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Family Papaveraceae
Argemone mexicana Linn.

Lao chou

Scientific names Common names
Argemone alba Raf.                       [Illegitimate] Baruas (Iv.)
Argemone mexicana Linn. Diluariu (Tag.)
Argemone mucronata Dum.Cours. ex Steud. Kachumba (Ilk.)
Argemone sexvalvis Stokes Kagang-kagang (C. Bis.)
Argemone spinosa Gaterau Kasubhag-aso (Ilk.)
Argemone spinosa Moench Kasubang-aso (Ilk.)
Argemone versicolor Salisb. Bird-in-the-bush (Engl.)
Argemone vulgaris Spach Goatweed (Engl.)
Echtrus mexicanus (L.) Nieuwl. Golden thistle of Peru (Engl.)
Echtrus trivialis Lour. Mexican poppy (Engl.)
Papaver mexicanum (L.) E.H.L.Krause Prickly poppy (Engl.)
  Queen thistle (Engl.)
Diluariu is a common name shared by: (1) Diluario, Acanthus ilicifolius, and (2) Kachumba, Argemone mexicana
Argemone mexicana L. is an accepted name The PLant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLA: Shialkanta.
CHINESE: Ji ying su, Ci ying su.
GUJRATI: Darudi.
HINDI: Shialkanta, Satyanashi.
MALAYALAM: Ponnummattu, Kantankattiri.
MARATHI: Daruri, Firangi-kote-pavola, Dhotara.
SANSKRIT: Brahmadandi, Pitopushpa, Srigalkanta, Svarnakshiri.
TAMIL: Kuttiyotti, Ponnummuttai.
TELUGU: Brahmadandicettu.
OTHERS: Ghamoya.

Gen info
A plant used as "nourishment for the dead" by the Aztecs. The plant latex is collected into a pliable mass and fashioned into an image of an Aztec god. In a sacrifice ritual, the "god" image is killed and its "flesh" distributed among the worshipers. Its became cemented into the culture of poppy when Chinese residents in Mexico extracted from the latex a product with opium-effects. (1)

Kachumba is an erect, rather stout, branched annual herb, about 1 meter high. Leaves are 5 to 11 centimeters long, more or less blotched with green and white, glaucous, broad at the base, half-clasping the stem, prominently sinuate-lobed, and spiny. Flowers are terminal, yellow, scentless, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter. Capsule is spiny, obovate or elliptic-oblong, about 3 centimeters in length. Seeds are spherical, shining, black and pitted.

- Weed in waste places, widely scattered in the Philippines, in and about towns.
- Native of tropical America.
- Introduced, now pantropic.

- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of reducing sugars, flavonoids, sterols/terpenes, tannins and alkaloids.
- Seed analysis yielded 36% oil, 49% carbohydrate and albumin, 9% moisture and 6% ash.
- Seed study yielded an alkaloid similar to morphine in all its important reactions. A subsequent critical study found no trace of morphine, but reported berberine and protopine.
- Seeds contain a pale yellow non-edible oil, 22-36%, called argemone oil or katkar oil, which contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine.
- Plant contains alkaloids berberine, protopine, sarguinarine, optisine, chelerytherine, among others.
- Seed contains myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic acids.
- Phytochemical screening of extracts of flowers yielded secondary metabolites: alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenol, lignin, sterols. (17)
- Study isolated six alkaloids from aerial parts, viz. 13-oxoprotopine, protomexicine, 8 methoxydihydro-sanguinarine, dehydrocorydalmine, jatrorrhizine, and 8-oxyberberine. (see study below) (33)
- Phytochemical screening of chloroform (C), ethyl acetate (EA) and ethanol (Et)seed extracts yielded alkaloid (C,Et,EA), flavonoid (E), glycoside (CE), polyphenol (E), phenolic (E), oil (C), steroid (C,EA,Et), terpenoid (CE), fatty ester (EA) and free acid (EA)

- Considered analgesic, antispasmodic, antitussive, demulcent, emetic, expectorant, hallucinogenic, purgative and sedative.
- Berberine is a bitter yellow substance with an effect on circulation. A study reported an overdose of berberine to be possibly fatal from paralysis of the central nervous system. Protopine was reported to be narcotic. However, another subsequent studies on the seeds did not show an emetic or narcotic influences.
- Root is considered alterative, anthelmintic.
- Leaves considered narcotic and sedative.
- Flowers considered pectoral and sedative.
- Seeds considered laxative, emetic, nauseant, expectorant and demulcent.
- Seeds reported to have a cannabis-like effect, and the herb juice and flowers reputed to be narcotic. (see fringe use, below) (36)

Parts used
Root, stems, leaves.


