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Family Rhamnaceae
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

Da zao

Scientific names Common names
Girtanneria jujuba (Mill.) Neck. Mansanitas ( Tag.)
Jujuba mediterranea Bubani Chinese date tree (Engl.)
Mansana arborea J.F.Gmel. Common jujube (Engl.)
Paliurus lucidus Carriere Jujuba (Engl.)
Rhamnus circumcissa Russell ex Wall. Jujube (Engl.)
Rhamnus lucida Salisb. Jujube plum (Engl.)
Rhamnus mauritiana Soy.-Will. Red date (Engl.)
Rhamnus soporifera Lour. Sour Chinese date (Engl.)
Rhamnus vulgaris Pers.  
Rhamnus ziziphus (L.) H.Karst .  
Ziziphus acidojujuba C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu.  
Ziziphus acidojujuba f. granulata C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus acidojujuba f. infecunda C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus acidojujuba f. trachysperma C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus chinensis Spreng.  
Ziziphus flexuosa Wall.  
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.  
Ziziphus jujuba f. allochroa C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus jujuba f. apyrena C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus jujuba f. carnosicalycis C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus jujuba f. heteroformis C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis (Bunge) Rehder  
Ziziphus jujuba f. lageniformis (Nakai) Kitag  
Ziziphus jujuba subsp. spinosa (Bunge) Peng, X.Y. Li & L.Li  
Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hy ex H.F.Chow  
Ziziphus jujuba f. tortuosa C.Y.Cheng & M.J.Liu  
Ziziphus jujubum (Mill.) St.-Lag.  
Ziziphus melanogona Bojer  

Ziziphus natsme Siebold.

Ziziphus nitida Roxb.  
Ziziphus officinarum Medik.  
Ziziphus sativa Gaertn.  
Ziziphus sativa var. inermis (Bunge) C.K.Schneid.  
Ziziphus sativa var. lageniformis Nakai  
Ziziphus sativa var. spinosa (Bunge) C.K.Schneid.  
Ziziphus sinensis Lam.  
Ziziphus soporifera (Lour) Duhamel  
Ziziphus sororia Schult.  
Ziziphus spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex F.H.Chen  
Ziziphus trinervia Roth  
Ziziphus vulgaris Lam.  
Ziziphus vulgaris var. inermis Bunge  
Ziziphus vulgaris var. macrocarpa Risso  
Ziziphus vulgaris var. oblonga Risso  
Ziziphus vulgaris var. praecox Risso  
Ziziphus vulgaris var. spinosa Bunge  
Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) H.Karst.  
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Dum, Nabq, Tsal, Sadr, Sidr, Zufzuuf.
CATALAN: Ginjoler.
CHINESE: Zao shu, Zao zi, Hong zao, Da tian zao, Suan zao shu, Jiao zhen, Ying zao, Shan zao shu.
ESTONIAN: Kreektürn.
FRENCH: Jujubier commun, Jujube de Chine, Jujubier de Chine.
GERMAN: Brustbeere, Brustbeerbaum, Chinesische Dattel, Domjujube, Jujube, Judendom.
GREEK: Zizifia, Zizyfon.
HINDI: Badara, Badari, Ber, Beri.
IRANIAN: Annab, Onnab.
ITALIAN: Giuggiole, Giuggiolo.
JAPANESE: Sanebuto natsume.
PERSIAN: Anab, Annab, Sidr.
RUSSIAN: Zizifus, Zizifus zhozhoba, Zizifus obyknovennyj, Jujuba kitaiskaia, Zhozhoba, Zhuzhuba.
SANSKRIT: Badara, Suphala.
SINDHI: Jangri.
SPANISH: Azofaifa, Azofaifo, Azofeifo, Azufaifa, Azufaifas, Achifaifa , Azufaifo, Azufaifo común, Azufaifo chino, Azufeifo, Gínjol, Ginjolero, Jijolero, Jinjol, Jínjol, Jínjolera, Jinjolero, Jinjoles, Jujuba, Zofaifo.
SWEDISH: Jujubär.
TAMIL: Ilantai, Irantai.
TELUGU: Regu, Gangarenu.
THAI: Phutsaa cheen.
TURKISH: Hünnap.


