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Family Sapindaceae
Lepisanthes fruiticosa (Roxb.) Leenh.

Scientific names Common names
Allophylus pinnatus Roxb.            Ara (Ibanag)
Capura fruticosa (Roxb.) Blanco ex Vidal            Balinaunau (Tag.)
Capura nigrescens S.Vidal            Balinawnaw (Tag.)
Capura pinnata Blanco             Buli-buli (Bisaya)
Capura pulchella Ridl.             Linaunau (Tagalog)
Capura zollingerianus Teijsm. & Binn.             Linawnaw (Tag.)
Koelreuteria edulis Blanco             Luna nut (Engl.)
Otolepis cambodiana Pierre              
Otolepis erythrocalyx (Hiern) Kuntze              
Otolepis fruticosa Kuntze              
Otolepis furcata Pierre              
Otolepis nigrescens Turcz.              
Otolepis nodosa Pierre              
Otophora acuminata Radlk.              
Otophora anomala Radlk.              
Otophora bijuga Radlk.              
Otophora blancoi Blume              
Otophora cambodiana (Pierre) Lecomte              
Otophora cauliflora Merr.              
Otophora eberhardtii Gagnep.              
Otophora erythrocalyx Hiern              
Otophora fruticosa (Roxb.) Blume              
Otophora furcata (Pierre) Lecomte              
Otophora glandulosa Radlk.              
Otophora grandifoliola Quisumb. & Merr.             
Otophora lancifolia Radlk.              
Otophora latifolia Ridl.              
Otophora nigrescens Fern.-Vill.              
Otophora nodosa (Pierre) Lecomte              
Otophora oliviformis Radlk.              
Otophora pinnata (Blanco) Merr.              
Otophora pulchella (Ridl.) Merr.             
Otophora resecta Radlk.              
Otophora sessilis King              
Otophora setigera Radlk.              
Otophora zollingeriana Teijsm. & Binn.             
Sapindus baccatus Blanco              
Sapindus baccatus Blanco              
Sapindus fruticosus Roxb.              
Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Kilinga.
INDONESIAN: Mojowontu, Blimbing cina, Cereme cina.
KHMER: Kandak.
LAOS: Kwad khaaz.
MALAYSIA: Setengok, Ceri terengganu, Talikasan, Palingsan bukit, Petagar tulang.
THAILAND: Chammaliang, Chammaliang baan, Khomriang, Phumriang, Phum riang suan, Mathao.
VIETNAM: Bap muoi.

Gen info
- Lepisanthes is a genus of 24 or 25 species of trees or shrubs native to tropical Africa, south and southeast Asia, Australia, and Madagascar. (3)
- Six species are widely utilized in traditional and folk medicinal systems: Lepisanthes alata, L. amoena, L. senegalensis, L. fruticosa, L. rubiginosa, and L. tetraphylla.
- Etymology: Lepisanthes is Latin for 'shrub-like'.

• Shrub or tree, 1.5-10(-15) m high, dbh 2-15 cm. Leaves without or sometimes with a rather strongly reduced terminal leaflet, 1-8(-14 1-jugate, 25 cm to more than 1 m long, mostly glabrous; Inflorescences (terminal or) axillary to rami- or cauliflorous, solitary or (if cauliflorous) sometimes some together, simple or branched either with some to several ascending long branches from near the base or all over and pyramidal, up to 75 cm long, glabrous; Flowers scentless. Sepals 4-5, outer 2 sometimes smaller, elliptic, orbicular, or obovate, 2-4 by 1.5-3 mm, dark red (rarely yellow to white), margin, especially of the inner ones, petaloid, crenulate to fimbriate-ciliolate, glabrous or very sparsely glandular-ciliolate. Petals 4-5, short-clawed, blade broad-ovate or elliptic to obovate, 1.5 -3 by 1-2 mm, dark red (rarely yellow to white), glabrous or rarely claw ciliate or outside hairy; Stamens 5-8; Ovary 2-or 3(-4)-celled, glabrous; Fruits ovoid, ellipsoid, subglobular, or transversely ellipsoid, rarely distinctly lobed, 1-3 by 0.6-2 by 0.5-2 cm (fresh up to 4 cm in diam.), apparently white when young, dark red to blackish when ripe; Seeds mostly 2, subglobular to semi-ellipsoid, flattened on the axial side, 8-23 by 6-18 by 4-18 mm, hilum orbicular to lanceolate, up to 6 by 3-4 mm. (Flora Malesiana)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to
Borneo, Cambodia, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (2)
- An understorey in undisturbed to slightly disturbed mixed dipterocarp, keranga and submontane tropical forests up to 1,400 m altitude.

