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Family Rubiaceae
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser
Huang liang mu

Scientific names Common names
Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. Kaatoan-bangkal (Tag.)
Anthocephalus indicus var. glabrescens H.L.Li Cadamba (Engl.)
Anthocephalus indicus var. macrophyllus Pierre ex Pit. Kadam (Engl.)
Anthocephalus morindifolius Korth. Common bur-flower tree (Engl.)
Nauclea cadamba Roxb. Laran (Engl.)
Nauclea megaphylla S.Moore Leichhardt pine (Engl.)
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser  
Neonauclea megaphylla (S.Moore) S.Moore  
Samana cadamba (Roxb.) Kuntze  
Sarcocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Kurz  
This species has been erroneously called Anthocephals chinensis.
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Bangkal, Kaatoan bangkal.
CHINESE: Huang liang mu.
HINDI: Kadamba, Rudruk-shamba, Bale, Kola-aiyila, Kodavara, Vanji, Kadam, Attutek.
INDONESIAN: Jabon, Laran, Emajang, Kelempajan.
LAOS: Koo-somz, Sako, Mai sa kho.
MALAYSIA: Kelempayan, Laran, Selimpoh.
MYANMAR: Mau-lettan-she, Maukadon, Mau, Yemau.
SANSKRIT: Kadamba.
THAILAND: Krathum, Krathum bok, Takoo.

Gen info
- Neolamarckia cadamba is an evergreen, tropical tree native to South and Southeast Asia.
- The genus name Neolamarckia honors French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

- Since the 1930s, the botanical name of the species has been the subject of taxonomic analysis and debate. The conflicts arising from issues concerning specimens and their origins, and the confusing and conflicting synonyms given to them. (31)
- Etymology: The genus name Neolamarckia derives from Greek anthos and kephalos, referring to the ball-shaped flowering heads. The specific epithet cadamba refers to its place of origin.

• Kaatoan-bangkal is a medium-sized to large tree growing 15 to 45 meters high. Bark is gray, smooth in young trees, rough and longitudinally fissured in old trees. Bole is straight and cylindrical, branchless for up to 25 meters, with small buttresses and a broad crown. Leaves are large, 15 to 50 centimeters long and 8 to 25 centimeters wide, glossy green, opposite, ovate to elliptic, with acute to acuminate apex, loosely arranged, petioled with lanceolate stipules. Flowers are occur in terminal, solitary heads, 3 to 5 centimeters wide. Corolla is funnelform with five lobes. Fruits are united and embedded in a receptacle.

• It is a large tree with a broad crown and straight cylindrical bole. A fully mature tree can reach up to 45 m (148 ft) in height. It is quick growing, with broad spreading branches and grows rapidly in the first 6–8 years. The trunk has a diameter of 100–160 cm, but typically less than that. Leaves are 13–32 cm (5.1–12.6 in) long. Flowering usually begins when the tree is 4–5 years old. Flowers are sweetly fragrant, red to orange in colour, occurring in dense, globular heads of approximately 5.5 cm (2.2 in) diameter. The fruit of N. cadamba occur in small, fleshy capsules packed closely together to form a fleshy yellow-orange infructescence containing approximately 8000 seeds. On maturing, the fruit splits apart, releasing the seeds, which are then dispersed by wind or rain. Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla tube, filaments short, anthers basifixed. Ovary inferior, bi-locular, sometimes 4-locular in the upper part, style exserted and a spindle-shaped stigma. Fruitlets numerous with their upper parts containing 4 hollow or solid structures. Seed trigonal or irregularly shaped. (31)

- Found in primary forests at low and medium altitudes in the Philippines.
- Occasionally planted along roadsides.
- Also occurs in India, China, Australia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea.