Gen info
- Ziziphus is a genus of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae. It includes 68 species.
- Etymology: The genus name derives via Latin from Hellenistic Greek, presumed to be borrowed from another language, perhaps zizfum or zizafun, the Persian word for Z. lotus. (45)
- Jujube plum is indigenous to China with a history of over 4,000 years of use. China is the site of 90% Z. jujuba production in the world. (30)

- Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is the most important species of Rhamnaceae, and is one of the oldest cultivated fruit tress in the world. Its utilization and cultivation history dates back to the Neolithic age, 7000 years ago. It has spread all over China, with a cultivation area of about 2 million hectares and an annual production of 8 million tons, and reported to be the main income source of about 20 million farmers in China. (37)
- In China, Jujube has been used as medicine and dietary supplement for thousands of years. It was listed as one of the five most valuable fruits in Huanngdi Neijing (475-221 BCE), an ancient Chinese text on herbal medicine.  Shen-nong Bencao Jing (300 BCE-200 CE) included the fruit as an outstanding herbal medication.

• Mansanitas is a small tree 5 to 10 meters high. Branches are armed with short, sharp spines. Leaves are elliptic-ovate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, rounded at the base, green and smooth on the upper surface and densely covered with woolly, pale hairs beneath. Flowers are greenish white, about 7 millimeters in diameter, borne on axillary cymes 3 centimeters in diameter or less. Fruit is fleshy and mealy, smooth, orange or red, ovoid or somewhat rounded, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, with a bony and irregularly furrowed stone within.

• A small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–12 metres (16–39 feet), usually with thorny branches. Leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7 centimetres (3⁄4–2+3⁄4 inches) long and 1–3 cm (3⁄8–1+1⁄8 in) wide, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. Flowers are small, 5 millimetres (1⁄4 in) wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. Fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 cm (5⁄8–1+1⁄8 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple with lower acidity, maturing brown to purplish-black, and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard kernel, similar to an olive pit containing two seeds.

- Widely scattered in the Philippines as a semi-cultivated tree.
- Introduced from tropical Asia.

- It originated from the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the 'mother river' of the Chinese people, and is distributed in at least 48 countries on all continents except Antartica. (37)
- Native to China North-Central, China Southeast, Inner Mongolia, Korea, Manchuria, Xinjiang .

- Bark contains much tannin and a crystalline principle, ziziphic acid.
- Tannin in the bark is called ziziphotannic acid.
- Fruit contains mucilage, fruit acids and sugar.
- Bark contains 4.1 % tannin; the root 2.6 to 9.3% tannin.
- Studies have yielded various chemical substances like Mauritine-A; Amphibine-H; Jubanine-A; Jubanine-B; Mucronine-D and Nummularine-B. Sativanine-E. Frangufoline, Ziziphine-A to Q, betulinic acid colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-transp­coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-pcoumaroylmaslinic acid, oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, zizyberenalic acid and betulinic acid, jujubosides A, B, A1 B1 and C and acetyljujuboside B and the protojujubosides A, B and B1, saponin, ziziphin, from the dried leaves of Z. jujube - 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2)-a­arabinopyranosyl-20-O- (2,3)-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl jujubogenin.
- Study evaluating leaves and bark of ZJ for catechins and proanthocyanidin isolated 16 compounds, including 8 monmeric catechins viz., (−)-epiafzelechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epicatechin gallate, (−)-epigal-locatechin gallate, (+)-catechin, (+)-catechin gallate, and (+)-gallocatechin; 4 dimeric proanthocyanidins — (−)-epiafzelechin-(4β-8)-(−)-epicatechin, proanthocyanidin B-2, (−)-epicatechin-(4β-8)-(−)-epigallocatechin, and (−)-epiafzelechin-(4β-8)-(−)-epigallocatechin; and 4 oligomeric proanthocyanidins consisting of epiafzelechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and epicatechin. (20)
- Nutrient analysis of fresh, raw fruit (per 100 g) yielded: (Proximates) water 77.86 g, energy 79 kcal, protein 1.20 g, total lipid (fat) 0.20 g, carbohydrate 20-23 g; (Minerals) calcium 21 mg, iron 0.48 mg, magnesium 10 mg, phosphorus 23 mg, potassium 250 mg, sodium 3 mg, zinc 0.05 mg; (Vitamins) vitamin C 69.0 mg, thiamin 0.02 mg, riboflavin 0.04 mg, niacin 0.900 mg, vitamin B6 0.081 mg, vitamin A 40 IU; (Lipids) No cholesterol and trans fatty acids. (31)
- Stem bark contains three different cyclopeptide alaloids i.e., jubanine, scutianine, and zizyphine-A. Fruit alkaloids include juzirine, juziphine, isoboldine, norisoboldine, and asimilobine. Tannins from fruits include gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, and protocatechuic acid. (47)

