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Family Thymelaeaceae
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.
Chen xiang

Scientific names Common names
Agallochum malaccense (Lam.) Kuntze            Lapnisan (Tagalog)
Agallochum officinarum Lam.            Agarwood (Engl.)
Agallochum praestantissimum Lam.            Aloewood (Engl.)
Agallochum sylvestre Lam.            Eaglewood (Engl.)
Aloexylum agallochum Lour.            Malayan aloes-wood (Engl.)
Aloexylum verum Lour.            Malayan eaglewood (Engl.)
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.            Wood of the gods (Engl.)
Aquilaria agallocha (Lour.) Roxb. ex Finl.           
Aquilaria moluccensis Oken             
Aquilaria ovata Cav.             
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.             
Aquilaria secundaria DC.             
Aquilariella malaccensis (Lam.) Tiegh.           
Cynometra agallocha Spreng.       
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINA: Chen xiang, Chahm heung.
FRANCE: Bois d'aigle, Calambac, Calambour.
INDIA: Akil kattai, Aggali chandanam (Tamil), Agru (Telugu).
INDONESIA: Gajaru, Ki karas, Mengkaras.
MALAYSIA: Gaharu, Tengkaras, Karas, Pokok karas.
SANSKRIT: Krimija, Krimijagdha, Anaryaka, Viswaroopakam, Pravar, Jongakam, Shresthavrusksa, Rajarha, Vamshika, Loha.
VIETNAM: Tram hurong.

Gen info
- Agarwood refers to an occasional product of a few genera of Aquilaria and Gyrinops in the plant family Thymelaeaceae.
- Agarwood is the most expensive wood in the world, an occasional product of a few genera of Aquilaria and Gyrinops in the Thymelaeaceae family.
Agar is a scented product, oleoresin, from the wood of live trees. The quality of agar depends on the plant species and fungal species involved, together with still unknown factors. (37)
- Aquilaria malaccensis is the major source of agarwood, a resinous heartwood, used for perfume and incense.
- The heartwood is light and pale colored; but, as the wood matures, the tree produces a dark aromatic resin in response to infection or unknown induction, which results in a very dense, dark resin-embedded heartwood.      (37)
- In theory, agarwood can be produced by all members; however, until recently it was primary produced from A. malaccensis, A. agallocha, and A. secundaria. (37)
- Three species are reportedly found in the Philippines: Aquillaria apiculina, A. acuminata, and
A. cumingiana (Palisan). (37)  Another list includes five species as present in the Philippines: Aquilaria apiculata Merr., a. citrinicarpa (Elmer) Hallier f., A. malaccensis Lam.,  A. parviflora (Quisumb) Ding Hon, and A. urdanetensis (Elmer) Hallier f.
- Trees grow very fast, flowering and producing seeds as early as four years old. (37)
- Healthy Aquilaria tree does not produce agarwood. Healthy wood is white, soft, even grained, without a perfumed smell, compared to the dark, hard, and heavy scented resin-impregnated agarwood. Agarwood resin develops through pathological, wounding and non-pathological mechanisms. Formation of agarwood occurs naturally in response to natural injuries such as lightning, insects, and mold attacks. The deposited resin around the wounds accumulate over years and eventually forms agarwood. In essence, agarwood is resin-impregnated pieces of wood, formed as a defense mechanism of Aquilaria trees in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. (38)
• Commercially available agarwood is derived from fungus-infected trees through wounds caused by species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Fungi imperfecti.
• Because of inflated demands and rapidly declining population of Aquilaria species in the wild, the yields of agarwood collected from the wild is shrinking, as the price continues to rise, restricting scientific research and wide application. (36)
• First-grade agarwood is one of the most expensive natural raw materials in the world. In 2010, the price for superior pure material was as high as $100,000 / kg.
• All species of Aquilaria have been places on the Appendix II list of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora since 2004. (36)
• Due to rising demand of agarwood, illegal trade, and shortcomings in monitory harvests, Aquilaria malaccensis is on the brink of extinction in the wild. It is now critically endangered on the IUCN Red list.