- Yellow juice of the plant used to treat "fissures of the cornea.+
- Infusion of roots is given to women at the start of parturition pains.
- Roots given for various chronic skin diseases.
- In La Reunion roots given for blenorrhagia.
- In French Guinea, decoction of roots or stems given for vesicular calculus. Decoction also used as an eye-wash and a lotion used for inflammatory swellings. Also, used as a mouthwash for toothaches and taken internally for gleet.
- Powdered root used for tapeworm.
- In French Guinea, stem used as diuretic.
- In Gambia, infusion of leaves used for coughs.
- Leaves used as narcotic and sedative.
- Latex with slightly corrosive property, applied to warts, chancres, etc. Also used for eczema.
- Yellow juice of the plant used for dropsy, jaundice, cutaneous affections.
- Used as a diuretic, relieves blisters, heals excoriations and indolent ulcers.
- Used as externally application for conjunctivitis.
- In Konkan, juice is given with milk for leprosy.
- In Jodhpur, the yellow juice is used for eye affections and rubbed on the body to relieve rheumatic pain.
- In the West Indies, used as a substitute for ipecacuanha.
- In Senegal, root decoction used to treat gonorrhea. (44)
- Seeds used for catarrhal affections of the throat, cough, pertussis and asthma.
- In Mexico, used as an antidote to snake venom.
- In French Guinea, used as a cathartic and emetic. Also, flowers considered narcotic.
- In Delhi, smoke from burning seeds used to relieve toothaches; also, for preventing dental caries.
- Oil is aperient, used for herpetic lesions and other skin diseases.
- In Delhi and Sindh, oil is used on indolent ulcers and eruptions and as an external application for headaches.
- Oil of seeds is considered purgative.
- Fringe Uses:
In many "fringe" and tribal cultures, leaves are smoked or made into tea, for its sedating and psychoactive properties. Euphorant and aphrodisiacal properties have been reported. Also, used as tea for its beneficial effects as a smoking-cessation aid.
- Cold remedy:
Leaf extracts being recommended as new-age cold remedy.

- Seed oil: In India, popularly known as Satyanashi oil, used as illuminant, lubricant, ingredient in soap making, and protection against termites. (37)