- Phytochemical screenings have yielded indole alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, sapogenins, terpenes, steroids, fats and reducing sugars, glycoside, steroids, fats, and flavonoids.
- Isolated principles are glycosidic indole alkaloids; cadambine, 3a-dihydrocadambine, isodihydrocadambine, and two non-glycosidic alkaloids- cadamine and isocadamine.
- Bark yields tannins and an astringent principle.
- Stem bark yielded a pentacyclic triterpenic acid, cadambagenic acid, along with quinovic acid and ß-sitosterol.
- Leaves have yielded cadamine and isocadamine.
- Leaves yielded nine compounds: clethric acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester , mussaendoside T, β-stigmasterol, hederagenin, ursolic acid, clethric acid, 3β,6β,19α,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, mussaendoside I, and cadambine. Compounds 1 and 2 were new triterpenoid glycosides. (2)

- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, and tannins. (see study below) (14)
- Phytochemical screening of methanol and aqueous extracts of roots yielded flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and sugars. The methanol extract yielded alkaloids. (see study below) (8)
- Phenolic, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the leaf methanol extract were 48.0 mg GAE/g DW, 103.3 mg QE/g DW and 106.0 mg CE/g DW, respectively. Values were significantly lower in the fruit methanol extract with 18.0, 15.4, and 47.6, respectively. (see study below) (19)
- Methanolic extract of fruit yielded carbohydrate, phenol, phytosterol, protein and amino acid, terpene and glycoside. (see study below) (20)
- Phytochemical analysis of solvent extract of leaves by GC-MS yielded 26 compounds with major constituents identified as n-hexadecanoic acid (44.88%), hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (17.96%) and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester (11.71%). (21)
- Methanolic extract of bark yielded alkaloids and tannins. (24)
- Proximate analysis of ripe fruit yields approximately 75% moisture, 2% fat, 3% protein, 18% carbohydrate, and 2% total ash. (32)
- Phytochemical screening of different root extracts yielded presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, protein, gum, steroid, tri-terpenoid, saponin, flavonoid, and tannin. (35)
- Hydromethanolic extract of bark yielded alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, and phenols, with absence of protein and amino acids. (see study below) (38)

- Bark considered tonic, bitter, pungent, acrid, astringent, febrifuge, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, antiemetic, wound-healing.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, wound healing, anesthetic, antiseptic, antidiabetic, antihepatotoxic, sedative, antiepileptic, thrombolytic, anthelmintic, wound healing, diuretic, laxative, genoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, immunomodulatory, anti-ulcer, antinociceptive properties.

Parts used
Bark, flowers, leaves.


- Flowers used as vegetable.
- Ripe fruits are reportedly edible. (see constituents: 32)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Decoction of leaves used for ulcers, wounds, and menorrhea.
- Leaves used in treatment of snake bites.
- In the Western Ghats, paste used for treating skin diseases.
- In Ayurveda, plant used in the treatment of fever, anemia, uterine problems, skin diseases, leprosy, and to improve semen quality.
- Bark decoction used for diarrhea, dysentery, colitis. Bark used for skin infections.
- In Bangladesh, leaves used for to control sugar level in diabetics.
- Myth / Ritual: There is belief in various religions that God lives inside the Cadamba tree. It figures in many Indian rituals and mythologies. (•) The tree was closely associated with the life of Lord Krishna (Hindi Deity). The word Kadamba also lends its name to the Kadamba Dynasty (345-525 AD). (31)
Ornamental: Cultivated for ornamental use.
- Forage:
Study showed high forage quality for ruminants and non-ruminants. (see study below) (23)
- Wood:
A lightweight hardwood with poor durability. Pulp used for paper-making. Also, potential for use in wood-based industry: particleboard, medium density board and chipboard manufacturing. (see study below) (29)
- Essential oil:
Scented orange flowers are used in perfumes. Flowers used as raw material for the production of 'attar', which are Indian perfumes with sandalwood base.
- Agroforestry: S
uitable for intercropping. Also suitable for reforestation programmes. (34)
- Others:
Leaves sometimes used as serviettes or plates.

Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves:
(1) Defatted aqueous extract of leaves of N. cadamba showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. (2) Leaf extract showed significant reduction in the number of writhing induced by acetic acid and increased reaction time in hot plate test.
Antipyretic: Various extracts ( cholorform, ethanol, distilled water) showed significant antipyretic activity.
Antifungal: Alcoholic and aqueous fruit extracts showed significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, T. rubrum, Microsporum, Aspergillus niger.
Diuretic / Laxative: Methanol extract of bark of Neolamarckia cadamba exhibited significant diuretic activity. A chloroform extract produced significant laxative property.
Hypolipidemic / Laxative: Study of root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant decreases in total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and lipid peroxides.
Antioxidant: Study showed potent antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increase in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity.
Antimicrobial / Wound Healing: Studies have reported potent antibacterial and antifungal activities against E coli, Micrococcus luteus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, K pneumonia, P. mirabilis, Candida albicans, A. niger, A. flavus among others. Study showed potent wound healing capacity as shown by wound contraction and increased tensile strength.
Triterpenoid Glycosides: Leaves yielded nine compounds: clethric acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester , mussaendoside T, β-stigmasterol, hederagenin, ursolic acid, clethric acid, 3β,6β,19α,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, mussaendoside I, and cadambine. Compounds 1 and 2 were new triterpenoid glycosides. (2)
Antibacterial / Fruits: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of fruits showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (5)
Hypoglycemic / Bark: Study of methanol bark extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice exhibited significant hypoglycemic effects. Phytoanalysis revealed flavonoids, possibly stimulating or possessing an insulin-like effect. (7)
Glucose Lowering / Roots: Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Anthocephalus cadamba in rat models. Results showed significant dose-dependent blood glucose reduction in both normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic rats. (see constituents above) (8)
Sedative / Antiepileptic / Bark: Study evaluated a methanol extract of bark extract in various experimental animal models (pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid, and maximal electroshock-induced seizure) for protective effect against absence and generalized type seizures. Results showed the ACE exhibited sedative and antiepileptic activities. (10)
Genoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of methanol extract of bark showed good genoprotective potential comparable to gallic acid. The extract also showed potent antioxidant activity in all the assays. (12)
Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of a methanolic extract of Neolamarcka cadamba leaf using glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. Results showed statistically significant oral hypoglycemic effect at two of the highest doses—200 and 400 mg extract per kg body weight. (14)
Cytotoxic / Thrombolytic / Anthelmintic / Stem: Study evaluated the cytotoxic, anthelmintic, and thrombolytic activity of methanol extract of stem of Neolamarckia cadamba. On brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extract showed an LC50 of 130.617±0.82 µg/ml, with vincristine sulfate as standard. The extract showed clot lytic activity (39.97±4.67%) compared to streptokinase's (48.82±2.35%). At highest concentration of 10 mg/ml, results showed significant anthelmintic activity compared to standard levamisole. (16)
Alkaloids as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel: Study reports on the inhibition effect of Neolamarckia cadamba crude extract of bark and leaves and pure alkaloid (3b-isodihyd- rocadambine) on mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl medium. Results showed significant reduction of corrosion rate at all concentrations. (17)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Bark: Study of methanol extract of Neolamarckia cadamba bark showed significant analgesic (writhing and tail immersion test in mice), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw edema) and antipyretic (yeast induced pyrexia) activity. The oral acute toxicity study was found higher than 3000 mg/kg. (18)