Tree, up to 20(-40) m tall, with bole up to 60 cm in diameter, usually straight, sometimes fluted or with thick (10 cm) buttresses up to 2 m high; bark smooth, whitish; branchlets slender, pale brown, pubescent, glabrescent. Leaves simple, alternate; petiole 4-6 mm long; blade elliptical-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 7.5-12 cm × 2.5-5.5 cm, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, glabrous, sometimes pubescent and glabrescent beneath, shiny on both surfaces, base acute, attenuate or obtuse, apex acuminate, acumen up to 2 cm long; veins in 12-16 pairs, rather irregular, often branched, elevated and distinct beneath, curving upward to the margin, plane or obscure above. Inflorescence a terminal, axillary or supra-axillary, sometimes internodal umbel, usually branched into 2-3 umbels, each with about 10 flowers; peduncle 5-15 mm long; pedicel slender, 3-6 mm long. Flowers 5-merous, campanulate, 5-6 mm long, green or dirty-yellow, scattered puberulous outside; floral tube nearly glabrous inside, distinctly 10-ribbed, persistent in fruit; calyx lobes 5, ovate-oblong, 2-3 mm long, almost as long as the tube, reflexed, densely puberulous within; petaloid appendages 10, inserted at the throat of the tube, oblong or slightly ovate-oblong, about 1 mm long, slightly incurved, densely pilose; stamens 10, free, emerging from the throat of the tube, filamentous, 1.2-2 mm long, episepalous ones longer than the others; anthers linear, obtuse; pistil included; ovary ovoid, 1-1.5 mm long, 2-celled, densely pubescent; style obscure, stigma capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, obovoid or obovoid-cylindrical, 3-4 cm × 2.5 cm, usually compressed, pubescent, glabrescent, base cuneate, apex rounded; pericarp woody. Seed ovoid, 10 mm × 6 mm including a beak 4 mm long, densely red-haired, bearing from the base a twisted, tail-like, pubescent appendage as long as the seed. Seedling with epigeal germination. (2)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to
Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, East Himalaya, Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)

- Phytochemical screening of leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. (see study below) (3)
- Study for volatile oils of A. malaccensis by hydrodistillation and GC-FID and GC-MS analysis identified 31 compounds compared with twenty-nine in commercial oil. Major compounds were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (32.1%), jinkoh-eremol (6.5%) and α-guaiene (5.8%), while the major compounds in the commercial oil were α-guaiene (10.3%), caryophellene oxide (8.6%), and eudesmol (3.2%).  Nine sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were present, less than previously reported. Compounds detected included α-guaiene, β-agarofuran, α-bulnesene, jinkoh-eremol, kusunol, selina-3,11-dien-9-one, oxo-agarospirol and guaia-1(10),11-dien-15,2-olide. (9)
- GC-MS study evaluated the differences in composition of Agarwood oil from highly infected (Grade 1), moderately infected (Grade 2) and less infected (Grande 3, and healthy wood (Grade 4). The presence of aromadendrene and valencene played an important role in grading of agarwood oil. The quantity of the two compounds mentioned in the four grades of wood were in the order of G1>G2>G3 and absent in G4 wood oil. (10)
- Study of A. malaccensis seeds isolated four new phorbol esters (1-4), two known phorbol esters (5,6) and two known glycerides (7,8). (see study below) (12)
- Potential anticancer metabolites in the chloroform extract were 9-hexadecanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid. Potential anticancer metabolites in the ethanol extract included 2,6–Octadien–1–ol, 3,7–dimethyl; 3,6–Octadecadiynoic acid, 3–Octadecyne, Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Nonadecanoic acid, Oleic Acid, Phytol, Loliolide dan Squalene. (see study below) (15)
- GC-MS analysis of essential oil revealed cubenol (22.26%), agarospirol (14.35%), and aristolene (13.22%) as major compounds. (see study below) (19)
- GC-MS, LC/Q-TOF-MS study of ethanolic leaf extract isolated compounds such as phenolic acids benzophenones, flavonoids, xanthones, sterols, terpenoids, coumarins, lignans, fatty acids, and tocopherols. Some compounds were isolated for the first time from the leaves i.e., quercetin, quercetin-O-hexoside, kaempferol-O-dirhamnoside, isorhamnetic-O-hexoside, syringetin-O-hexoside, myricetin, tetrahydroxyflavanone, hesperitin, sissotrin, and lupeol. (see study below) (23)
- GC-MS study of A. malaccensis leaves hot water extract yielded 9 compounds viz., Undecane, Benzene 1.3-dichloro-2-methoxy-, 1.alpha.- (Angeloxy)-6.beta-(isobutyroxy)-9-oxo-10.alpha.Hfuranoeremophilane, Methyl (6-Methyl-3-pyridazinyl) Ketone, 1-Heptyl-1H-(1,2,3)-triazole-N-{[2'-(hydroxyethoxy)ethylamino] ethyl}-4-carboxamide, 1-Heptyl-1H-(1,2,3)-triazole-N-{[2'-(hydroxyethoxy)ethylamino]ethyl}-4-carboxamide, Borane. [2-(dimethylphenylsilyl)-1-, ethyl-1-propenyl]diethyl-, (E)-, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, and 1-Phenyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,6-dioxa-5-sila-8-nitrooct-1-ene. (33)
- Chemical constituents of agarwood originating from the genus Aquilaria include 2-(2-phenylethyl)-4H-chromen-4-one derivatives and sesquiterpenes, the two predominant constituents, along with terpenoids, flavonoids, etc. There have been 154 new compounds isolated from agarwood and the genus Aquilaria trees. In total, 88 new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone compounds have been isolated from agarwood and the genes Aquilaria. (36)

- Studies suggested antioxidant, antiallergic, radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory, anti-lipase, lead chelating, anti-urolithiatic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, wood, oil.