- Bark is bitter.
- Root is considered purgative.
- Fruit of wild variety is acid and astringent; cultivated fruit is less acid.
- Fruit is considered anodyne, nourishing, mucilaginous, pectoral, styptic, digestive and blood purifying and tonic.
- Considered tonic, aphrodisiac, anxiolytic, hypnotic-sedative, anticancer, antifungal, anti-ulcer.
- Studies on fruit have suggested anxiolytic, sedative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiobesity, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, skin brightening properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, fruit, roots.


Edibility / Culinary
- Fruit is edible, eaten fresh or dried; used as condiment in a flour meal, butter, or cheese-like paste. (36)
- In Persian cuisine, dried fruit is known as "annab." (30)
- In China, leaves boiled and consumed as tea, used for the treatment of insomnia. (36) (47)
- In the Philippines, a decoction of the bark and leaves is an effective astringent in dysentery and diarrhea. Also, used in all kinds of bowel problems.
- Root, taken in excess, is a drastic purgative.
- In Angola, used to promote menstruation.
- Decoction used for fevers.
- Powdered root used for ulcers and wounds.
- Juice of root bark used as purgative; externally, for gout and rheumatism.
- Bark is emetic in larger doses. Sometimes, used for colic.
- Used for treatment of dandruff, acne, arthritis, constipation.
- Bark, powdered or in decoction, is astringent and used for diarrhea.
- Powdered bark used as dressing for old wounds and ulcers.
- In Cambodia, bark is used for dysentery and gingivitis.
- Some Benue tribes use the leaves as ingredient in a prescription for gonorrhea.
- Pounded leaves are applied as dressing to wounds. Leaves, in plaster form, used in strangury. Paste made from tender leaves and twigs applied to boils, abscesses and carbuncles to promote suppuration.
- Dried and ripe fruit used is mildly laxative; also, used as expectorant.
- In China, fruit used for coughs. Also, used for insomnia and anxiety.

- In Islamic traditional medicine, fruit is emollient, laxative, and maturative; used for purifying the blood, improving circulation, relieving internal heat and reducing inflammation.
- Cosmetics: Extracts used in a variety of skin care products, anti-wrinkles, moisturizers, and sunburn lotions.
- Tanning:
Used for tanning in India.
- Fishing:
In Abyssinia, fruit used to stupefy fish.

- Honey: In China, flowers used as source of high quality honey. (36)
- Fodder:
Leaves used as feed in Indonesia and North Africa. (36)
- Food: Invertebrate food for lac/wax and silkworms.  (40)

