HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Apocynaceae
Parameria laevigata (A. Juss.) Moldenke
Jie jia teng

Scientific names Common names
Aegiphila laevigata Juss. Bulau-bulau (P. Bis.) 
Chonemorpha densiflora (Blume) G.Don Dugtong-ahas (Tag.)
Ecdysanthera barbata (Blume) Miq. Gamot-sambali (Tag.)
Ecdysanthera densiflora (Blume) Miq. Ikdig-ñga-purau (Ilk.)
Ecdysanthera glandulifera (Wall. ex G.Don) A.DC. Inggiu-na-puti (Tag.)
Ecdysanthera griffithii Wight Itiban (Tag.)
Echites barbatus (Blume) D.Dietr. Karkarsang (Ig.)
Echites densiflorus Blume Kuni-na-puti (Tag.)
Echites glanduliferus Wall. ex G.Don Lumpiit (Ilk.)
Parameria angustior (Miq.) Boerl. Lupiit (Ilk.)
Parameria barbata (Blume) K.Schum. Ogoi (Ig.)
Parameria glandulifera (Wall. ex G.Don) Benth ex Kurz. Parugtong-ahas (Tag.)
Parameria glandulifera var. philippinensis (Radlk.) Stapf. Pataan (Ilk.)
Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke Patian (Ilk.)
Parameria philippinensis Radlk. Pulang-pulang (Ilk.)
Parameria vulneraria Radlk. Sada (Ig.)
Parsonsia barbata Blume Sadak (Ilk.)
  Sagid (Bis.)
  Sagit (Tag.)
  Tagolauai (Tag.)
  Taguk-taguk (Bis.)
  Tagulauai (P. Bis.)
  Yakdig (Ilk.)
  Cebu balsam (Engl.)
Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Var ang kot.
CHINESE: Jie jia teng, Chang jie zhu.
INDONESIA: Gembor, Ragen, Akar gerip putih, Pegat sih, Kayu rapet.
MALAYSIA: Akar serapat puteh, Akar garip puteh, Akar serau, Kayu rapat.
SPANISH: Balsamo de Cebu.
THAILAND: Khruea khao muak, Khruea suut, Som lom.
VIETNAM: D[oox] tr[oj]ng nam.

Dugtong-ahas is a woody vine. Leaves are oblong or obovate-lanceolate, 7 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, white and clustered. Fruit is very long and slender, 15 to 20 centimeters in length, smooth, very narrowed between seeds. Seeds are about a centimeter long, sharply pointed at one end and crowned on the other end with numerous white hairs about 2.5 centimeters long.

- Common in thickets and open forests at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte, La Union, Bontoc, Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, Zambales, Bulacan, Pampanga, Bataan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Busuanga, Palawan, Panay, and Cebu.
- Also occurs in China, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, and Borneo to the Moluccas.

- The bark contains a caoutchouc, 8.5%, which may be mixed with a resin.
- Study reports the rubber contains 6% of resin.
- Study of bark yielded one new trimeric proanthocyanidin, epicatechin-(2beta-->O-->7, 4beta-->6)-epicatechin-(2beta-->O--->7, 4beta-->8)-epicatechin (5) and two new tetrameric proanthocyanidins, epicatechin-(2beta-->O-->7, 4beta-->8)-[epicatechin-(4beta-->6)]-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin, named as parameritannin A-1 (6), and epicatechin-(2beta-->O-->5, 4beta-->6)-[epicatechin-(2beta-->O-->7, 4beta-->8)]-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin, named as parameritannin A-2 (7), along with the two known dimers, proanthocyanidin A-2 (1) and proanthocyanidin A-6 (2), and two trimers, cinnamtannin B-1 (3) and aesculitannin B (4). (1)

- Cicatrizant.
- Studies have suggested antithrombotic, antiatherosclerotic, anticancer, embryoprotective, antiteratogenic, analgesic properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, twigs, leaves.