- There has been recent interest in using leaves from Aquilaria for making tea. Agarwood farmers in Langkat have used their leaves as tea drinks, brewing aloes leaves. (25) (27) (34) (35)
- In Malaysia, Borneo, and Indonesia, leaves are traditionally used to relieve bruises; used as antioxidant, aphrodisiac, and tranquilizer.
- In Ayurvedic Medicinal System used as an appetizer, analgesic, antipyretic, antihistaminic , styptic, carminative, cytotoxic, insecticidal, general tonic, etc. Paste topically applied for cephalalgia, bronchitis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, skin disorders, pruritus, inflammation; powder mixed with honey taken for cough,  asthma, hiccup; wood decoction drunk for abdominal tumor; powder mixed with crystal sugar and ghrita (clarified butter) for hemorrhoids; wood decoction drunk for diabetes; oil massage useful ringworm and leprosy; wood powder in water taken for fever; liniment used for snake bites. (24)
- Leaves used for throat itching.
- Wood: Powder used in manufacture of fumigators, pastilles, and agarbatties of joss sticks.
- Oil: Highly priced essential oils used for perfumery. (24)

Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of
Aquilaria malaccensis leaves.
Preliminary screening for free radical scavenging activity with DPPH showed positive results.  Quarcetine was used as standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 8.0 × 102 μg/ml, 1.6 × 102 μg/ml, 1.4 × 102 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quercetin respectively. (see constituents above) (3)
Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Oral single dose acute toxicity study using aqueous extract of A. malaccensis leaves on Sprague Dawley rats showed no toxic effect on parameters of behaviors, body weight, food and water intakes. No death was observed. The no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was more than 2,000 mg/kbw. (4)
Antiallergic Phorbol Ester / Seeds: Study of A. malaccensis seeds ethanolic extract demonstrated an antiallergic effect with IC50 of less than 1 µg/ml. Antiallergic activity of the seeds was attributed to a phorbol ester-rich fraction. One new active phorbol ester, 12-O-(2Z,4E,6E)-tetradeca-2,4,6-trienoylphorbol-13-acetate, aquimavitalin (1) was isolated. Aquimavitalin (1) showed strong inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assay with IC50s of 1.7 and 11 nM, respectively, with therapeutic index up to 71,100. Results suggest potential for the seeds and pure compound for use in treatment of allergy. (5)
Amelioration of Cyclophosphamide induce Reproductive Toxicity / Leaves: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an anti-neoplastic and immunosuppressive agent associated with adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. Study evaluate the protective effects of AM leaves extract on sperm quality of Sprague Dawley rats following exposure to CP.  CP induces significant oxidative stress to the testis and impairs the sperm quality. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in percentage of dead and abnormal sperm in CP treated group. Co-administration of AM to the CP exposed rats significantly reduced (p<0.05) the percentage of abnormal sperm to the CP only group. AM supplementation has potential to protect male gametes from cellular and structural damage by scavenging free radicals, inhibiting oxidative processes or enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity in male gonads. AM may have therapeutic potential against CP induced reproductive toxicity. (6)
Amelioration of Cyclophosphamide induce Reproductive Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of leaf extracts for antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Both methanol and ethanol extra ts in oven dry method were efficient solvents to extract antioxidant constituents. The ME in air dry method exhibited highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 196.31 µg/mL. The hexane extract showed maximum activity against gram-positive bacterial tested. Results suggest a promising source of herbal medicine. (7)
Immunomodulatory / Wood Oil: Review reported on the immunomodulatory potential of agarwood oil with allied traditional medicinal use, biomarkers, pharmacological evaluation, toxicity, and mechanistic action. Biomarkers exhibited in-silico immunomodulatory potential against SARS-CoV2. Several genes WRKY WRKY, PAL, GLU were expressed during formation of agarwood in response to fungal infection, mechanical damage, and stress. The review can ignite future research on potential immunomodulatory markers viz., caryophyllene oxide, octacosane, heneicosane, agarospirol, n-hexadecanoic acid, α-eudesmol, α-santalol and inoculum guided in-vitro agarwood production restoring the prized aroma, therapeutic efficacy, and wild population. (8)