Anxiolytic / Sedative:
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Z. jujuba for anxiolytic effect. Results showed anxiolytic effect at lower dose and sedative effect a higher doses. (1)
Treatment for Chronic Constipation: Study showed jujuba extract to be an effective and safe treatment for chronic constipation.    (2)
Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic: Study evaluating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of ZJ leaves in rats showed significant reductions of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and elevation of HDL. LDL reduction was not as significant. (3)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Fruits: Study investigating the hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rat models of paracetamol- and thioacetamide-induced hepatic damage showed significant inhibition of biomarker elevation. Histopathological studies supported the biochemical findings. Study concludes a hepatoprotective activity probably due to its antioxidant effect. (4)
Antioxidant: Study showed the fruit extracts from Zizyphus jujuba had higher antioxidant activity than Hydrangea paniculata leaf extracts. (5) Study evaluated four ecotypes of Jujubes from the South Khorasan province of Iran for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Results showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities. All extracts showed dose dependent reduction in hemolysis induced by AAPH. Results showed a potential booster for antioxidant capacities. (33)
Spatial Memory Improvement / Antioxidant : Study showed the co-treatment of Z. jujuba extract ameliorates ethanol-induced memory deficits, both in the acquisition process and retrieval process of spatial memory performance in rats. The improvement is attributed to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids present in the extract. (6)
Rat Testes Reproductive Benefits: Study in male Wistar rats evaluated the antioxidant effects of aqueous fruits extracts of Ziziphus jujuba on ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Results showed beneficial effects on ethanol-induced sperm toxicity, with enhancement of sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. (8)
Essential Oil / Hair-Promoting Effects: Study evaluated the efficacy of essential oil from seeds of ZJ for hair growth. Applied to rats over shaved skin at different concentrations, results concluded ZJEO possesses hair growth promoting activity. (9)
Weight-Reducing / Hypolipidemic / Hypophagic: Study of hydroalcoholic extract of ZJ leaves showed the leaf extract to possess significant weight reducing, hypophagic and hypolipidemic properties in sucrose-induced obese rats.
Neurodegenerative Disease Preventive: Study evaluated the role of jujube in bran benefits, its effect on neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Results showed jujube water extract induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, induced phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein on PC12 cells. Results support the use of jujube as food supplement for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases in which neurotrophin deficiency is involved. (13)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated an aqueous-ethanol extract of jujuba seeds for antimicrobial activity against six bacterial strains. Results showed the extract is potent in inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (15)
Benefits in Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: Study evaluated the effect of ZJ fruit in controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. A triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 86 obese adolescents aged 12--18 with dyslipidemia. Results showed the fruits to be generally well tolerated, with potential favorable effects on serum lipid profile. (16)
Antimicrobial / Fruits: Study of crude extract of ZJ fruits showed a wide antimicrobial activity against tested microbes, with E. coli showing to be the most susceptible. Results suggest potential used for microbial infections, especially pediatric infectious diseases. (17)
Hypolipidemic / Antiobesity: Study of Z.. jujuba powder showed hypolipidemic and anti-obesity properties and did not show any negative impact on liver function as measured by ALT and AST. (18)
Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated Z. jujuba for antipyretic activity in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. The antipyretic activity of the extract was comparable to paracetamol. (19)
Anticancer / Human Hepatoma Cells: Study evaluated the anti-cancer activity of ZJ and its mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Results showed the extract decreased the viability of the cells. The chloroform fraction was most effective, inducing a concentration dependent effect on apoptosis and a differential cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. (22)
Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of an aqueous extract of leaves of ZJ in a castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrhea model. Results showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea. There was significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal test in rats. (23)