- LC-ESI-MS/MS of fruit pulp extract identified epigallocatechin‑catechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, catechin, cyanidin rutinoside, procyanidin trimer, rutin, myricetin rhamnohexoside, luteolin glucoside and its derivative which were from the flavonoid group. GC-MS/MS identified fatty acids and sterols. (see study below) (6)
- LC-MS/MS analysis of fruit seed extract showed presence of phytochemicals with antidiabetic properties with α-kojibiose, genistein-7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside and soyacerebroside II as predominant ones. (see study below) (10)
- Study of ripe fruit for total phenols  yielded 0.48 g of gallic acid / 100 g dried fruit and 0.77 g gallic acid / 100 g extract.

- Results suggest antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-Dengue and anti-West Nile Virus inhibitory, prebiotic, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.


- Fruits are edible; sweet with slight tartness when ripe.
- Seeds are edible; roasted, with a chestnut flavor.
- In Thailand, young leaves cooked as vegetable.
- The Kanawan Aytas in Morong, Bataan, apply the leaves directly to the area of back pain. (11)
- Root used in a poultice compound to relieve itching and fever.
- Kedayan in Sarawak use tea infusion of root for treatment of rheumatism and impotence. Tea made from roots and roots of pasak nagi is drank to relieve backache and enhance sexual desires. (13)
- Root used as antipyretic; ripe fruit used as antidiarrheal. (12)
- Wood: Hard, heavy, and durable; used for house construction.
- Ritual:
In Thailand, shoots used in a preharvest rice ritual. (13)

Toxicity Study / Fruits:
Study evaluated the toxicity of L. fruticosa fruit extract using a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity method on female Sprague Dawley rats. The extract did not cause any negative hematological effect, no liver or renal changes, no significant changes in enzymatic and blood parameters, and no effect on normal body functions.. The extract was found safe at high dose of 3000 mg/kg without mortality or toxicity symptoms. (4)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Pulp and Seeds: Study evaluated invitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of crude extracts and fractions from L. fruticosa pulp and seeds of unripe fruit. The ethanolic seed extract and fraction M4 exhibited strongest radical scavenging, ß-carotene bleaching activity, α-glucosidase inhibition and highest total phenolic content. Results suggest an excellent source of bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant and antidiabetic potential. (5)
Anti-Dengue and West-Nile Virus / Pulp: Study evaluated the inhibitory activity of Lepisanthes fruiticosa pulp extract against NS2B-NS3 proteases from DENV2 and WNV. The extract exhibited inhibitory activity toward DENV2 and WBV NS2B -NS3 proteases with 50% inhibitory concentration value of 1.733 and 9.245 mg/ml, respectively. Results suggest a potential source antiviral. Pulp metabolites such as groups of flavonols, flavones, and sterols may contribute to the inhibitory properties. (see constituents above) (6)
Antioxidant / Fresh and Freeze-Dried Fruits: Study evaluated the antioxidant and phytochemical attributes of fresh (FLF) and freeze-dried (FDLF) L. fruticosa fruits at eight different maturity stages. The lower maturity (unripe) stages exhibited the strongest potential, with stage 1 the most notable. The FDLF fruit extract showed significantly (p<0.05) stronger radical scavenging at all maturity stages. IC50s of FDLF for the 8 stages were more effective, with stage 1 showing lowest IC50 of 1.57 mg/ml. Phenolic content was significantly higher (p<0.05) than FLF at all 8 stages. The FLF showed significantly higher (p<0.05) total flavonoid content at all stages except 2, 3, and 6. Results indicated antioxidant and phytochemical contents are significantly affected by processing and maturity, and suggest potential for fruit extracts as natural antioxidant in functional food production. (7)
Effect of Pretreatment and Ripening Stage on Nutrient and Antioxidant Properties / Whole Fruit Powder: Study evaluated the effect of pretreatment (blanching and steam) and ripening stage (ripe and unripe) on nutrient content and antioxidant properties of whole fruit powder. Blanching and steaming significantly affected (p<0.05) fat content, vitamin C. total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity regardless of ripening stage. Blanching lowered the fat content and enhanced antioxidant activity. On ripening, protein and ash content decreased. Vitamin C showed increment of more than 80% in the ripe sample. Antioxidant was higher in the unripe sample, although both stages showed EC50s of ≤ 1 mg/mL. Results suggest both stages of fruit have potential as functional ingredient with high dietary fiber. (8)
Prebiotic Properties / Antibacterial / Beverage: Study evaluated the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented ceri Terengganu (L. fruticosa) beverage and its antibacterial activity. Five selected strains of LAB were Bifidobacterium bifidum UABb-10™, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS®-1, Lactobacillus paracasei UALpc -04™, Lactobacillus plantarum UALp-05™, and Streptococcus thermophilus UASt-09™. Listeria monocytogenes ATCC® 51772TM, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis MDC15, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC® 53648TM and Streptococcus gallolyticus ATCC® 9809TM were selected to determine the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method inhibited five tested food-borne pathogens with inhibition zones ranging between 12.92 and 18.50 mm diameter. Broth microdilution method showed 100% inhibition of fermented ceri Terengganu beverage against the test microorganisms. Results suggest potential as a prebiotic beverage and might be able to reduce risk of food poisoning with its good antibacterial effect against foodborne pathogens. (9)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidative / Seed: Study evaluated the invivo antidiabetic and antioxidative effects of L. fruticosa fruit seed extract in a high-fat diet, streptozotocin-induced Sprague Dawley rats using doses of 300 and 600 mg/kbw. The high dose of 600 mg/kbw showed more pronounced anti-hyperglycemic effect in both acute and subchronic studies. There was 40% improved serum insulin level, a significant (p<0.05) 20% increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and 43% increase in catalase (CAT) activities, and a significant (p<0.05) 28% decrease in lipid peroxidation. Results suggest the fruit seed extract has potential in reducing hyperglycemia and enhancing antioxidant status in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic rats. The fruit may be a promising candidate for a new and safe alternative remedy for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. (see constituents above) (10)