Acute and Sub-Acute Oral Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of A. malaccensis leaves (AMAE). Acute toxicity testing using OECD guideline 420 revealed no influence on mortality, clinical appearance, body weight or necropsy findings at 2000  mg/kbw. In sub-acute toxicity testing, all doses did not affect body weight and food intake. In male rats, there was significant reduction in relative weight of liver, and in female rats, increase in alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase. Histopathological analysis showed abnormalities in the liver and kidney of rats treated at greater than 2000 mg/kg dose. Results suggest that in sub-acute duration, the AMAE orally is slightly toxic at higher doses and can cause functional and structural changes in the kidney and liver of rats. It is advised, the extract should be used with caution. (11)
Modulation of Inflammation / Leaves: Study of A. malaccensis seeds isolated four new phorbol esters (1-4), two known phorbol esters (5,6) and two known glycerides (7,8).   Phorbol esters 1, 5, and 6 showed potent inhibitory activity on elastase release in human neutrophils, with IC50s of 2.7, 0.8, and 2.1 µM respectively. All isolated phorbol esters exerted enhancing activity on superoxide anion generation. The phorbol esters may play a bilateral modulatory role in inflammatory processes. The compounds were inactive against all cancer cell lines tested. (12)
Anticancer against Human Colon Cancer Cells / Oil: Study evaluated the cytotoxic properties of extracted and fractioned oil. A. malaccensis oil was extracted using supercritical extractor. The most cytotoxic fraction was obtained in 10 mins at 50°C, pressure 34.5 MPa. MTT assay showed strong anticancer activity towards human colon (HCT116) cancer cell line with IC50 of 4 µg/ml. (13)
Comparable Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities / Stages of Leaf Maturity: Study evaluated and compared the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of A. malaccensis leaves at different stages of maturity using DPPH and paper disc diffusion assays. Results showed the methanol extract of old leaves showed mosts potent antioxidant activity with IC50 19.62 µg/ml and the combined 1:3 chloroform: methanol and 100% methanol showed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 17.39 µg/ml. The chloroform extra ct of old leaves showed highest antibacterial activity on S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zones of 10.83 and 9.92 mm respectively at extract concentration of 300 mg/ml. (14)
Comparable Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities / Leaves: Leaves of Aquilaria malaccensis have antioxidant and cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines. Study screened chloroform and ethanol extracts for metabolites reported in database as anticancer. GC-MS analysis detected nine metabolites in the chloroform extract and twenty-one metabolities in the ethanol extract. Most common compounds were fatty acids and terpenoids. Potential anticancer metabolites in the chloroform extract were 9-hexadecanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid. Potential anticancer metabolites in the ethanol extract included 2,6–Octadien–1–ol, 3,7–dimethyl; 3,6–Octadecadiynoic acid, 3–Octadecyne, Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Nonadecanoic acid, Oleic Acid, Phytol, Loliolide dan Squalene. (15)
Lack of Aphrodisiac Properties / Leaves: Study evaluated the aphrodisiac effects of A. malaccensis aqueous leaf extracts, including sexual behavior, orientation activity, and testosterone level in ICR mice. Each male mice was cohabitated with one female in a polysulfone cage. Results revealed Aquilaria malaccensis leaves aqueous extract did not significantly alter the aphrodisiac parameters. Study validated that the leaves aqueous extracts lack aphrodisiac properties. (16)
Immunomodulatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of A. malaccensis leaves against cyclophosphamide and sheep RBC induced immune response in rats.  Oral toxicity study showed the extract was safe and non-toxic at dose of 2000 mg/kg. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. showed significant dose-dependent increase in immune response, hematological and biochemical parameters. The immunomodulatory property was attributed to the presence of array of phytoconstituents, with potential benefit in treatment of immune suppression related disorders. (17)
Antibacterial Against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-negative Pathogen / Leaves: Study evaluated a crude leaf extract of A. malaccensis for antibacterial activity against several pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Extract treatment at dose of 200 mg/ml exhibited largest inhibition zones of 14.0 and 9.7 mm against Acinetobacter baumannii and Klesiella pneumoniae, respectively. Qualitative screening of methanolic extract of leaves revealed alkaloids and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, terpenoids, and tannins) that likely contributed to its antibacterial properties. (18)
Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the chemical makeup of naturally insect infested agarwood essential oil and its potential therapeutic uses. Radical scavenging activity of agarwood EO showed 50% inhibition at concentration of 40.14 µL/mL. Antioxidant capacity from ABTS assay,