Antitumor / Breast Cancer / Fruit: Study evaluated the beneficial effects of an aqueous extract of ZJ fruit on proliferation of breast cancer cells. Treatment caused dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect against an MDA-MB-468 cell line and significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity. In some groups, there was a preventive effect against anemia, lymphocytosis, and neutrophilia or significant decreased in enzyme markers. Results suggest ZJ ameliorates the adverse effects of NMU carcinogenesis and suggests potential in the treatment of mammary tumors in humans. (24)
Immunomodulatory / Fruit: Study investigated the role of jujube in regulating immune response. The IL-1ß and IL-6 cytokines in LPS-induced macrophages were suppressed by jujube water extract in both mRNA and protein levels. In parallel, the inhibition on transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B was revealed in LPS-induced macrophages. Results showed bidirectional immunomodulatory activity by regulating expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. (25)
Cell-Mediated Immune Stimulation / Effect on Neutrophil Phagocyte Function / Leaves: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba leaves on its effect on different in vitro methods of phagocytosis such as neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis test, and in vitro immunostimulant activity by slide method and nitro blue tetrazolium test using human neutrophils. Results showed the extract stimulated cell-mediated immune system by increasing neutrophil phagocytic function. (26)
Alpha-Amylase Inhibition / Anti-Diabetic Effect / Antioxidant: Study investigated the inhibitory effect of H. persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on the activity of alpha-amylase. The methanolic extracts of HP and ZJ showed high inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase enzyme with IC50 of 307 and 867 µg/mL, respectively. The effect was comparable to acarbose in lowering the blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. Both plants showed high polyphenolic content suggesting a potent capacity in clearing of oxidants. (27)
Effect on Peripheral Blood Cells / Fruit Extract: Study evaluated the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of the fruit of ZJ on peripheral blood cells in male Balb/c mice. Results showed a significant reduction in percentage of monocytes and neutrophils and an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes. (28)
• Effect on Neonatal Jaundice: Clinical trial of 121 neonates aged 2-14 days evaluated the effect of Zizyphus jujuba as treatment of neonatal jaundice compared to phototherapy. Results indicate Z. jujuba was effective for treatment of neonatal jaundice in the first 12 hours which could be due to higher effect of the extract of reduce bilirubin concentration. It was not found effective in consecutive days. (29)
• Review / Anticancer / Effect on Chemoresistance: Studies have shown the fruits to be rich in bioactive compounds beneficial to human health. Among the bioactive compounds in the fruit, triterpenic acids and polysaccharides have antiproliferative and anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines. One of the mechanisms is induction of apoptosis. (30)
• Wound Healing / Bark: Study evaluated the wound healing activity of topically applied bark extract of Ziziphus jujuba in an excision wound model in albino rat. A high dose methanolic extract (10%) showed highly significant (p<0.001) activity with the most wound shrinkage and organization. (32)
• Effect on Cardiovascular Parameters / Hypotensive: Study evaluated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ZJ on cardiovascular parameters in normotensive rats. Dose of 200 mg showed significant decrease in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure. (34)
• Effect on Acetic Acid Induced Ulcerative Colitis: Study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of ZJ on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male rat (Rattus norvegicus). Results showed a healing effect in damaged colonic tissue, more reduced glutathione peroxidase and IL-1ß level. Transrectal administration showed more potent effect than oral administration. (35)
• Antiproliferative and Apoptotic in Thyroid Carcinoma / Fruitc: Study evaluated the antimutagenic and anticancer effects of aqueous extract of Z. jujube on C643 human thyroid carcinoma cells. The extract inhibited the growth of C643 cells in a concentration range of 0.5-2 mg/mL and exhibited cytotoxic effects in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 1.671 mg/mL). Mechanism was via induction of apoptosis in the cells. Results showed the fruit extract exerted antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on C643 thyroid carcinoma cells and potential as an anticancer agent. (38)
• Antioxidant / Fruit Seeds and Peel Pulp: Study evaluated the antioxidant properties of various fruit parts. Jujube peel pulp showed best antioxidant capacity by DPPH radical scavenging activity (p.3 mg/mL), total phenolic content (38.3 mg GAE / gm DW) total flavonoid content (43.8 mg QE / gm DW) and reducing power (41.9 mg ascorbic acid equivalent / gm DW. Results showed the peel pulp is a more potential antioxidant than the seeds. (39)