Antioxidant / Leaves and Fruits: Study evaluated the phytoconstitution and antioxidant properties of leaves and fruits of N. cadamba. Both leaf and fruit extracts exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging and FE2-chelating activities. Antioxidant activity correlated with their phenolic contents. (see constituents above) (19)
Membrane Stabilizing / Anthelmintic / Antioxidant / Fruits: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of fruits for membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic, and antioxidant properties. Extract showed good membrane stabilizing activity inhibiting both hypotonic solution and heat induced hemolysis in comparison to acetylsalicylic standard. Extract showed potent anthelmintic activity on a Pheretima posthuma model, compared to standard drug albendazole. Fruit extract also showed potential antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical scavenging assay. (see constituents above) (20)
Antioxidant / Leaf, Twig, and Calli Extracts: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of natural extracts of leaf and twigs of N. cadamba. The TPC (Total Phenolic Content) was highest in the twigs than leaves and calli extracts. Calli from leaves and internodes are an important source of bioactive compounds with the capability to scavenge diverse free radicals, with potential as therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathogenic cell damages. (22)
Forage Quality Index: Study evaluated the mimosine content and nutritive values of Neolamarckia cadamba and Leucaena leucocephala in comparison to Medicago sativa (alfalfa hay) as forage quality index. L. cadamba had low mimosine content (0.03%). Crude protein was 20.90%. Crude protein, crude fat, gross energy, protein to energy (P/E) ration, organic matter and total ash was higher compared to L. sativa. N. cadamba yielded higher nitrogen free extract, crude fiver and total ash than L. leucocephala. Results clearly indicate N. cadamba has high forage quality, comparable to traditional L. leucocephala and M. sativa as forage for ruminant and non-ruminants. (23)
Antihepatotoxic / Chlorogenic Acid: Chlorogenic acid, isolated from Anthocephalus cadamba, was screened for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride model of hepatic injury. Results showed intraperitoneal administration of chlorogenic acid (isolated from N. cadamba) to mice exhibited hepatoprotective action better than silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was attributed to the antioxidative activity of CGA. (25)
Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloy / Bark Extract: Study investigated an aqueous extract of Neolamarckia cadamba bark as corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in 1 M NaOH solution. Results revealed a mixed type inhibitor, with an inhibition efficiency that increased with concentration. (26)
Antidiabetic / Stem Bark: Study investigated an ethanolic fraction of stem bark for hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. Oral administration of extract showed a significant antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats with no hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. (27)
Silver Nanoparticles: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Neolamarckia cadamba as source of reducing and stabilizing agents. (28)
Raw Material for Wood Based Industry: Study reports on a wood based industry research to use Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) as alternative raw material in down streams production such as particleboard, medium density board and chipboard manufacturing. (29)
Immunomodulatory / IL-2 Induction / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract of N. cadamba leaves in a Wistar albino rat model measuring differential leukocyte count and humoral immune response. Immunomodulating potential was indicated by antibody response in immunized animals. IL-2 as significantly (p<0.01) augmented in Concanavalin A stimulated in vitro splenocytes cultures. Increase in interleukin (IL)-2 expression at gene and protein level suggests application in immune suppressed animals. Results suggest the HAE of leaves has potential as a drug with immuno-stimulant properties. (36)
Antidiarrheal / Flowering Tops: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal property of a hydroalcoholic extract of flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba on experimental animals. Dose of 250-500 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent decrease in number of faecal droppings in castor oil -induced diarrhea in mice. There was also significant (p<0.01) dose-dependent reduction in intestinal fluids accumulation and gastrointestinal transit from 64.59% and 71.19% at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, compared with control and standard drug group at 37.85% and 74.91%, respectively. (37)
Anticancer / Antioxidant / Bark: Study evaluated the antioxidant and anticancer potential of hydro-methanolic bark extract of N. cadamba. Results showed significant (p<0.01) antioxidant efficacy using DPPH free radical scavenging method. Anticancer activity using concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and 80 µg/ml of HM extract against N1S1 rat hepatoma cancerous cell line using sulforhodamine (SRB) assay showed dose dependent decrease in percentage of control cell growth at -37.66 and -34.13 at 40 and 80 µg/ml respectively. LC50, TGI, and GI50 of HM extract were 75.92, 46.73, and 17.46 µg/ml respectively. Results showed antioxidant and anticancer potential of N. cadamba bark. (38)
Immunomodulatory / Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses / Bark: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activities of hydromethanolic extract of N. cadamba bark with reference to humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in Wistar albino rats. Serum antibody titer was measured against Salmonella typhimurium 'O' antigen using indirect ELISA. In vitro cell mediated immune response was done with MTT assay using 5µg/ml CON A with HME concentrations of 20-500 µg/mL. Results showed various doses of HME (125, 250, 500 mg/kbw) caused significant increase in humoral and cell mediated immune responses. (39)
Antinociceptive / Gastroprotective / Flowering Tops: Study evaluated the effect of alcoholic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba in experimental models of pain and ulcer. The crude extract at 500 and 250 mg/kg showed significant reduction in acetic acid induced writhing in mice with maximum effect of 68.02% reduction at 500 mg dose, comparable to standard diclofenac sodium at 79.93%. The extract also showed significant dose dependent inhibition of ulceration induced by both HCl and ethanol. Results suggest both analgesic and gastroprotective activities in mice. (40)
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of flower extract of N. cadamba. Phenolic contents were found higher in the methanol soluble fraction (MESF) with 228.16 GAE/g of sample, while flavonoids were greater in the chloroform soluble fraction (CSF) with 291 QE/g of sample. The MESF showed highest free radical scavenging and α-amylase inhibitory potential with IC50s of 30.52 and 6.26 µg/mL, respectively. Highest reduction of blood sugar was observed with flower extract. NCME at 500 mg/kg resulted in 60.2% (p<0.05) reduction of blood glucose in the diabetic group, comparable with metformin effect (68.4%).  Antioxidant and  α-amylase inhibitory potential were attributed to flower extract rich in phenolics and flavonoid compounds. (41)
Accelerative Wound Healing Effect / Leaves: Study reports on the accelerative effect of aqueous leaf extract of A. cadamba leaves on wound healing in diabetic Sprague Dawley rats with surgically sterile wound. A. cadamba treated group showed significant increase in percentage of wound closure (82%) on day 21 compared to diabetic control group (42%), povidone-iodine treated group (75%). Extract treated group exhibited marked epithelial regeneration, neovascularization, collagen deposition, and fibroblast proliferation along with higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Results suggest topical application of aqueous leaf extract exhibits accelerative wound healing properties in diabetic rats. (42)
Anticancer (HepG2) / Antibacterial (E. coli) / Leaves: Study evaluated solvent-based extract of leaves against liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Solvent extract of chloroform showed better activity in MTT assay and antibacterial screening. Phytoconstituents identified by FTIR and GC-MS were docked with potential targets of liver cancer and E. coli. The phytochemical 1-(5-Hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydropyran-2-yl)-5-methyl-1H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione shows highest docking score against the targets PDGFRA (PDB ID: 6JOL) and Beta-ketoacyl synthase 1(PDB ID: 1FJ4) and their stability was further confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation studies. (43)
Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of Anthocephalus cadamba leaf extracts using Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia method on Wistar rats.. Paracetamol was used as standard. Chloroform, ethanol, and distilled water extracts exhibited significant antipyretic activity within 30 minutes. (44)

- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds and extracts in the cybermarket.

Updated October 2023 / September 2016
August 2012

IMAGE SOURCE:   Cadamba tree - Neolamarckia cadamaba / Dr Raju Kasambe / CC BY-SA 4.0 International / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Common
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Anthocephalus Cadamba / Vinayaraj / CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Neolarmarckia cadamba leaf / Biswarup Ganguly / CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported / image modified / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA (ROXB) : AN OVERVIEW / Rakhi Gautam, Raghuveer Irchhaiya, Ramji Swarnakar / IJPRD, 2011; Vol 4(04): June-2012 (169 - 173) International Standard Serial Number 0974 – 9446
Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis. / Xu XY, Yang XH, Li SZ, Song QS. / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011 Oct;13(11):1008-13. Epub 2011 Oct 10.
Indole Alkaloids from the Leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis / by Hua Zhou, Hong-Ping He, Ning-Chuan Kong, Tie-Jun Wang, and Xiao-Jiang Hao / 2148 Helvetica Chimica Acta – Vol. 91 (2008)
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser / Catalogue of Life, China
Antibacterial Properties of Anthocephalus Cadamba Fruits. / Mr. Ram P Mishra / WebmedCentral AYURVEDIC MEDICINE 2011;2(8):WMC002073
Antimicrobial activity of Anthocephalus cadamba Linn
/ K.S.Chandrashekar, K.S.Prasanna / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2009, 1(1): 268-270
Antimicrobial, Wound Healing and Antioxidant Activities of Anthocephalus Cadamba / Prahalad Umachigi Sanjay, G S Kumar, KN Jayaveera, Kumar DV Kishore, Kumar CK Ashok, and R Dhanapal / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007; 4(4): 481–487.
Sedative and antiepileptic effects of Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. in mice and rats / Pandian Nagakannan, Basavaraj D. Shivasharan, Veeresh P. Veerapur, and Boreddy S. Thippeswamy / Indian J Pharmacol. 2011; 43(6): pp 699–702. / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.89829
Analgesic activity of Anthocephalus cadamba leaf extract / H R. Ambujakshi / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 2, No 8 (2009)
Studies on the genoprotective/antioxidant potential of methanol extract of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq / Madhu Chandel, Satwinderjeet Kaur, and Subodh Kumar / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(19), pp. 4764-4770, 23 September, 2011
Anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract from Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in animal models / Kodangala Subraya Chandrashekar, Borthakur Abinash, Kodangala Subraya Prasanna / International Journ of Plant Biology, Vol 1, No 1, 2010
Evaluation of Neolamarckia Cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser Leaf Extract on Glucose Tolerance in Glucose-Induced Hyperglycemic Mice / Firoz Ahmed,* Shahnaz Rahman, Nasir Ahmed, Maraz Hossain, Anup Biswas, Sanjoy Sarkar, Hasanul Banna, Mst Afsana Khatun, Majeedul H Chowdhury, and Mohammed Rahmatullah / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(1): 79–81
Cadamba: A miraculous tree having enormous pharmacological implications / Alka Dwevedi, Kuldeep Sharma, and Yogesh K Sharma / Pharmacogn Rev. 2015 Jul-Dec; 9(18): 107–113. / doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.162110
Study of Cytotoxic, Thrombolytic and Anthelmintic Activity of Extract of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Leaves /
A. T. M. Mostafa Kamal, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Md. Masud Rana, Azharul Islam, Estekhar Ahmad Khan, Md. Areeful Haque, Anaytulla and Md. Moazzam Hossen Chy / European Journal of Medicinal Plants,10(2): 1-9, 2015
Neolamarckia cadamba alkaloids as eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M HCl media
/ Pandian Bothi Raja, Ahmad Kaleem Qureshi, Afidah Abdul Rahim, Hasnah Osman, Khalijah Awang / Corrosion Science, Volume 69, April 2013, Pages 292–301
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies of Neolamarckia cadamba barks / Sumanta Mondal*, Gouri Kumar Dash, Suman Acharyya. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(6),1133-1136
Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Methanol Extracts of Leaves and Fruits of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) / Deepak Ganjewala, Niharika Tomar & Ashish Kumar Gupta / Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, Volume 3, 2013 - Issue 4
Evaluation of membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic, antioxidant activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Neolamarckia cadamba fruits / Tairin Islam, Abhijit Das, Kumar Bishawjit Shill, Palash Karmakar*, Shafiul Islam / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol.9(5), pp. 151-158 , February 2015 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR2014.5720
Antioxidant Properties of Leaf, Twig and Calli Extracts of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser in Sri Lanka / A.M. DonPaul, S.R. Weerakoon and S. Somaratne / Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2016, Vol 10, Issue 4, Pp 314-319 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2016.314.319