- In the Philippines, the tagulauai oil has been long valued as a cicatrizant. To prepare, the bark is macerated in coconut oil and used as vulnerary.
- Pounded twigs and leaves are applied to cuts and lacerations.
- Infusion of leaves taken internally as an emmenagogue, to facilitate menses.
- The bark, macerated in oil is an efficient, also used internally for tuberculosis.
- Decoction of the bark drunk in the Sunds Islands and in Java after childbirth to help shrink the uterus.
- Used for relief of postpartum pain.
- Decoction of the bark also used for dysentery and externally for wounds.
- Referred to as "Aceite de Moros," "Balsamo de Cebu" and "Balsamo de Tagulaway" - prepared by cooking the root-bark and branches of Parameria barbata in coconut oil. The yellowish-white oily liquid is used for skin diseases and wounds.
- In Indonesia, it is an ingredient of a folk medicine called "Jamu" or" Kayu rapet," traditionally used as an anti-ulcer or anti-diarrheal medicine and for treating wounds.

- "Tagulauai" oil is valued as a cicatrizant; to prepare, macerate the bark in coconut oil.
- "Balsamo de Tagulaway" or Balsamo de Cebu is prepared by cooking the root-bark and branches of Parameria barbata in coconut oil to form a yellowish-white oily liquid which is used for skin disease and wounds. (A. Pharm., Nov., 1885.)

- Fiber: Bark fiber used for making rope.

Jamu / Anti-thrombotic / Anti-arteriosclerotic:
P laevigata, one of many components in a study, was shown to have an anti-thrombus effect. (3)
Antiteratogenic Potential: Extracts from the leaf of P. laevigata and yacon tubers (Smallanthus sonchifolius) were studied for antiteratogenic potential using duck embryos. Extracts administered with retinoic acid had antiteratogenic properties. (4)
Parameritannins / Selective Human Cancer Cytotoxins / Anticancer: Study isolated parameritannins A-2 and A-3, new A-type tetrameric proanthocyanidins from the bark of P. laevigata which showed to inhibit eukaryotic topos I, II or both. Parameritannin A-3 induced apoptosis, while parameritannins acted as topo inhibitors. Results suggest a potential for an anti-cancer compound that poisons topos. (7)
• Embryoprotective / Antiteratogenic / Leaves: Study evaluated a hexane fraction of leaves of Parameria laevitgata for possible embryoprotective / antiteratogenic effect using measures of number of live and dead fetuses per litter on pregnant ICR mice (Mus musculus L.) model. Extract treated groups showed high incidence of live fetuses and low incidence of low fetuses per litter. Morphological appearance was normal, with higher mean fetal weight and enhanced degree of ossification. (9)
• Analgesic / Bark: Study evaluated the analgesic effect of kayu rapat bark infusion using heat-induced pain in male mice. Results showed significant analgesic effect with a potency similar to sodium diclofenac. (10)

- Wild-crafted.
- Leaf powder in the cybermarket.

Updated February 2019 / September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo /Apocynaceae : Parameria laevigata / Flowering vine / Copyright © 2013 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL62255] / Non-Commercial Use / click on photo to see source image / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William H Brown / Figure 32/ Parameria barbata (Dugtung ahas) / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Studies on the constituents of bark of Parameria laevigata moldenke / Kamiya K et al / Chem. Pharm. Bull., May 2001; 49(5): pp 551-557 /
PMID: 11383605
Balsa of Cebur or Tagulaway.
Research and Development of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Agents for Age-Related Diseases in Aging Society Search for the Substances to Prevent Thrombosis and Arteriosclerosis from Natural Resources / Journal Code:N20051692 / VOL.;NO.;PAGE.110-112(2003)
Evaluation of the antiteratogenic potential of Parameria laevigata crude leaf and Smallanthus sonchifolius tuber extracts on the duck embryo / ANNABELLE A. HERRERA, SHIELA MAE A. SAN DIEGO / Asia Life Sciences, Vol 18, No 2 (2009)
Parameria laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke / Catalogue of Life, China / 2010
Parameria laevigata (A L Juss.) / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Novel Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors, Parameritannins A-2 and A-3, are Selective Human Cancer Cytotoxins / Chikako Murakami-Nakai, Kohei Kamiya , Toshiko Satake and Isoko Kuriyama / International Journal of Pharmacology, 1: 138-151. / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2005.138.151
Parameria laevigata / Synonyms / The Plant List
An embryoprotective role of Parameria laevigata (A. Juss.) Moldenke in vitamin A teratogenesis in
Mus musculus L.
The Analgetic Effect of Kayu Rapat Bark Infusion (Parameria Laevigata (Juss.) Moldenke) on Male Mice Treated with Thermal Induction /  Imelda Christiana, Endang Evacuasiany, Meilinah Hidayat / Jurnal Medika Planta, 2012

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL