InI Rosewood, Dalbergia latifolia, INDIAN ROSEWOOD/ Alternative Medicine
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Family Fabaceae
Dalbergia latifolia Roxb..
Yin du hei tan

Scientific names Common names
Amerimnon latifolium (Roxb.) Kuntze (Tag.)
Dalbergia emarginata Roxb. Black rosewood (Engl.)
Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. Blackwood (Engl.)
  Bombay blackwood (Engl.)
  Bombay rosewood (Engl.)
  East india blackwood (Engl.)
  East Indian rosewood (Engl.)
  Indian palisandre (Engl.)
  Java palisandre (Engl.)
  Malabar rosewood (Engl.)
  Roseta rosewood (Engl.)
Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Sitsal.
CHINESE: Guang ye huang tan, Kuo ye huang tan, yin du hei tan.
FRENCH: Palissandre de I'Inde.
GERMAN: Indischer Rosenholzbaum.
HINDI: Kala-shisham, Pahari sisoo, Pai, Safed sisum, Sheesham, Vilayati shisham, Seesum.
HUNGARIAN: Indiai rozsafa, Kelet-ndiai rozsafa.
ITALIAN: Palisandro d'India, Palissandro delle Indie orientali, Palissandro nero di Bombay.
JAPANESE: Indo shitan, Maruba shitan.
KANNADA: Bete, Beete.
MALAY: Sobobrits, Sonokeling.
MALAYALAM: Itti, Karivitti, Viitti.
MARATHI: Kalarukh, Sisau.
POLISH: Dalbergia szerokolistna, Kostraczyna szerokolistna, Rozane drzewo wschodnioindyjskie.
RUSSIAN: Dal'bergiia shirokolistnaia, Indijskij palisandr, Palisand indijskij.
SANSKRIT: Shinshapa.
SLOVAKIAN: Dalbergia sirokolista.
SPANISH: Palisandro de la india, Palisandro negro, Palo rosa de la India.
TAMIL: Iitti, Nukkam, Totakatti.
TELUGU: Iruguducettu, Ist indiyan blakud.
URDU: Shisham (Pakistan).

Dalbergia latifolia is a medium-sized to large evergreen or deciduous tree that grows up to 40 meters high. Bole is straight or slightly twisted. Buttress is often prominent. Bark is gray, peeling in long fibers. Leaves are arranged spirally, pinnately compound with 3 to 7 leaflets. Leaflets are alternate, broadly obovate to elliptic-oblong, 3 to 12 centimeters by 2.5 to 9 centimeters, obtuse, rounded or notched at the apex. Inflorescence is a terminal or axillary panicle, 5 to 15 centimeters long, laxly branched, almost glabrous and many-flowered. Flowers are bisexual, papilionaceous, 6 to 8 millimeters long, distinctly pedicellate; calyx about 4 millimeters long, lobes shorted than the tube. Fruit is a papery brown pod, flat, elliptical to oblong, 4 to 10 centimeters by 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters, reticulately veined, indehiscent, 1- to 4-seeded. Seeds are kidney-shaped, shiny brown to black, hard but brittle when dry, 7 to 10 millimeters long, 4 to 5 millimeters wide. (11)

- Introduced.
- Native to India and Indonesia.
- Also grown in Nigeria, Kenya, Vietnam, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Malaysia as an ornamental plant.
- IUCN: Listed as vulnerable.

- Preliminary screening of ethanolic and aqueous bark extracts yielded carbohydrates, glycoside, tannins, amino acid, and flavonoids. (see study below) (4)
- Study of heartwood isolated a new diaryl 1,2-diketone, named 1-(2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenl)-2-phenylethane-1,2-dione (1), along with eight known compounds (2-9) (6)
- Study of heartwood yielded a new benzofuran compound, named 2-[5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-2-{3-p-henyl-trans-allyloxy}benzyl]-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-phenylbenzofuran (1), along with (+)-obtusafuran (2) and isoparvifuran (3). (see study below) (7)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of roots yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids carbohydrates, and glycosides. (see study below) (10)
- Study of heartwood isolated 16 neoflavanoids: eight dalbergiphenols (1-8), three dalbergiones (9-11), two dalbergins (12, 13) two benzophenone (14, 15) and one other type of neoflavanoids (16). (16)

- Studies have suggested antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, anxiolytic, nootropic, anti-hemolytic, nephroprotective, cerebroprotective properties.

Parts used
Leaves, bark.


- No reported folkloric medicinal sue in the Philippines.
- In the Jashpur district of India, leaves taken orally for spermatorrhea. (8)
- In India, used to treat diarrhea, indigestion, leprosy; also used as vermifuge.
- Wood: Wood is hard, heavy, and durable, resistant to rot and insects.
One of the most valuable timbers; comparable to or more expensive than teak.
- Construction: Because of qualities and straight bole, preferred used in premium furniture making and cabinetry, exotic veneers; also used for guitar bodies and other musical instruments, fretboards, carvings, boats, skis, etc. Suitable for turnery. Used for making plywood.
- Agroforestry: A popular shade tree. Used for reforestation of eroded soil.
Popular roadside or shade tree.

Antioxidant Against Free Radicals / Bark:
Study evaluated an ethanolic bark extract for phenolic content and antioxidant activity by DPPH, nitric oxide thiocyanate, and reducing antioxidant property methods. Phenolic content was 210±1.16 µg/mL and flavonoid content was 46±3.61 µg/mL. Results showed significant antioxidant potential with DPPH, NO and thiocyanate percentage inhibition scavenging activity were 92.10±1.10, 86.39±2.12 and 87.22±2.47, respectively. (4)
Immunomodulatory / Bark: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of D. latifolia bark on Swiss albino mice using a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression model and Neutrophil adhesion test. Results showed immunomodulatory activity as evidenced by increased levels of depleted levels of total WBC count and RBC, % Hb and % neutrophil adhesion.(5)
New Benzofuran / Antioxidant / Heartwood: Study isolated a new benzofuran compound, along with two other compounds from the heartwood of D. latifolia. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antioxidant effect for scavenging DPPH free radical with IC50 of 96.7±8.9 µM. (see constituents above) .(7)
Antimuutagenic: Study evaluated the antimutagenic effect of methanolic extract of D. latifolia using cyclophosphamide micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in Swiss mice bone marrow. Results showed D. latifolia provided significant antimutagenicity when given 24 hours prior to single administration of cyclophosphamide. (9)
Neuropharmacological / Anxiolytic and Nootropic / Roots: Study evaluated the CNS activity of ethanolic extract of roots in Swiss albino mice. Results showed nootropic and anxiolytic properties The extract did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kbw. The extract produced no depressive symptoms, while standard diazepam caused significant depression. (see constituents above) (10)
Inhibition of Lysenin-Induced Hemolysis / All-E-Lutein / Leaves : Lysenin is a pore-forming toxin derived from coelomic fluid of earthworm Eisenia foetida. The model of lysenin-induced hemolysis includes the binding of lysenin to sphingomyeline, oligomeriation of the pore proteins, and pore formation. This study screened for inhibitors of lysenin-induced hemolysis using a methanolic extract of D. latifolia leaves. E-lutein was identified as the hemolysis inhibitor with an effective dose of 0.025-2.5 ng/ml, without any toxicity. The inhibition likely occurs during receptor binding and/or pore-forming protein oligomerization. (11)
Anticancer: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activity of various fractions of hydroalcoholic extract of D. latifolia against L6, EAC, MCF-7, HepG2, and Hela cell lines by MTT assay. Parameters measured were percentage cytotoxicity, percentage cell viability, and IC50 values. The methanol fraction showed more significant anticancer compared to other fractions. MCF-7 cell lines were more susceptible to the methanol fraction. (15)
Cerebroprotective / Bark: Study evaluated the mechanism of cerebroprotective action of methanolic extract of bark of D. latifolia against a global model of ischemia in rats. Results showed D. latifolia extract is a potent cerebroprotective possibly through a mechanism of cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway inhibition. A synergistic activity with the COX inhibitor was attributed to flavanoids.
Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of methanolic extract of D. latifolia leaves on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic rats. Results showed significant nephroprotective effect as evidenced by a decrease in elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, serum uric acid, urinary urea and creatinine, urinary protein, along with histopathological attenuation in tubular nephrosis. Results show DL can normalized oxidative stress and attenuated tubular nephrosis, and presents as a potential agent in drug induced nephrotoxicity. (18)

Plants and seeds in the cybermarket.

August 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Dalbergia latifolia: Indian rosewood / click on image to go to source page / © DLIUM
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Dalbergi latifolia: Black rosewood-Flowers / Vinaraya / CC by SA 4.0 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Dalbergi latifolia: Pinnately compound leaves / click on image to go to source page / Wikiwand

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Sorting Dalbergia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Dalbergia latifolia / Synonyms / The Plant List
Indian Rosewood: Dalbergia latifolia / World Resources Institute
In-vitro Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Dalbergia latifolia Barks Extract Against Free Radicals / Mohammad Khalid, H.H. Siddiqui and Sheeba Freed / American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 2011; 6(3): pp 172-177 / ISSN 1818-6785
Research Article of Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of Dalbergia Latifolia on Swis Albino Mice / Saroj Kumar Yadav, Nagarathna P.K.M., Chandrajeet Kumar Yadav / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), Jan-Feb 2015; 10(1)Ver III: pp 58-64 /
e-ISSN: 2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676
A new diaryl 1, 2-diketone from the heartwood of Dalbergia latifolia / Rong-Hua Liu, Ding-Qing Wang, Pu-Zhao Zhang, Feng Shao, Lan-Ying Chen, Hui-Lian Huang et al / Natural Product Research, 2018; 32(1) /
A new benzofuran from the heartwood of Dalbergia latifolia / Rong-Hua Liu, Dan-Yi Mei, Shua Lin, Ding-Qing Wang, Feng Shao, Lan-Yin Chen et al / Natural Product Research, 2019; 33(1) /
ETHNO-PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JASHPUR / DISTRICT (CHHATTISGARH) / Neeli Rose Ekka, Vinod Kumar Dixit / IJGP: International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2014
EVALUATION OF MUTAGENIC EFFECT ANTIMUTAGENIC OF DALBERGIA LATIFOLIA ON SWISS ALBINO MICE / Nagarathna PKM, Chandrajeet Kumar Yadav*, Saroj Kumar Yadav / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2015; 8(3) / ISSN: 0974-2441
NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DALBERGIA LATIFOLIA ROXB IN SWISS ALBINO MICE / Dharani Prasad P, Suba V. Kavimani S, Ravi Chandran V / Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, July-September 2013; Volume 4, Issue 3: pp 1193-1197
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ROOT EXTRACTS OF / DALBERGIA LATIFOLIA (ROXB.) / P. Dharani Prasad, A.Pranavi, S. Kavimani and V. Suba / Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jan-Mar 2013; Volume .4, Issue 1: pp 1039-1043 / ISSN: 2230-7346
Inhibition of Lysenin-induced Hemolysis by All-E-Lutein Derived from the Plant Dalbergia latifolia/ Yuki Niwa, Chino Matsui, Neelanun Sukumwang, Hironobu Iinuma, Yoko Ikeda, Takashi Koyano, Taworn Kovitayakorn, Siro Simizu, Kazuo Umezawa / Planta Med, 2012; 78(10): pp 957-961 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1298538
Dalbergia latifolia / Wikipedia
Dalbergia latifolia / PROTA Plant Resrouces of Tropical Africa / Pl@ntUse
IN VITRO ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS FRACTIONS OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF DALBERGIA LATIFOLIA ROXB. / V.Niraimathi and R.Sundaraganapathy / International Journal of Phytopharmacology, 2014; 5(4): pp 272-283 / e-ISSN: 0975-9328
Study on neoflavonoids from heartwood of  Dalbergia latifolia / MENG Xiao-wei, WANG Ding-qing,  CHEN Lan-ying, SHAO Feng, ZHANG Pu-zhao, HU Shao-jie, ZHU Qing1 LIU Rong-hua / China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 44(6)
Determination of Possible Mechanism of Cerebroprotective Action of flavonoid of Dalbergia latifolia against Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Induced- Cerebral Infarction in Rats / Sudhir C Kulkarni, Nagarathna PKM, C Vasanthkumar, and N Srisainadh / Research & Reviews in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences / e-ISSN:2320-1215 p-ISSN: 2322-0112
NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LEAVES OF DALBERGIA LATIFOLIA ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS / Nagarathana P K M, Naresh K, Rajendra M, Varee Joseph Vinod / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2018; 7(8): pp 860-876 / ISSN: 2277-7105

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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