound closure respectively. Tensile strength was significantly increased, along with increased hydroxyproline content. Results showed potential wound healing and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in rodent models. Activity may be attributed to presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. (8)


September 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Grewia laevigata fruiting twig / Copyright © 2018 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL129205] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Grewia laevigata / Infructescence / Copyright © 2018 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL129158] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Grewia serrulata / Dinesh Valke /  CC BY-SA 2.0 / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Grewia laevigata / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Grewia / Wikipedia
Grewia laevigata / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
SOME TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTAGONG HILL TRACTS,  BANGLADESH  / Mohammed Yusuf, M A Wahab, MD Yousuf, Jasim Uddin Chowdhury, Jaripa Begum / Bangladesh J Plant Taxon., 2007; 14(2): pp 117-128
Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari Upazila of Bandarban district, Bangladesh / Md Shahadat Hossan, Prozzal Roy, Syeda Seraj, Auditi Swarna, Mohammed Rahmatullah et al / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2012; 6(4): pp 349-359 / ISSH: 1995-0748
Ethnomedicinal Importance and Conservation Status of Medicinal Trees among Indigenous Communities in Esperanza, Agusan del Sur, Philippines / Mark Llyod G Dapar, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro, Ulrich Meve, Sigrid-Liede-Schumann / Journal of Complementary Medicine Research, 2020; 11(1) /
DOI: 10.5455/jcmr.2020.11.01.08
The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia / Marina Silalahi, Nisyawati, Eko Baroto Walujo, Jatna Supriatna, Wibowo Mangunwardoyo / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2015; 175: pp 423-443  /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.009
Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Effects of Grewia Umbellata Roxb. /  Prasanna Habbu, Smita Madagundi, Vaishali Todkar / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2022; 14(3): pp 82-89

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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