α-amylase inhibitory potential, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, AChE inhibitory assay, anti-urolithic and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity protein denaturation assay were confirmed with IC50s of 76.95 µL/mL, 30.78, 38.06, 13.41, 34.14, 22.42 µL/mL respectively. Genotoxicity testing showed negative toxic effect at 1 µL/mL concentration. Results suggest agarwood EO has potential for antioxidant, antidiabetic, skin whitening, and anti-inflammatory drug formulations. (19)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Anticancer / Essential Oil: Study revealed plant extracts from Aquilaria malaccensis and A. agallocha exert a cytotoxic effect on lung adenocarcinoma cells through activation of an intrinsic signaling pathway. Both suppressed pro-inflammatory gene expression of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in RAW264.7 cells. Both extracts effectively suppressed oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidative gene expression in H2O2-induced HaCat cells at 50 µg/mL. (20)
Cytotoxic Activity on Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K-562 Cell Line: Study evaluated the cytotoxic activities of ethanolic extract of A. malaccensis leaves on K-562 cells using MTT assay. Thee ethanolic extract of leaves induced K-562 cells into apoptotic cell death mode manner. Results suggest potential as an anticancer agent for chronic myeloid leukemia K-562 cell line. (21)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the possible inhibitory effects of methanolic and aqueous leaves extract of A. malaccensis against α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities at concentrations range from 100 to 1000 µg/ml compared with Acarbose. In an In vivo study using STZ-induced diabetic rats model, A. malaccensis methanolic and aqueous leaves extract exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50s of 498.92 NS 425.09 µg/ml respectively, compared to acarbose with IC50 of 402.06 µg/ml. Similarly, the ME and AE showed dose dependent inhibitory effects against α-amylase activity with IC50s of 752.98 and 771.53 µg/ml, compared to acarbose at 584.93 µg/ml. Oral lethal dose for all extracts was greater than 2 g/kbw. Results suggest potential as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus. (22)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antilipoxygenase Inhibition / Leaves: Lipoxygenase enzyme is associated with several inflammatory disorders such as asthma, cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Antilipoxygenase activity can be exploited to combat a range of inflammation-related diseases. Study evaluated the antilipoxygenase activity of A. malaccensis ethanolic extract of leaves and its toxicity on oral mucosal cells. The ethanolic leaf extract exhibited dose-dependent lipoxygenase inhibition at dose of 200 µg/ml (82.61%) with IC50 of 71.6 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (23)
Agarospirol / Agarwood Fragrance: Aquilaria malaccensis, Agarwood, is used in the production of agar oil from  its infected wood, which is utilized in the pharmaceutical and perfumery industry. Agar oil formation in agarwood takes years through natural process, induced by natural or artificial injury or microbial infection. The role of soil fungi and bacteria in artificial induction is unexplored. Study isolated the fungal and bacterial community residing inside the stem of A. malaccensis tree and explored their potential in induction of Agarospirol (2-(6,10-Dimethylspiro[4,5]dec-6-en-2-yl)-2-propanol) production by artificially infecting trees with these organisms. Agarospirol is one of the compounds responsible for fragrance in Agarwood. A total of340 fungi and 131 bacterial were isolated from 50 stem samples, and 188 fungi and 148 bacterial from 50 soil samples. The dominant fungal genus in stem was Trichoderma, and in soil, Aspergillus. Forty fungal and bacterial isolates were assessed for their potential to induce formation of agarwood in A. malaccensis by artificial infection method. Only 31% of bacterial and 23% of fungal isolates showed ability to produce Agarospirol. Bacteria Pantoea dispersa and fungi Penicillium polonicum showed highest production compared to other isolates. (26)
Tea / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of gaharu leaf tea as raw material. Agarwood leaf from two sites terpenoids and saponins in one, and tannins and saponins in the other. Antioxidant activity by DPPH assay showed IC50s of 56,985 and 44,382 µg/ml suggesting strong and very strong antioxidant activity. (27)
Antilipase Activity / Anti-Obesity / Bark: Study evaluated the anti-lipase activity of extracts of bark and leaves from Aquilaria subintegra and A. malaccensis. Anti-lipase activity was measured by colorimetric assay on pancreatic lipase activity using porcine pancreatic lipase. Results showed that between the two species of Aquilaria, A. malaccensis bark in dichloromethane crude showed high anti-lipase activity. (28)
Effect on Male Reproductive Organs and Sperm Quality / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of A. malaccensis on male reproductive organs' weight (testis, epididymis, prostate gland, and seminal vesicle) and sperm quality (count, morphology, and motility) in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed the administration of either 1, 2, or 3 grams of A. malaccensis did not alter the reproductive organs' weight and sperm motility. However, higher concentration comsumed by rats seem to have detrimental effects on the number and morphology of sperm. (29)
Chelating Efficacy in Lead Bioaccumulation: Study evaluated the chelating effect of Aquilaria malaccensis and A. longa against lead induced biochemical alterations and bioaccumulation of lead tissues of adult female Wistar albino rats. Lead intoxicated rats showed increase of lead accumulation in serum, bone, and liver, with metabolic system effects (increase in blood glucose and serum urea  concentrations and decrease serum calcium). Treatment with Am and Al alone or in combination significantly reduced the adverse effects in serum and tissues and restored biochemical parameters alterations. Results showed both Am and Al are effective chelating agents for removal of lead and restoring biochemical alterations after a sublethal exposure of lead acetate in rats. (30)
Immunomodulatory on Staph-Infected Macrophages / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of A. malaccensis leaf extract on macrophage, which was challenged with pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Chloroform and ethanol extracts at 50 µg/ml concentration showed best results with phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity, with significant difference between negative and positive controls. Thin-layer chromatography revealed terpenoid, flavonoid, phenolic, and tannin. (31)
Effect on Insulin Resistance and Lipid Peroxidation: Study evaluated the effect of purslane (P. oleracea) and Aquilaria malaccensis methanol extracts against high-fructose and high-fat diet induced insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and tissue dysfunctions in rats. Insulin resistance (IR) induction caused significant increase in blood glucose, plasma and tissue lipids profile, urea and creatinine concentrations, SGOT, SGPT, and ALP activities, along with significant increase in MDA level. Results suggest A. malaccensis and P. oleracea possess ability to control lipid peroxidation and biochemical disruption associated with insulin resistance. (32)
Antiurolithiatic: Study evaluated five Malaysian traditional plants viz., A. nanus, A. malaccensis, C. xanthorrhiza, P artocarpus and G. mangostana for their inhibitory effect towards stone crystallization using invitro technique. Cystone was used as positive control. Aquilaria malaccensis extract (77.27%) showed best inhibition rate with no significant difference (p<0.05) compare to cystone. The abundance of phytochemicals, especially steroid and saponin in A. malaccensis, might contribute to the high inhibition activities of calcium oxalate crystallization. (33)
Agarwood Leaves Tea / Antioxidant: Gaharu (Agarwood) leaf tea can be used as raw materials for brewed drinks. Study evaluated the antioxidant activity and consumer preferences for agarwood leaf tea based on three leaves drying method viz., dried under direct sunlight, roasted, and heated at 40°C in an oven. Leaves showed antioxidant activity by DPPH with IC50s of 33.91 µg/ml for oven drying, 25.54 µg/ml for roasted, and 32.16 µg/ml under direct sunlight drying. While the oven drying method was preferable, the roasted drying method showed very strong antioxidant activity. (34)
Safety Test for Tea Leaves / Skin Sensitization Test: Study evaluated the safety of agarwood leaf tea products through skin sensitization test using albino rabbits induced with Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) by intradermal and topical injection. There was no change or irritating effect noted in the skin of test animals 72 hours after exposure to test doses suggesting safety foir consumption. (35)


October 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Leaves  / Min Sheng Khoo / CC BY-NC-SA / Image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aquilaria malaccensis /  Vinayaraj  / CC BY SA 4.0 / click on image or link to go to source page / image modified/ Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aquilaria malaccensis trees / ©  Mindanao Journal   / click on image or link to go to source page / image modified / TheMindanaoJournal
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Aquilaria malaccensis - fruiting branch /  A Gentry  / CC BY-NC-SA / click on image or link to go to source page / image modified / Useful Tropical Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Aquilaria malaccensis (PROSEA) / RCK Chung, Purwaningsih / Pl@ntUse
Antioxidant activity of aquilaria malaccensis (thymelaeaceae) leaves /  Huda A W N,, Munira M A S, Fitrya S D, Salmah M / Pharmacognosy Research, 2009; 1(5): pp 270-273
Acute oral toxicity study of selected Malaysian medicinal herbs on Sprague Dawley rats / Teh BP, Hamzah NF, Norazila Z, Norliyana MY, Wan Abdul Hakim WL.  /  Institute for Medical Research, Ministry of Health; 2014. Report no.: HMRC 11-045/01/AM/L/B.