Study on the extracts of seeds and leaves of A. mexicana all showed activity against S aureus, B subtilis, E coli and P aeruginosa; the methanol extract showed maximum inhibition. (2)
Toxicity / Neuro-entero-hepato-nephropathy: Rats receiving seed, seed oil and ethanolic extracts of A. mexicana suffered hyperesthesia, inappetence, intermittent diarrhea, emaciation and decrease body weight, with hepatorenal lesions and increase in BUN and SGOT. Results suggest that the seed and seed extract toxicity in rats are more of neuro-enterohepatonephropathy. (4)
Epidemic Dropsy / Toxicity Report: Four cases manifesting epidemic dropsy following massage with contaminated mustard oil was reported. The oil was found adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil, and the diagnosis confirmed a transcutaneous route of absorption of the toxin with the presence of sanguinarine in the serum and urine of all four cases. (5)
Anti-Malarial: A study compared the Argemone mexicana decoction versus artesunate-amodiaquine (artemisinin combination therapy [ACT]) for the management of malaria. In view of the low rate of severe malaria and good tolerability, AM may also constitute a first-aid treatment when access to other antimalarials is delayed. (7)
Larvicidal / Insecticide: Study showed the crude methanol extract of P minima and the methanol leaf and flower extract of Argemone mexicana might be used as larvicide and insecticide.
Effect on Ileum Contraction: Study showed CHCl3/MeOH and MeOH extracts dose-dependently reduced the contractions of isolated guinea-pig ileum. The effects were attributed to the active compounds identified as protopine, allocryptopine and berberine. (8)
Phytochemical Screening: Phytochemical screening yielded reducing sugars, flavonoids, sterols / terpenes, tannins and alkaloids. Its biological active compounds could serve as a potential source of vegetable drugs in herbal medicine.
Anti-Stress / Antiallergic / Anti-Asthma: Study of various extracts showed the aqueous extracts of Argemone mexicana stems caused a significant decre
ase in leucocytes and eosinophils, results suggesting a usefulness as antiallergic in asthmatic conditions. (10)
Neurotoxicology of Argemone Oil / Neuroprotective Extract: Argemone oil shows acute and subacute as well as dose-dependent toxicity in whole brain as well as discrete areas of the brain. Oral supplementation of aqueous extract of A mexicana stem and leaves showed a protective effect on the brain and liver. (11)
Bacteriostatic / Enteropathogenic Bacteria: Study evaluated the bacteriostatic efficacy of 16 crude extracts from different parts of A. mexicana on enteropathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Vibrio damsella, E. aerogenes and E. coli. Results confirmed a broad-spectrum antibacterial property, with the leaf and seeds as principle sources of active ingredients with bacteriostatic potential. (13)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Various extracts of leaves were evaluated for wound healing activity in rats using excision, incision, and dead space wound models. Animals treated with methanol and aqueous extracts showed faster wound healing. The wound healing effects were attributed to phytoconstituents like alkaloids, triterpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids. (14)
Repellent / Leaves: Study evaluated the repellent activity of an aqueous extract on S. oryzae and T. castaneum adults. Results confirm the extracts of leaves as a biologic control against insects/pests of stored grain. (15)
Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of leaves for peripheral analgesic in mice. Results showed very good peripheral activity and significant analgesic activity in comparison to Aspirin. Flavanoids may be contributory to the analgesic activity. (16)
Cytotoxicity / Benzophenanthridine and Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids: Study of aerial parts isolated two benzophenanthridiine-type alkaloids and three bnezylisoquinoline-type alkaloids, together with six known non-alkaloidal compounds. Chelerythrine, angoline, and (+)-argenaxine showed activity against one or both cell lines--HONE-1 (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) and NUGC (human gastric cancer) cell lines. (18)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Study of a 50% methanolic extract of fruits showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and good antioxidant activity. (19)
Anxiolytic / Sedative / Analgesic: Study evaluated methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant for CNS related activities in mice. In acute toxicity study, both extracts showed to be safe up to 2500 mg/kbw. Results showed analgesic, anxiolytic, and sedative effects. (20)