Comparison Of Mimosine Content And Nutritive Values Of Neolamarckia Cadamba And Leucaena Leucocephala With Medicago Sativa As Forage Quality Index / Mohamed Zaky Zayed, Mohamed Abdallah Zaki, Fasihuddin Badruddin Ahmad, Wei-Seng Ho, Shek-Ling Pang / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2014
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Bark Extract of Anthocephalus cadamba / Anjana Rita Xalxo and *R.K. Sharma / World Journal of Biology and Medical Sciences, Volume 3, Issue- 2, 51-55, April to June, 2016
Antihepatotoxic Effects of chlorogenic acid from Anthocephalus cadamba / A. Kapil, I. B. Koul, O. P. Suri / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 9, Issue 3, May 1995 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650090307
Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium Alloy in Alkaline Media by Neolamarkia Cadamba Bark Extract as a Green Inhibitor / Namrata Chaubey, Vinod Kumar Singh, Savita, M. A. Quraishi,* Eno E. Ebenso / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 10 (2015) 504 - 518
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF NEOLAMARCKIA CADAMBA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Sravan Kumar Bussa*, Jyothi Pinnapareddy / International Journal Of Pharmacy&Technology, Vol 2, Issue 2, pp 314-324, June 2010
SERS study of bacteria using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as the SERS substrate / Balaprasad Ankamwar, Ujjal Kumar Sur, and Pulak Das / Anal. Methods, 2016,8, 2335-2340 / DOI: 10.1039/C5AY03014E
Mechanical and Physical Properties of Particle Board Made from Silaned and NaOH Modified Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) Particles / A. Ishak, S. R. A. Karim, H. W. Samsi, / Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 812, pp. 169-174, 2013 / DOI 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.812.169
Neolamarckia cadamba / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Neolamarckia cadamba / Wikipedia
Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Neolamarckia cadamba: A review
/ Arti Pandey, Pradeep Singh Negi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2016; Vol 181: pp 118-135 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.036
Chemical and Phytochemical properties of Fresh and Dry Kadam (Neolamarckia cadamba) Leaves  /  Kajol Batta, Hradesh Rajput / Chemical Science Review and Letters. 2021; 10(39): pp 330-335 / ISSN: 2278-6783 /  DOI: 10.37273/chesci.cs20520-5355
Anthocephalus cadamba / Agroforestree Database
Pharmacognostic Studies on the Root of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. /  Suman Acharyya, Ranjan Padhy, Santosh Kumar Dash / Pharmacognosy Journal, 2018; 10(5): pp 973-978 /
DOI: 10.5530/pj.2018.5.165
Immunomodulatory activity of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser with reference to IL-2 induction / Vishal Khandelwal, Pradeep Kumar Choudhary, Anjana Goel, AK Bhatia, K Gururaj, Saurabh Gupta, SV Singhc/ Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 2018; 17(3): pp 451-459
Antidiarrhoeal property of the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba /  M Ashraful Alam, Raushanara Akter, Nusrat Subhan, M Mostafizur Rahman et al / Rev Bras Farmacogn., 2008; 18(2) / DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2008000200002
/ Vishal Khandelwal, Pradeep Kumar Choudhary /  Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 2020; 8(3) / ISSN: 2320-8694
Immunomodulating potential of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bark extract. / Vishal Khandelwal, Pradeep Kumar Choudhary / Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 2020; 14(1) / Gale Document No: GALEIA674465432
Antinociceptive and gastro-protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the flowering top of Anthocephalus Cadamba Roxb / Nusrat Subhan, Raquibul Hasan, Mokarram Hossain, Raushanara Akter, Muntasir et al / Advances in Traditional Medicine, 2009; 9(4): pp 326-334 / pISSN: 2662-4052 / eISSN: 2662-4060
Antidiabetic activity of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser flower extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats / Shirajum Munira, Luthfun Nesa, Md Siddiqul Islam, Tufael Ahmed et al / International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy, 2020; 6: Article No 33 / DOI: 10.1186/s40816-020-00183-y
Accelerative Wound-Healing Effect of Aqueous Anthocephalus CadambaLeaf Extract in a Diabetic Rat Model / Shoket Ali, Sharmeen Ishteyaque, Madhav N Mugale et al / The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 2021; 22(2) / DOI: 10.1177/15347346211018330
Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (Rubiaceae) extracts: promising prospects for anticancer and antibacterial potential through in vitro and in silico studies / Anamika Mishra, Santosh Kumar Maurya, Anirudh Singh, Hifzur Siddique, Sintu Kumar Samanta, Nidhi Mishra /  Medical Oncology, 2023; 40: Article No 99 / DOI: 10.1007/s12032-023-01971-5
Evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. leaves extracts. / MRM Usman, SR Purushottam, M Abullais, M Usman / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2012; 3(1): pp 825-834

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a Philippine medicinal plant to suggest for inclusion, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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