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Family Rutaceae
Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam.
Xi jiao

Scientific names  Common names 
Aralia labordei H.Lév Atangen (Ig.) 
Cranzia aculeata (Sm.) Oken Bugkau, bugkaw (Ig.)
Cranzia asiatica (L.) Kuntze Bukau (Ig.) 
Cranzia nitida Kuntze Dawag (Tag.)
Limonia oligandra Dalzell                     Unresolved Dauag (Tag.)
Paullinia asiatica Linn Guiot, guyot (Ig.) 
Scopolia aculeata Sm. Kaboat (Tagb.) 
Toddalia aculeata Pers. Palina (Bon.) 
Toddalia angustifolia Lam. Subit (Ig.) 
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Orange climber (Engl.)
Toddalia floribunda Wall. Wild orange tree (Engl.) 
Toddalia nitida Lam.  
Toddalia rubricaulis Roem. & Schult.  
Toddalia tonkinensis Guillaumin  
Dauag or Dawag is a shared common name for: (1) Halubagat-baging, Capparis horrida (2) Sapnit, Mezoneurum latisiliquum and (3) Atangen, Toddalia asiatica
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRICAN: Ranklemoentjie.
CHINESE: XIiao jin teng, You po le, Hua mei tiao, San xue fei, Wen dan, Yi lei, Jian xue fei, Huang jiao gen, Xi jiao, Huang jiao gen, Ci mu teng, Huang rou shu, Da jiu jia, Niu ma le, Ji zhao le, Ru shin hu, Fei long zhang xue.
HINDI: Kanj, Jangli mirch.
KANNADA: Kaadumenasu, Inasingi.
SANSKRIT: Sauvarnitvak

Dawag is a rather large, spiny woody vine which is pungent in all its parts and provided with sharp, recurved prickles. Leaves are 3-foliate. Leaflets are stalkless, sessile, ovate-elliptic, obovate or obovate-oblong, 3 to 8 centimeters long, 5 to 25 millimeters wide, and rounded at the base, pointed at the apex. Flowers are small, greenish-white, 5 millimeters across, and borne on terminal cymes or from the upper leaf axils. Fruit is small, nearly spherical, less than 1 centimeter in diameter, borne in fairly large clusters, 3- to 5- grooved, and with as many cells, and orange-red when ripe. Seeds solitary in each cell.

- In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,700 meters, only in Benguet, Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, and Nueva Viscaya Provinces in Luzon; and in Palawan.
- Also reported in India to southern China and Malaya.

- Volatile oil, 0.08% - toddalolactone, citronella, linalool.
- Stem bark - aculeatin; aculeatin hydrate; colorless substance, m.p.239.

- Yields 0.08% oil by steam distillation, largely linalool. Oil has an odor suggesting a mixture of camphor and lemon grass.
- Study of twigs yielded two new geranyloxycoumarins, 7-geranyloxy-5-methoxycoumarin (1) and 8-geranyloxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (2). (9)
- Various extracts of stems yielded sugar, protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, coumarins, and glycoside. (16)
- Stems yielded four new triterpene acids: (1) 2α,3α, 19α-trihydroxy-11-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, (2) 2α,3α, 11α, 19α-tetrahydroxy-urs12-en-28-oic acid, (3) 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-19-oxo-18, 19-seco-urs-11, 13 ( 18)-dien-28-oic acid, and (4) 2α, 3β, 19α-trihydroxyolean-11, 13( 18)-dien-28-olic acid, along with the known compounds euscaphic acid, arjunic acid, toddaculin, toddalolactone and β-sitosterol. (19)
- Preliminary screening of solvent extracts of leaves yielded the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavones, tannins, coumarins, reducing sugars, xanthoproteins, and glycosides. (26)
- Study of essential oil of leaves yielded 42 compounds. The major compound was ß-phellandrene (21.35%). (see study below) (28)
- Leaves yielded major phytoconstituents viz. 2,2,6- Trimethyl- 2H, 5H pyrano (3,2-C) quinolin-5-one; Butylated hydroxytoluene; Cycloheptasiloxane tetradecamethyl; Nerolidyl acetate; Spathulenol; Acetic acid, dodecyl ester; 2-Napthalenemethanol, decahydro alpha; n-Hexadecanoic acid and Dibutyl phthalate.