Biodiesel from Seed Oil: Study explored the possibility of biodiesel production from A. mexicana seed oil and an efficient catalyst crystalline manganese carbonate. Optimum conditions for the conversion of the seed oil to its methyl ester by transesterification required 1% manganese carbonate as catalyst with alcohol to oil ratio 5:1 at 60°C to yield biodiesel of 99.99% purity. (21)
Anti-Cancer / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for anticancer activities against HeLa and MCF-7 cells. An IC50 of 1.35µg/µl to 1.2µg/µl was found. Activity was through apoptosis rather than necrosis. Activity could be related to flavonoid content. (22)
Toxicity / Epidemic Dropsy / Sanguinarine / Oil: Four cases with characteristics of epidemic dropsy was reported following body massage with contaminated mustard oil. Oil used for the body massage was adulterated with Argemone mexicana oil. Transcutaneous absorption of toxin (sanguinarine) was suspected, and established by the presence of the same in urine and serum of all four cases. (23)
Antiulcer / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated extracts of aerial parts of A. mexicana on duodenal ulceration model induced by cysteammine hydrochloride. The aqueous extract showed dose dependent increased healing of gastric ulceration and prevented development of experimentally induced duodenal ulceration in rats. Ranitidine was used as standard drug. (25)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of a lyophilized leaf extract of Argemone mexicana on an animal model. Results showed significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan induced paw edema method and significant analgesic activity by hot plate method. (26)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the potential of extracts of various plant parts (stem, leaf, and fruit) of Argemone mexicana as an antimicrobial plant. All extracts showed showed considerable antimicrobial activity against all test microorganisms (B. subtilis, S. epidermis, S. aureus, E. coli, P aeruginosa and Candida albicans) with the chloroform extract showing to be most effective. The ethanol extract of stem and leaves showed maximum activity against S. aureus and C. albicans. Acetone extract of leaf showed good activity against P. aeruginosa. (27)
Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel / Leaves: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibition potential of A. mexicana leaf extract on mild steel in 0.5 M H2S04. Results showed AMLE inhibited mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid solution. (28)
Anthelmintic / Aerial Parts: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of A. mexicana showed significant anthelmintic activity on Indian adult earth worms Pheretima posthuma compared to standard drug albendazole. (29)
Antioxidant / Roots: Study of A. mexicana roots showed significant antioxidant activity using various antioxidant assay, viz. DPPH, ABST, and H202 scavenging method. (30)
Hypoglycemic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts on STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats. Results showed hypoglycemic potential. The test dose of 400 mg/kg for 14 days showed similar effect to that of standard drug metformin. (31)
Oviposition Altering and Ovicidal Efficacy against Ae Aegypti / Roots: Study of various extracts of roots showed potential oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent against Ae. aegypti. The petroleum ether extract was the most potent. (32)
Cytotoxicity / Human Colon Cancer Line / Alkaloids / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the potential cytotoxic effects of alkaloids isolated from aerial parts of A. mexicana on SW480 human colon cancer cell line. Some alkaloids showed varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Jatrorrhizine and 8-methoxydihydrosanguinarine were most potent (∼95–100%) in inhibiting the human colon cancer cell proliferation showing complete reduction in cell viability. Results suggest potential for development of a chemotherapeutic drug. (see constituents above) (33)
Immunomodulatory: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of leaves of Ocimum sanctum and Argemone mexicana plants in a chicken model. Results showed the T cell suppressive impact of hot aqueous extract of A. mexicana and stimulatory effects of O. sanctum. (34)
Gold Nanoparticles / Cytotoxicity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the cytotoxic properties of new AuNPs synthesized from an aqueous leaf extract of A. mexicana on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exposure to AuNPs resulted in dose-dependent cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells that is closely related to increased oxidative stress. The induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by gold nanoparticles warrants further research to determine in vivo AuNPs application. (35)