Antiallergic Phorbol Ester from the Seeds of Aquilaria malaccensis / Michal Korinek, Vitthal D Wagh, Wen Lo, Yu-Ming Hsu etl al / Int J Mol Sci., 2016; 17(3): 398 / DOI: 10.3390/ijms17030398
Ameliorative Effects of Aquilaria malaccensis Leaves Aqueous Extract on Reproductive Toxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Male Rats / Redzuan Nul Hakim Razak, Faridah Ismail et al /  Malays J Med Sci., 2019; 26(1): pp 44-57 / DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.1.4 / PMID: 30914892
Evaluation of DPPH Free Radical Scavenging, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory, and Antimicrobial Activities of Aquilaria malaccensis Leaf Extracts / Wan Ahmad Wan Nadilah, Abdul Manaf Ali, Wan Nur Amalina Wan Mamat, Nor Hasima Mahmood / Journal of Agrobiotechnology, 2019; 10(1)
An insight into the immunomodulatory potential of wood oil of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. with an emphasis into related phytomedicine, biomarkers, pharmacology, and toxicity / Prasanna Sarmah, Bikas Das, Jadumonia Saikia, Dipanwita Banik et al /  South African Journal of Botany,  2022; Volume 151, Part A: pp 695--712 / DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2022.10.020
Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Aquilaria malaccensis(Thymelaeaceae) from Malaysia / Saiful Nizam Tajuddin, Mashitah M Yusoff / Natural Products Communications / 
DOI: 10.1177/1934578X10000501229
Analysis of different grades of Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) oil through GC-MS / K Jayachandran, I Sekar, K T Parthiban, D Amirtham, K K Suresh / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2014, 5(1) / eISSN: 096-0512 / pISSN: 0976-0504
Evaluation of acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves in Sprague Dawley rats  / Redzuan Nul Hakim Abdul Razak, Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Asmah Hanim Hamdam et al / AsPac J Mol Biol Biotech,, 2018; 27(1): pp 20-32
Inflammation Modulatory Phorbol Esters from the Seeds of Aquilaria malaccensis / Vittahl D Wagh, MIchal Korinek, I-Wen Lo, Yu-Ming Hsu, Shu-Li Chen et al / J Nat Prod., 2017; 80(5): pp 1421-1427 /
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b01096
Separation and Fractionation of Aquilaria MalaccensisOil Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction and tThe Cytotoxic Properties of the Extracted Oil / A H Ibrahim, S S al-Rawi, A M S Abdul Majid et al / Procedia Food Science, 2011; Vol 1: pp 1953-1959
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) leaves / Hadi Hendra, Sukarti Moeljopawiro, Tri Rini Nuringtyas / AIP Conference Proceedings, 2016; Vol 1755, Issue 1 /
DOI: 10.1063/1.4 958565
Identification of anticancer compounds in leaves extracts of agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis(Lamk.)) / I N K Millaty, N Wijayanti, L Hidayati, T R Nuringtyas / IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol 457: 012036
Aphrodisiac properties of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves aqueous extract in ICR mice  / Nur Hidayat Che Musa, Haniza Hanim Mohd Zain, Husni Ibrahim / JRP: Journal of Research in Pharmacy, 2019; 23(1): pp 130-140 / DOI: 10.12991/jrp.2018.117
Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Potentials of The Leaves of Aquilaria malaccensis / Hegde Karunakar, Shree Durga P M, C Sajjan Praveenkumar / Research Journal of Phamacology and Pharmacodynamics, 2019; 11(1): pp 32-36 / eISSN: 2321-5836 / pISSN: 0975-4407 / DOI: 10.5958/2321-5836.2019.00007.7
Antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Aquilaria malaccensis against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogen  / NIM Jihadi, YZHY Hashim, NA Rahim, MHM Maifiah et al / Food Research, 2020; 4(6): pp 1962-1968
Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis L.) a quality fragrant and medicinally significant plant based essential oil with pharmacological potentials and genotoxicity / Roktim Gogoi, Neelav Sarma, Twahira Begum, Sanjoy Kumar Chanda, Himangshu Lekhak, G Narahar Sastry, Mohan Lal /  Industrial Crops and Products, 2023; Volume 197: 116535 / DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2023.116535
Protective Effects of Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Edible Plant Extracts against Lung Cancer, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress—In Silico and In Vitro Study / Jinnatun Nahar, Vinothini Boopathi, Esrat Jahan Rupa et al / Applied Sciences, 2023; 13(10): 6321 / DOI: 10.3390/app13106321
Cytotoxic Activity of Aquilaria malaccensis Ethanolic Leaves Extract on Human Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia K-562 Cell Line / Ahmad Asyraf Mohamad Zaid, Wan Amalina Wan Mamat, Muhammad Yusran Abdul Aziz et al /  Asian Journal of Medicine and Biomedicine, 2022; 6(1): pp 37-42 /
DOI: 10.37231/ajmb.2022.6.1.449
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS (AGARWOOD) LEAVES EXTRACTS  /  Nur Liyana Binti Zulkifle: Thesis: 2018 - Universiti Malaysia Pahang
Metabolite Profiling of Aquilaria malaccensisLeaf Extract Using Liquid Chromatography-Q-TOF-Mass Spectrometry and Investigation of Its Potential Antilipoxygenase Activity In-Vitro  / Manar A Eissa, Yumi Z H Y Hashim, Dina M El-Kersh, Hamzah Mohd. Salieh, Saripah S S Abd-Azzoz, Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Nor Malia Abd Warif / Processes, 2020; 8(2) /  DOI: 10.3390/pr8020202
AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS, AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINAL HERB FOUND IN ASSAM – ITS THERAPEUTICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECT  / Dipti Rekha Sarma, Jyotirmoy Sarmah, Anikita Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Mishra /   Indian J Trop Biodiv.,  2015; 23(2): pp 218-222
Pharmacological properties of agarwood tea derived from Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) leaves: An emerging contemporary herbal drink / Aimi Zafirah Adam, Shiou Yih Lee, Rozi Mohamed / Journal of Herbal Medicine,  2017; Vol 10: pp 37-44
Fungal and Bacterial Diversity Isolated from Aquilaria malaccensis Tree and Soil, Induces Agarospirol Formation within 3 Months after Artificial Infection / Hemraj Chhipa, Nutan Kaushik / Front. Microbiol., Sec. Microbiotechnology, 2017; Vol 8 / DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01286
Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of gaharu leaf tea (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk) as raw material of tea from middle Tapanuli Regency, North Sumatera Province /  Surjanto, R Batubara, T I Hanum, W Pulungan /  IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 2019; 260: 012101 /
DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/260/1/012101
Evaluation of anti-lipase activity of leaf and bark extracts from Aquilaria subintegra and A. malaccensis / Mastura Ibrahim. Saripah Salbiah Syed Abdul Azziz, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan Salleh et al /  MARMARA Pharmaceutical Journal,  2018; 22(1): pp 91-95 / DOI: 10.12991/mpj.2018.46
Effect of Karas (Aquilaria malaccensis) on Male Reproductive Organs and Sperm Quality in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats / Norahidah Zaidi, Mohd Nizam Haron, Connie Fay Komilus, Asmad Kari et al /  Tropical Life Sciences Research, 2023; 34(1): pp 241-259 / DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2023.34.1.13 / PMID: 37065802
Evaluation of the Chelating Efficacy of Aquilaria malaccensis and Aristolochia longa Against Biochemical Alterations Induced by Lead Bioaccumulation in Rats / Derouiche Samir, Zeghib Khaoula / Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Journal, 2019; 7(2) / DOI: 10.20510/ukjpb/7i2/182379
Immunomodulatory Activity of Agarwood Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. Leaf Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus-infected Macrophages in vitro / Hiqmah Yusi Yana, Lisna Hidayati, Nastiti Wijayanti, Tri Rini Nuringtyas /  The Indonesian Biomedical Journal, 2022; 14(2)
The effect of Purslane and Aquilaria malaccensis on insulin-resistance and lipid peroxidation in High-fructose diet Rats / Samir Derouiche, Ouidad Degachi, Khaoula Gharbi / Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, 2020; 27(4)
The Evaluation of Antiurolithiathic Properties of Ananas nanus, Aquilaria malaccensis, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Pandanus atrocarpus and Garcinia mangostana / Nur Halimah Sairi, Norhayati Muhammad, Aslia Natasha Pauzi,  Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Balkis Hj A Talip, Norazlin Abdullah, Laily B Din, Nazlina Ibrahim / Materials Today: Proceedings, 2019; 19(4): pp 1145-1150 / DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.11.007
Antioxidant Activity and Preferences Test of Agarwood Leaves Tea (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk) Based on Leaves Drying Methods /  Ridwanti Batubara, T Ismanelly Hanum, Iwan Risnasari, Herawaty Ginting, Lusi Amelia Lubis /  BROMO 2018: Bromo Conference, Symposium on Natural Products and Biodiversity /
DOI: 10.5220/0009843700002406 / ISBN: 978-989-758-347-6
Safety Test of Agarwood Leaves Tea (Aquilaria malaccencis Lamk.) Through Skin Sensitization Test on Albino Rabbit / Surjanto Surjanto, Ridwanti Batubara, Dedy Syahputera Rangkuti / Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2019; 7(22): pp 3896-3899 / DOI: 10.1889/oamjms.2019.528 /
PMID: 32128000
Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activity of Agarwood and Aquilaria Plants
/ Shuai Wang, Zhangxin Yu, Canhong Wang, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, and Jianhe Wei / Molecules, Feb 2018; 23(2) / doi: 10.3390/molecules23020342 / PMID: 29414842
AGARWOOD PRODUCTION- A MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD TO BE EXPLORED IN BANGLADESH / Selina Akter, Md. Tanvir Islam, Mohd Zulkefeli, Sirajul Islam Khan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, January 2013; 1(4) Serial 3
An Overview of Agarwood, Phytochemical Constituents, Pharmacological Activities, and Analyses  / Shui-Tein Chen, Yerra Koteswara Rao / Traditional Medicine, 2022; 3(1) / DOI:  10.35702/Trad.10009 /
ISSN: 2766-9963 .

Suggested reading: What's Agarwood? (Food for thought by Manny Piñol) / Mindanao Journal
Aquilaria malaccensis / Wikipedia

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you know of a medicinal plant, native or introduced, to suggest for addition to the compilation, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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