• Effect of High Doses on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters: / Fruits: Study evaluated the effects of high doses of Jujube fruits and Saffron petals on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats in a 14-day treatment study. No mortality was observed. There were no differenced in FBS, lipid profile, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, and hematological parameters. BUN, creatinine, urate and liver enzymes levels were increase in both extracts—changes more noticeable in Saffron compared to Jujube. Results suggest Jujube was nearly safe up to 5000 mg/kg, without hepatic or nephrotoxicity in rats. (40)
• Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity // Antioxidant / Snakin-Z / Fruits: Study of fruit isolated a new peptide, Snakin-Z. The peptide displayed considerable cholinesterase inhibition against AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and BChE (butyrylcholinesterase). The Snakin-Z also showed high antioxidant activity with IC50 0.75 ± 0.09 mg/mL. Study suggests the Snakin-Z may be beneficial for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (42)
• Effect on Breast Fissure in Breast Feeding Women / Fruit Lotion: Nipple fissure is common during breastfeeding. This double-blind clinical trial in 100 primiparous lactating women compared the effect of jujube fruit lotion vs breast milk applied 5 times daily after breastfeeding. Results showed Ziziphus jujube fruit lotion heals nipple fissure faster and better than breast milk. (43)
• Skin Brightening Effect / Treatment of Hyperpigmentationon / Jujube Syrup: Hypepigmentation is a common dermatologic disorder that affects the quality of life, and drugsused for treatment have many side effects. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of jujube syrup taken twice daily for eight weeks for treatment of skin pigmentation. The jujube syrup is a mix of herbal extracts. Dried fruits of Z. jujuba was oven dried, pulverised, and decocted with Berberis vulgaris, Rhus coriaria, Prunus domestica, and Roosa damascene. The final syrup formulation was 60% w/w herbal concentrations viz. Z. jujuba 30% w/w/, B. vulgaris 10%, R. coriaria 10%, P. domestica 7%, and R. damascene 3% w/w). After 8 weeks of treatment, number of pigment counts decreased. The pigmented are and its percentages were significantly reduced to 0.556 and 0.561 in juice syrup compared to placebo. (Spinosin is a flavonoid in Z. jujuba seeds, which exhibited anti-mellanogenic activity in an invitro model. Spinosin suppressed UVB-induced melanogenesis or α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in B16F10 cells with no cytotoxicity.) Results indicatexd the syrup formulation is efficient, stable, and safe, and has potential as a natural preparation for individuals with hyperpigmentation. (48)
• Treatment of Osteoarthritis / Combination with Boswelia serrata: Study evaluated the efficacy of extracts of Z. jujuba (ZJE) and Boswellia serrata (BSE) in reducing OA symptoms in a monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritis in mice. Treatment increase locomotor activity, paw withdrawal threshold, latency of withdrawal response to heat stimulation, along with reduced levels of elevated IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. Results suggest oral administration of ZJE and BSE slows the progression of OA through anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. (50)
• Sedative / Hypnotic: Ziziphus jujuba has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of anxiety and insomnia via its effect in decreasing monoaminergic system activity. Saponins are throught to be the main bioactive factors. Study of crude extracts for saponins isolated two components, compounds I and II, and were studied for sedative and hypnotic effects. Results showed both compounds had significant effect (p<0.05 and p0.01) on walking time. Compound I showed more significant effect on coordinated movement (p<0.05). Both compounds prolonged suprathreshold barbiturate induced sleeping time (p<0.05). The number of sleeping animals increased by 30% and 20% for compounds I and II, respectively, under the sub-threshold dose of sodium barbital. (51)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds,
tinctures, extracts and capsules in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated May 2024 / August 2021 / July 2018 / January 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leaves and fruits / Chinese jujube - Scientific name: Ziziphus jujuba / Vito Buono - Bari / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Luirig• alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Close-up of flowers / Philmarin / CC BY-SA 4.0 / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Zizyphus jujuba Blanco1.59.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxiety
/ Wen-Huang Peng, Ming-Tsuen Hsieh et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 72, Issue 3, October 2000, Pages 435-441
/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00255-5
Ziziphus jujuba Extract for the Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Constipation: A Controlled Clinical Trial
/ Timna Naftali, Haya Feingelernt et al / Digestion 2008;78:224-228 (DOI: 10.1159/000190975)
Investigation into the hypoglycemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus Jujuba Leaves on blood glucose and lipids in Alloxan-Induced diabetes in rats / Shirdel Z, Madani H, Mirbadalzadeh R / Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders; 2009 pp 13-19
Protective Effect Of Zizyphus Jujuba Fruit Extract Against Paracetamol And Thioacetamide Induced Hepatic Damage In Rats / S R Prasanna Kumar, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