• Thrombolytic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana for phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and thrombolytic activities. All extracts showed antioxidant activity. In DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assay, n-hexane extracts showed highest IC50 values of 73.73 µg/ml and 152.73 µg/ml. All extracts showed significant % of clot lysis effect (p<0.001) using streptokinase as positive control. (38)
• Antibiotic Effect / Mastitis Pathogens in Dairy Cattle / Seeds: Oil cakes extracted from cooked and raw seeds and fresh plant juice extract showed strong inhibition of bacterial growth against bacteria (E. coli > S. aureus > S. aglaciatae) isolated from milk of cows infected by mastitis. (39)
• Effect against Lithium-Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana on lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in male albino rats. Severity of status epilepticus was significantly reduced. The extract also exhibited in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities. (40)
• Antifungal / Anticancer / Stems and Leaves: Study evaluated cold aqueous and methanol extracts of A. mexicana stems and leaves for antifungal and anticancer activities. Both extracts of stems and leaves showed strong antifungal activity with inhibition of growth of Mucor indicus, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and Penicillum notatum, comparable to Amphotericin B. The extracts showed cytotoxic effect on A549, SiHa, and KB cell lines similar to berberine. (41)
• Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids: Argemone mexicana accumulates benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, derived from tyrosine. Its antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antimalarial, pesticidal, cytotoxic and neurological properties find various treatment applications. Effects are attributed to the presence of different types of BIAs, such as benzophenanthridines (sanguinarine, chelerythrine), protoberberines (berberine) and protopines (protopine, allocryptopine). The review chemical basis of effects and its relation to the occurrence of different types of alkaloids and its synthesis. (42)
• Prevention of CP-Induced Micronucleus Formation in Bone Marrow Cells / Fruits: Study the dose-dependent preventive effect of A. mexicana fruits extract against cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus formation in Swiss mouse bone marrow cells. (43)
• Antifungal / Alkaloids: Alkaloids dehydrocorydalmine and oxyberberine, isolated from A. mexicana showed antifungal activities against come fungal strains such as Helminthosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Alternaria cajani, Bipolaris sp. and Fusarium udum (Singh et al., 2009) (45)
• Antiurolithiatic: Study evaluated the inhibitory potency of crude methanol extracts of Argemone mexicana, Cissus javana and Garcinia pendunculata on the formation of calcium phosphate and on the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in vitro. Argemone mexicana showed the highest inhibition of CP formation in the urinary medium while G. pendunculata showed highest inhibition in the formation of COM. (46)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of roots of Argemone mexicana using acetic acid induced writhing in mice and hind paw edema in rats. Results showed dose-dependent antinociceptive activity and slight anti-inflammatory activity. Intraperitoneal LD50 of the extract was 368.00 mg. (47)
• Insecticidal / Chrysoperla carnea: Study evaluated the effect of ingestion of plant extract with a base of A. mexicana on biological parameters and parameters of the life table of C. carnea under laboratory conditions. Argemone mexicana slightly affected biological parameters without affecting the intrinsic rate of growth. Mortality increased during susceptible stages of the predator which suggested stage of development would be affected when the predator consumed prey treated with A. mexicana. Results suggest a potential natural alternative management of agricultural pests. (48)
• Diuretic / Laxative / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for diuretic and laxative potential using metabolic cage apparatus and and flame photometer. The extract showed significant diuretic activity at 250 mg/kg dose when compared to standard furosemide. The extract also showed significant increase in fecal output with significant increase in the weight of feces. (49)