- Wildcrafted.
- Cultivated.
- Plants in the cybermarket.

January 2024

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Lepisanthes fruticosa / Fruit / Copyright © 2015 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona contact: ieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL100046] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / Click on image of link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Lepisanthes fruticosa / Section of fruit / Copyright © 2014 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona contact: ieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL90397] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / Click on image of link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Lepisanthes fruticosa / Flowers / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L Co [ref. DOL25550] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / Click on image of link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Sapindaceae : Lepisanthes fruticosa / Fruits / Copyright © 2011 [ref. DOL33761] / Non-Commercial Use / Image modified / Click on image of link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Lepisanthes fruticosa / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Lepisanthes fruticosa / AsianPlantNet
Lepisanthes fruticosa / Wikipedia

Safety assessment of Lepisanthes fruticosa extract in experimental rats / Syahida M, H Hadijah, M Razali, M A Mohd Shukri / Food Research, 2023; 6(S2): pp 116-121 / DOI: 10.26656/fr.2017.6(S2).034
Phenolic profiling and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb) Leenh fruit extracts / Mirfat Ahmad Hasan Salahuddin, Amin Ismail, Nur Kartinee Kassim, Muhajir Hamid, Mohd Shukri Mat Ali / Food Chemistry, 2020; Volume 331: 127240 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127240
Metabolite Profiling and in vitro Evaluation of Lepisanthes fruticosa Fruit Pulp Extract as Inhibitor against Dengue and West Nile Virus NS2B-NS3 Proteases / Suhaina Supian, Machap Chandradevan, Muhamad Aizuddin Ahmad, Lina Rozano, Mohd Shukri Mat Ali, Sanimah Simoh / Pharmacogn. Mag., 2021; 17: pp 636-642 / DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_113_21
Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Content of Fresh and Freeze-Dried Lepisanthes fruticosa Fruits at Different Maturity Stages / Mirfat Ahmad Hasan Salahuddin, Zaulia Othman, Joanna Cho Lee Ying, Erny Sabrina Mohd Noor, Salma Idris / Journal of Agricultural Science, 2017; 9(2) / pISSN: 1916-9752 / eISSN: 1916-9760 / DOI: 10.5539/jas.v9n2p147
The effects of pretreatment and ripening stage on nutrient content and antioxidant properties of Lepisanthes fruticosa whole fruit powder / Tun Norbrillinda M, I Norra, H Hasri, MMA Helmi / Food Research, 2020; 4(S6): pp 70-78 / DOI: 1 /  eISSN: 2550-21660.26656/fr.2017.4(S6).010
Prebiotic properties of fermented ceri Terengganu (Lepisanthes fruticosa) beverage by survival of lactic acid bacteria and its antibacterial activity / M Abdul Manan, Md A Z Saad, NY Abd Rashid, M I Mohd Lazim et al / Food Research, 2023; 6(S2): pp 171-181
Antidiabetic and antioxidative effects of Lepisanthes fruticosa fruit seed extract in type 2 diabetic experimental rats / A H S Mirfat, I Amin, Mohd Shukri et al / Food Research, 2023; 6(S2): pp 191-201/
DOI: 10.26656/fr.2017.6(S2).016
Ethnobotanical and phytochemical study of the medicinal plants used by Kanawan Aytas in Morong, Bataan, Philippines / Nicolas Czar B Antonio, Reneir John G Tuason / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 2022; 21(3): pp 595-604
Antioxidant Activities of Some Thai and Exotic Fruits Cultivated in Thailand. / Penpun Wetwitayaklung, Juree Charoenteeraboon, Chutima Limmatvapirat, Thawatchai Phaechamud / Reserarch Journal of Phamaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences, 2012; 3(1) / ISSN: 0975-8585
Lepisanthes fruticosa / T K Lim / Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants, Vol 6: Fruits

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you know of a plant to suggest for inclusion, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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