Protective effects of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract against ethanol-induced hippocampal oxidative stress and spatial memory impairment in rats / Majid Taati, Masoud Alirezaei, Mohamad Hadi Moshkatalsadat et al / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(6), pp. 915-921, 18 March, 2011
Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review / R T Mahajan, M Z Chopda / Pharmacognosy Review, 2009, Vol 3, No 6, Pp 320-329.
Antioxidant effects of aqueous fruit extract of Ziziphus jujuba on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat testes / Taati M, Alirezaei M, Meshkatalsadat M H et al / Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Shiraz University, Vol. 12, No. 1, Ser. No. 34, 2011
Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil. / Yoon J I, Al-Reza S M, Kang S C / Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Mar 2.
Effect of Ziziphus jujuba leaf extract on body weight, food intake and serum lipid levels in sucrose-induced obese rats / Ganachari M S, Kumar Shiv / Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2004, vol. 66, no3, pp. 363-365
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (accepted name)
/ Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
A standardized extract of the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (Jujube) induces neuronal differentiation of cultured PC12 cells: a signaling mediated by protein kinase A. / Chen J, Maiwulanjiang M, Lam KY, Zhang WL, Zhan JY, Lam CT, Xu SL, Zhu KY, Yao P, Lau DT, Dong TT, Tsim KW. / J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 26;62(8):1890-7. doi: 10.1021/jf405093f. Epub 2014 Feb 12.
The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits
Gao QH, Wu CS, Wang M. / J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Apr 10;61(14):3351-63. doi: 10.1021/jf4007032. Epub 2013 Mar 28.
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus jujuba Seeds Extract / Sherif H Abd-Alrahman, Mounir M Salem-Bekhit, Manal E A Elhalwagy / Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, Nov 2013, Vol 7 (Spl. Edn.), p 379-385
Effect of Zizyphus Jujuba Fruits on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: a Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial / Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee, Iman Khayam, Roya Kelishadi, Alireza Ghannadi, Rasool Soltani, Shirinsadat Badri, Shahin Shirani. / Med Arh. 2013; 67(3): 156-159 / doi: 10.5455/medarh.2013.67.156-159
Crude Extract from Ziziphus Jujuba Fruits, a Weapon against Pediatric Infectious Disease / Daneshmand F PhD, Zare-Zardini H Msc, Tolueinia B Msc, Hasani Z Msc, Ghanbari T Msc / Iranian Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Vol 3.No 1
Effect of Zizyphus jujuba on serum lipid profile and some anthropometric measurements / Usama El-Sayed Mostafa and Louay Labban* / Advancement in Medicinal Plant Research, Vol. 1(3), pp. 49-55, July 2013
Antipyretic Activity of Zizyphus jujuba lam. Leaves / Anbarasi Balakrishnan*, Parimala Devi Balasubramaniyam, Senthil Kumar Natesan / J Adv Sci Res, 2012, 3(3): 40-42
Proanthocyanidins ofZiziphus jujuba / A. Malik, Z. A. Kuliev, Yu. A. Akhmedov, A. D. Vdovin, N. D. Abdullaev / Chemistry of Natural Compounds, March–April, 1997, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 165-173
Ziziphus jujuba / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Mechanism of the Anti-Cancer Activity of Zizyphus jujuba in HepG2 Cells / Xuedan Huang, Akiko Kojima-Yuasa, Toshio Norikura, David Opare Kennedy, Tadayoshi Hasuma, Isao Matsui-Yuasa / Am. J. Chin. Med. 35, 517 (2007) / DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X0700503X
Antitumor activity of aqueous extract of Ziziphus jujube fruit in breast cancer: An in vitro and in vivo study
/ Reyhane Hoshyar, Zabihollah Mohaghegh, Nihad Torabi, Aliyeh Abolghasemi / Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 116–122 / doi:10.1016/S2305-0500(15)30007-5
The Standardized Extract of Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube) Regulates Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Cultured Murine Macrophages: Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-κB Activity / Jianping Chen, Crystal Y. Q. Du, Kelly Y. C. Lam, Wendy L. Zhang, Candy T. W. Lam, Artemis L. Yan, Ping Yao, David T. W. Lau, Tina T. X. Dong andKarl W. K. Tsim* / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 28, Issue 10, pp 1527–1532, October 2014 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5160
Effect of Ziziphus jujuba leaves extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils / M. S. Ganachari*, Shiv Kumar, K. G. Bhat / JOURNAL OF NATURAL REMEDIES, Vol 4(1). 2004: pp47-51
Inhibitory Effect of Heracleum persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on Activity of Alpha-Amylase / Reza Afrisham, Mohammad Aberomand, Mohammad Ali Ghaffari, Amir Siahpoosh, and Mostafa Jamalan / Journal of Botany, Volume 2015 (2015) / DOI: 10.1155/2015/824683
Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ziziphus Jujuba on the peripheral blood cells in Balb/c mice / Mosayeb Noori-Ahmadabadi, Mohammad reza Hojjati , Mehrnoosh Sedighi hafshejani / Physiol Pharmacol. 2013; 17 (2) :224-230