- Wild-crafted.

Updated November 2020 / February 2017 /December 2015

                                                     PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Flower of Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana), an introduced weed on Réunion island / :Argemone mexicana 02.jpg / Photo by B. Navez / CC BY-SA 3.0. / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Argemone mexicana Blanco1.187-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A.) / 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Seeds /Argemone mexicana L. - Mexican pricklypoppy ARME4/ Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Argemone mexicana - Prickly Poppy / - K. Edley
Antibacterial potentiality of Argemone mexicana solvent extracts against some pathogenic bacteria / Indranil Bhattacharjee et al /
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz vol.101 no.6 Rio de Janeiro Sept. 2006 / doi: 10.1590/S0074-02762006000600011
Argemone Mexicana Linn. (Ghamoya) : A Weed Having Great Therapeutic Values In Folk Remedies / Sumeet Dwivedi / Pharmainfo.net
Epidemic dropsy following transcutaneous absorption of Argemone mexicana oil / N N Sood, Mahipal Sachdev et al / Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, Volume 79, Issue 4, Pages 510-512 (1985)
In vitro Antibacterial Screening and Toxicity Study of Some Different Medicinal Plants
/ Rajib Ahsan, Monirul Islam et al / World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5(5):617-621,2009
Argemone mexicana decoction versus artesunate-amodiaquine for the management of malaria in Mali: policy and public-health implications / Bertrand Graz, Merlin Willcox et al / Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Different Effects of Some Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Argemone mexicana on Electrically Induced Contractions of Isolated Guinea-pig Ileum / Sonia Piacente, Anna Capasso et al / Phytotherapy Research
Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 155–157, March 1997 / DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199703)11:2<155::AID-PTR48>3.0.CO;2-9
Phytochemical Screening And Toxicity Evaluation On The Leaves of Argemone Mexicana Linn (Papaveraceae) / H A Ibrahim and H Ibrahim / Int. Jor. P. App. Scs., 3(2):39-43, 2009
Anti-Stress and Antiallergic Effect of Argemone Mexicana Stems in Asthma / R D Bhalke and S A Gosavi / Arch Pharm Sci & Res Vol 1 No 1 127 - 129 October 2009
Studies On the Neurotoxicology Of Argemone oil / Almas Siddiqui / Medical Elementology & Toxicology, Faculty of Science, 2002
Argemone mexicana L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Bacteriostatic potential of Argemone mexicana Linn. against enteropathogenic bacteria / Vivek Kempraj and Sumangala K Bhat / Indian Journ of Natural Products and Resources, Vol 1(3), Sept 2010, pp 338-341
Evaluation of Argemone mexicana Linn. Leaves for wound healing activity / G. K. Dash* and P. N. Murthy / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (1): 46-56
Cytotoxic Benzophenanthridine and Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids from Argemone mexicana / Yuh-Chwen Chang, Fang-Rong Chang, Ashraf T. Khalil, Pei-Wen Hsieh, and Yang-Chang Wu* / Z. Naturforsch. 58c, 521Ð526 (2003)
Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of fruits extract of Argemone mexicana Linn. / Rahi Ashish Jain *, R.C. Agarwal, Dayanand Dubey, Rahul Verma, Roshan Jain / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovations, Volume 2, Issue 1, January− February 2012
Neuropharmacological study of Argemone mexicana Linn. / Sneha Anarthe and Sanjay Chaudhari / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2011; 01(04): pp 121-126
Biodiesel production from Argemone mexicana seed oil using crystalline manganese carbonate / Rajeshwer Rao, Pudukulathan Zubaidha, Dasharath Kondhare, Narender Reddy, Sushma Deshmukh / Polish Journal of Chemical Technology. Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 65–70 / DOI: 10.2478/v10026-012-0061-x, April 2012
in-vitro Anti-Cancer activity of Methanolic extract of leaves of Argemone mexicana Linn. / Kiranmayi.Gali*, G. Ramakrishnan, R. Kothai, B. Jaykar / Int.J. PharmTech Res., 2011; 3(3): pp 1329-1333 / ISSN: 0974-4304
Epidemic dropsy following transcutaneous absorption of Argemone mexicana oil. / Sood NN, Sachdev MS, Mohan M, Gupta SK, Sachdev HP. / Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985; 79(4): pp 510-512.
Argemone mexicana L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Pharmacological efficacy of argemone mexicana plant extract, against cysteamine-induced duodenal ulceration in rats / Prabhat K Das, Sujit Pillai, Durga Kar, Debasish Pradhan, Sabuj Sahoo / Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011; Vol 65, Issue 3: pp 92-99 / doi: 10.4103/0019-5359.104788.
Biological evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Argemone mexicana Linn. (Papaveraceae) aqueous leaf extract / SOURABIE T.S., N. OUEDRAOGO, W.R. SAWADOGO, J.B. NIKIEMA, I.P. GUISSOU, and O. G. NACOULMA / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) / Sept 2012; 3(9): pp 451-458 / ISSN: 0975-9492
