- There are over 800 genus Ficus in the tropics and subtropics, comprising the fig or mulberry family (Moraceae, with about 40 genera).
- The Plant List of 2013, 919 species of Ficus was listed as accepted names.
In China, 99 species have been reported, 16 endemic and 2 are introduced. In Taiwan 21 species are endemic and 20 are introduced. (3)
- Fruits and leaves of Ficus species are important source of food and medicine in South China. In Nepal, foliage is used as livestock fodder. Many Ficus species have recognized pharmacological properties, i.e., anticancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, etc.(3)
Ficus fiskei is one of the 150 endemic Ficus species in the Philippines. Alas, It is a neglected Ficus species, understudied, underutilized, and undervalued. (2)
Ficus fiskei is native small tree growing to a height of 4 meters. Bark is brown and tough with fine spinulose hairs, arising from minute cones. Leaves are dry, brittle and equilateral, 22 centimeters long and 18 centimeters wide, distichously unequally arranged, with unequal subordinate bases, acute or acuminate apex, sparsely scabrous upper surfaces, with in volute, undulate margins. Yellowish green veins and reticulations are prominent beneath the leaves. Petioles are uniformly short, stout, hispid, acuminate and glabrous, about 8 millimeters long. Synconium is green when young, and yellow-red when ripe. (2)
- Endemic in the Philippines.
- Ethanolic leaf extract yielded alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolics. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) were estimated at 0.019 mg gallic acid equivalent/mL and 0.635 mg quercetin equivalent/mL, respectively. (see study below) (2)
- Dried mature leaves are hard and rough, used for filing (native sandpaper) by the Ifugao in northern Luzon. (2)
- Study has suggest oxidant and prooxidant properties.
- No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Sandpaper: Leaves are used as native sandpaper by the Ifugaos of northern Luzon. (2) Also used for sanding bare wood and scouring pots and pans.
• Prooxidant and Antioxidant Polar Phytoconstituents / Leaves: Study evaluated the phytoconstituents profile, polyphenols, flavonoids and prooxidant/antioxidant capacity of an ethanolic leaf extract. On FRAP assay, the extract showed high reducing capacity on iron ranging from 44-86%. Crude extracts showed inhibitory effect on DPPH radical (IC50=2.2 mg/mL) and nitric oxide radical (IC50>10mg/mL). Conversely, the extract was stimulatory on producing superoxide (SC50-0.786 mg/ML) and hydroxyl (SC50=0.056 mg/ml) radicals. Results suggest F. fiskei acts as antioxidant and prooxidant by modulating production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which are important in neutralizing oxidative stress and maintaining human health. (see constituents above) (2)