Investigating the Efficacy of Zizyphus Jujuba on Neonatal Jaundice / Sedigheh Ebrahimi, MD; Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, and Azizollah Poormahmudi, BS / Iran J Pediatr, Sep 2011; 21(3)
Ziziphus jujuba”: A red fruit with promising anticancer activities / Zoya Tahergorabi, Mohammad Reza Abedini, Moodi Mitra, Mohammad Hassanpour Fard, and Hossein Beydokhti / Pharmacogn Rev, 2015 Jul-Dec; 9(18):pp 99–106 / doi:  10.4103/0973-7847.162108
Jujube: Nutrient Analysis / USDA National Nutrient Datbase
Wound Healing Potential of Ziziphus jujuba Bark Extract on Albino Rats / Ch. Sampath Kumar, Rajender Arutla, D Swaroopa, K Sridhar Rao / IJRAP, Nov-Dec 2012; 3(6) / DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.03630
Antioxiant properties of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. aqueous extract and its preventive role on RBC hemolysis induced by AAPH / Mina Arab, Zahra Abotorabi, Mohsen Khorshadizadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini Seyed, Asqhar Zarban / Journal of Birjand University Med Sci., 2017; Vol 24, Suppl: pp 22-30
Hypotensive effect of Ziziphus jujuba extract on normotensive rats / Mohammad Naser Shafer, Reza Mohebbati, Maryam Rahimi, Abolfazi Khajavi Rad, Kosar Bavrsd, Farimah Beheshti / Current Nutrition & Food / DOI: 10.2174/1573401314666180620162733
Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male rat (Rattus norvegicus) / Nader Tanideh, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Ali Ghanbari Saghesloo, Farhad Rahmanifar, Maral Mokhtari, Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Mahmood Omidi, Asma Najibi / Journal of Coloproctology. 2016; 36(4): pp 189-195 / DOI:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcol.2016.04.007
Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different plant parts of two Ziziphus Mill. species /Yassine Yahia, Mahomed Ali Benabderrahim,Nizar Tlili, Mohamed Bagues, Kameleddine Nagaz / PLOS ONE. 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232599
The historical and current research progress on jujube—a superfruit for the future / Mengjun Liu, Jiurui Wang, Chunxiang Jia et al / Horticulture Research, 2020; 7: Art No 119 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00346-5
Anti-Proliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ziziphus jujube in Human Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines (C643) /Fataneh Hasgem Dabaghian, Azita Hassani, Navid Nayeri, Asie Shojaii, Maliheh Entezari / International Journal of Cancer Management, 2018; 11(7): e65820 /
DOI: 10.5812/ijcm.65720
Antioxidant Capacities of Jujube Fruuit Seeds and Peel Pulp / Yung-Sheng Ling, Shu-Ling Huang et al / Applied Sciences, 2020; 10, 6007 / DOI: 10.3390/app10176007
A preliminary evaluation of effects of high doses of Jujube and Saffron on biochemmical and hematological parameters in rats / Banafsheh Safizadeh, Reyhane Hoshyar, Mina Hemmati, Asghar Zarban, and Roshanak Ebrahimi / Clinical Phytoscience, 2017; 2: Art No 15 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-016-0029-0
Ziziphus jujuba (Common jujube) / CABI: Invasive Species Compendium
Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of a New Peptide From Ziziphus jjujuba Fruits / Hadi Zare-Zardini MSc, Farzaneh Fesahat MSc et al / American Journal of Alzheimer;s Disease & Other Dementias; 2013; 28(7): pp 702-709
The Effect of Ziziphus jujube Fruit Lotion on Breast Fissure in Breastfeeding Women / Shahrahmani N, Shahrahmani H et al / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2018; 17(Suppl): pp 101-109 / PMID: 29796034
Therapeutic Effects of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Fruit in Traditional and Modern Medicine: A Review / Zahra Sobhani, Sara Nikoofal-Sahlabadi, S Mohammad Amiri et al / Medicinal Chemistry, 2020; 16(8): pp 1609-1088 / DOI: 10.2174/1573406415666191031143553
Ziziphus / Wikipedia
Jujube / Wikipedia
An updated review of Ziziphus jujube: Major focus on its phytochemicals and pharmacological properties / Priya Agrawal, Talever Singh, Devender Pathak, Himansu Chopra / Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine, 2023; Vol 8: 100297
Brightening effect of Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) fruit extract on facial skin: A randomized, double‐blind, clinical study / Ensiye Aafi, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi et al / Dermatologic Therapy, 2022; 35(7) / DOI: 10.1111/dth.15535
Additional/Suggested reading
: Sour Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa): A Bibliometric Review of Its Bioactive Profile, Health Benefits and Trends in Food and Medicine Applications / Wei Ruan, Junli Liu, Shixiong Zhang, Yuqing Huang,, Yuting Zhang, Zhixin Wang /Foods 2024; 13(5) / DOI: 10.3390/foods13050636
Effects of Ziziphus Jujuba Extract Alone and Combined with Boswellia Serrata Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate Model of Osteoarthritis in Mice / Mona Khoramjony, Maryam Bayanati, Shokoofe Noori, Mehrdad Faizi, Afshin Zarghi /  Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2023; 21(1): e134338 /
DOI: 10.5812/ijpr-134338
Separation and purification of saponins from Semen Ziziphus jujuba and their sedative and hypnotic effects  / Jian-Guo Jiang, Xiao-Juan Huang, Jian Chen / Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2007; 59(8): pp 1175-1180 / DOI: 10.1211/jpp.59.8.0017

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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