/ MANJU BHARDWAJ, JOGINDER S. DUHAN, ASHOK KUMAR AND SUREKHA / Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences Paper, Vol 14, Issue 2, 2012; Pp 353-357.
Argemone mexicana Leaf Extract for Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid Solutions
/ Gopal Ji, Sudhish Kumar Shukla, Eno E. Ebenso, Rajiv Prakash* / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8 (2013) 10878 - 10889
In vitro anthelmintic activity of aerial parts of Argemone mexicana Linn / Jaliwala, Y. A.; Panda, P. K.; Neha, Chourasia; Kumar, Bhatt Neeraj; Amit, Pandit; Mohanty, P. K. / Journal of Pharmacy Research; Sept 2011, Vol. 4 Issue 9, p 3173
Invitro Antioxidant Activity of Argemone mexicana Roots / Perumal P*, Sekar V, Rajesh V, Gandhimathi S, Sampathkumar R, Shuja Nazimudin K.H / International Journal of PharmTech Research, IVol.2, No.2, pp 1477-1482, April-June 2010
HYPOGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA L. IN EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODELS / S. P. ROUT *, D. M. KAR, P. K. MANDAL / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 5, 2011
Oviposition altering and ovicidal efficacy of root extracts of Argemone mexicana against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) / Radhika Warikoo and Sarita Kumar / Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2014; 2 (4): 11-17
Cytotoxicity of alkaloids isolated from Argemone mexicana on SW480 human colon cancer cell line / Sarita Singh, Mradul Verma, Meenakshi Malhotra, Satya Prakash & Tryambak Deo Singh* / Pharmaceutical Biology / DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1073334
Immuno Modulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum and Argemone mexicana Leaves in Chicken Model / Puneet Varshney , Sandeep Kumar Dash , Anjana Goel , Ashok Kumar Bhatia / Medicinal Plant Research, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 8 doi: 10.5376/mpr.2013.03.0008
Gold Nanoparticles of Argemone mexicana Induces Oxidative Stress and Inhibits Cell Growth In MCF-7 Cells / Varun S, Sudha S* / International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research
Argemone mexicana-Prickly Poppy / Entheology.com
Medicinal weed Satyanashi (Argemone mexicana Linn) / Common Indian Names / Pankaj Oudhia / Hort.Perdue.com
Phytochemical Screening & in vitro Antioxidant and Thrombolytic Activities of Argemone mexicana Extracts / Ahamed Hasan Al-Baizyd / In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree Bachelor of Pharmacy / July 2012
Antibiotic Effects of Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae) against Field Crops and Pathogens Causing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in three Districts of Amhara Region, Ethiopia / Kefyalew Alemayehu* and Tadesse Desalegn / Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 5(1): 1-9, 2016
Effect of Argemone mexicana (L.) against lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in wistar rats / G Asuntha, Y rasanna Raju, CR Sundaresan, Arun Rasheed, V Harini Chowdary, KR Vandana, K Satish Babu and KVSRG Prasad / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 53, Jan 2015
Antifungal and Anticancer Potential of Argemone mexicana L. / Nilesh V. More, and Arun S. Kharat * / Medicines 2016, 3, 28 / doi:10.3390/medicines3040028
Pharmaceutical applications of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Argemone mexicana L. / Rubio-Pina J, Vazquez-Flota F. / Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13(17): pp 2200-2207.
Kasubhag-aso / T H Pardo de Tavera / The Project Guttenberg Book of the Medicinal Plants of the PHilippines / Tanslator: Jerome Beers Thomas / eBook: 26393
Argemone mexicana: chemical and pharmacological aspects / Goutam Brahmachari, Dlip Gorai, Rajiv Roy / Revosta Brasileira de Farmacognosia, May/June 2013; 23(3) / ISSN: 0102-695X
Comparative Study of the Antiurolithiatic Activity of Plant Hydroalcoholic Extract of Argemone mexicana, Cissus javana DC and Garcinia pendunculata / O Ibopishak Singh, A Bimola Devi / International Journal of Science and Research, May 2016; 5(5): pp 2066-2070
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Studies on the Roots of Argemone mexicana Linn (Family: Papaveraceae) / H A Ibrahim, Mahmud Ali Umar, Bilkisu A Bello, Abdulazeez Aliyu and Abdulazeez Ahmad / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciencesm Nay-June 2016; 11(3) Ver IV: pp 92-95 /eISSN: 2278-3008
Effect by Ingestion of Extracts of Argemone mexicana L. on Biological Parameters and Capability of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) to Increase in a Laboratory / Miguel Aragon Sanchez, Carlos Serratos-Tejeda, Samuel Pineda et al / Southweztern Entomologist, 2020; 45(2): pp405-414 / https://doi.org/10.3958/059.045.0209
Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of aqueous extract of Argemone mexicana leaves in rats / Bairagi Shripad Motilal, Inayat B Pathan, Nema Nitin / Ars Pharmaceutica, 2017; 58)(2): pp 53-58
Phytopharmacognostical Evaluation of Argemone mexicana L. Seeds / Sreya Dutta, Kalyan Hazra, Mruthyumjaya Meda Rao / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2018; 7(6): pp 1507-151

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