- Ethanolic extract of roots isolated seven new prenylated coumarins (1-7) and 14 known analogues (8-21). Compounds 1-5, named toddalin A, 3‴-O-demethyltoddalin A, and toddalins B–D, represent an unusual group of phenylpropenoic acid-coupled prenylated coumarins. (see study below) (35)
- Study of stems yielded carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and phenols, phytosterols , glycosides, and coumarins. GC-MS analysis yielded 25 compounds, major compounds were 2,3-diphenyl-4- acetoamidothiophene (39.80 %), 2-(4-Pyridyl)-4-methylquinoline (19.14%) and Pyrido[2,3-b]indole (16.48%). (38)
- Methanolic extract of stem yielded carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, glycosides, tannins, and coumarins. (see study below) (41)
- GC-MS study of essential oil of leaves yielded 45 components. The main constituents were linalool (10.67%), β- sesquiphellandrene (9.86%), spathuleno (8.37) and caryophyllene oxide (6.29%). (see study below) (44)

- Bitter-tasting, minty, warming-natured.
- Activates blood, dissipates contusions.
- Considered antiphlogistic, analgesic.
- Root bark considered antimalarial, antiperiodic, antipyretic, tonic and carminative.

- Volatile oil from the leaves have a pleasant odor resembling verbena of basilicum.
- Studies have shown antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, antiviral, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, repellent, antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, antihyperglycemic properties.

Parts utilized
· Root bark, roots, leaves, fruits.
· May be collected the whole year round.
· Rinse, cut into sections, sun-dry.

· Fruit is edible with a taste between an orange and a lemon.
· In the Philippines, decoction of root used as antidiarrhetic and dynamogenic during convalescence from fevers.
· Infusion of root bark used as bitter stomachic, tonic and febrifuge.
· Leaves chewed for stomach disorders.
· Used for rheumatic arthritis, sprains, contusions, intercostal neuralgia, cough, malaria, dysentery and gastralgia.
· Used for poisonous snakebites, nausea, bronchitis, wounds, contaminated ulcers, epilepsy, gonorrhea and general debility.
· Root bark used as antimalarial, antiperiodic and antipyretic. Fresh root bark, as infusion or fluid extract, used as stimulating tonic and carminative.
· Pounded fresh leaves applied as poultice on furuncles.
· Dosage: 6 to 9 gms dried material in decoction. Pounded fresh leaves or bark may be used as poultices over afflicted areas.
· In East Africa, used most often for stomach problems. Also used for malaria, cough, chest pains, food poisoning and sore throat. (1)
· In India, used in treatment of various ailments: cough, malaria, indigestion, influenza, rheumatic fever cholera, diarrhea, and stomach ailments. (15)
· In East Africa, used in treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions.
· In Siddha herbal medicine, the root of Toddalia asiatica (Milagaranai Ver Chooranam) is used for its antimcrobial properties. (see study below) (
Perfume: Oil used in making low-grade perfume.
· Dye:
Root bark yields a yellow dye.

A new antiplasmodial coumarin was isolated from Toddalia asiatica roots – 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3'-hydroxy-3'methyl-1'butene)-coumarin. The finding supports the traditional use of the plant for treatment of malaria. (2)
More than 200 Chinese medicinal herbs for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus. Results suggest T. asiatica extract can be a candidate for anti-H1Ni virus agent for treatment of influenza. (3)
Antimicrobial activity of the hexane and methanol extracts of collected ethnomedicinal plants: Methanol and hexane extracts of Toddalia asiatica showed antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from the leaves were most active against E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Antimicrobial: In a study of 18 ethnomedicinal plants for antimicrobial activity, T asiatica was one of the six that showed most activity against nine bacterial strains: B subtilis, S aureus, S epidermis, E faecalis, E coli, K pneumonia, P aeruginosa, Ervinia sp,, P vulgaris. (7)
Antibacterial / Chemical Composition:
A. marmelos, T. asiatica and Z. budrunga were hydrolyzed for its essential oils. The essential oils exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa. Todalia asiatica showed strongest activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Results suggest a potential for large scale production and development of a medicinal essential oil industry.
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the crude alklaloids of T asiactica. Furthermore, there was no long-term effects to the liver. (8)
Tumor Selective Cytotoxicity: Study isolated three benzo[c]phenanthridine derivative: DHN (dihydronitidine) NTD (nitidine), and DMN (demthylnitidine). NTD and DHN selectively reduced the growth of murine and human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro. (10)
Larvicidal / Smoke Repellency Effect Against Dengue Vector, A Aegypti: The LC50 of T asiatica was 47.893, 50.992, 54.461 and 61.278 on first to fourth instars. Smoked exposed gravid females hatched a lower percentage of eggs compared to unexposed females. (11)
Antioxidant: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Toddalia asiatica exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. (12)
Larvicidal: Hexane extract of fruits of T. asiatica showed highest larvicidal activity against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Results show TA as a promising larvicide against both targeted mosquitoes. (13)
Ulopterol / Antimicrobial: Study of various extracts of leaves isolated a coumarin, ulopterol, besides Flindersine, a major active antimicrobial principle. Ulopterol showed activity against bacteria viz. S. epidermis, E. aerogenes, S. flexneri, K. pneumonia, E coli and fungi viz. A. flavus, C. krusei and B. cinerea. (15)
Radical Scavenging Activity / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity through inhibition of hydroxyl radical of Toddalia asiatica polysaccharides. Results showed that TA polysaccharides hydroxyl radical scavenging was positively correlated with its concentration. TA is a promising natural source of antioxidants. (17)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study in a mice model showed significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects using the carrageenin-induced paw edema and formalin-induced pain tests, and supports the anecdotal use for painful and inflammatory conditions. (18)
Larvicidal Against Two Mosquito Vectors: Study of various extracts of mature fruits and leaves was studied for bio-control potentiality against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves showed potency against Aa and Cq. Results were promising for T. asiatica as larvicide against both targeted mosquitoes. (20)
Anti-Malarial: An ethyl acetate extract of fruits was active against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falcifarum as well as Plasmodium berghei. Studies suggest the potential of TA for further testing for a prototype antimalarial medicine. (21)
Antibacterial / Antifungal: In a study of various plant extracts, Todavia asiatica stem bark methanol extract showed the highest activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and an ethyl acetate extract against Microsporum gypseum. (22)
Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidant: Study of ethyl acetate extract of leaves showed significant antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Histopathology of pancreas in the treated group showed regeneration of ß-cells. (23)
Larvicidal / Anopheles gambiae: Study evaluated extracts of T. asiactica and Ekebergia capensis for potential larvicidal activity. Extracts showed larvicidal activity. Fractionation isolated several compounds. Sibricin from T. asiatica showed the highest level of larvicidal activity. (24)
Antimicrobial / Roots : Study sought to validate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Milagaranai Ver Chooranam extract against various microorganisms (gram negative and gram positive bacterial activity and antifungal activity against Candida albicans). Results showed the minimum inhibition of growth of all microorganisms at 100 µg/ml concentration, confirming its use as an antimicrobial agent. Activity may be due to the presence of constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, terpenes and phenolic compounds. (27)
Antigenotoxic / Cytotoxic / Antioxidant / Essential Oil / Leaves: Essential oil of leaves of Toddalia asiatica showed DNA protecting activity against H2)2 induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. It showed cytotoxicity against breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HT-29) cancer cells and considerable DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging, iron chelation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Results suggest potential use in food and drug preparation. (see constituents above) (28)
Ulopterol / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study of leaves of T. asiatica yielded the coumarin Ulopterol, and the quinolone alkaloid Findersine. Ulopterol exhibited antimicrobial activity against bacteria ciz. Staphylococcus epidermis Enterbobacter aerogenes, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli and fungi viz. Aspergillus flavus, Candida krusei and Botrytis cinerea. (29)
Antiviral / Influenza type A Virus: Study investigated the antiviral activity of Toddalia asiatica against Influenza virus type A in vitro. Results showed TA compound could be a candidate for anti-H1N1 virus agent in the treatment of influenza. (
Anti-Diarrheal / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-diarrheal effects of an ethanolic extract of leaves of Toddalia asiatica against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rats. Results showed an anti-diarrheal effect with reduction in number of diarrheal stools and reduction in weight and volume of intestinal contents and reduction of intestinal transit. (
Toddaculin / Osteoporosis Benefits: Study showed toddaculin derived from Toddalia asiatica not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NP-kB, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differential factors. Results suggest potential benefits for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. (
Antiplasmodial / Larvicidal / Root Bark: Study of extracts of root bark isolated 8 compounds. The compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D6 (chloroquine sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falcifarum and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti. Coumarins were identified as active compounds. (
Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors / Prenylated Coumarins / Roots: Study of roots yielded seven new prenylated coumarins and 14 known analogues. Compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase-4, the drug target for treatment of asthma and COPD. Compound 8, Toddacoumatone was the most active compound. (see constituents above) (35)
Insecticidal / Repellent / Fruit: Study showed a diethyl ether fruit extract of Toddalia asiatica showed mortality and repellency against three insects viz. Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus oryzae, and Tribolium castaneum adults. Results suggest the fruit extract can be an ecofriendly fumigant and repellent against the three major stored product pests. (36)
Antihyperlipidemic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Toddalia asiatica leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. On DPPH, hydroxyl and NO assays, the leaf extract showed very good scavenging activity. An ethyl acetate extract showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, with significant increased in HDL-C in comparison with hexane and methanol extracts. (37)
• Antinociceptive / Models of Central and Peripheral Pain:
Study evaluated various extracts of T. asiatica for antinociceptive activities in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and hot plate tests. A root bark extract showed greater potency than leaf extract, with highly significant activity (p<0.001) in the hot plate and tail flick tests. (39)
• Analgesic Property / Toxicity:
A crude extract of T. asiatica showed better analgesic effect (28.2±13.16) than acetylsalicylate as control (4±0.31). However, the crude extract induced nephrotoxicity and liver enzymes modulation and elevated total cholesterol in test organisms compared to untreated negative control. (40)
• Antimicrobial / Stems: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of stem for antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms viz. S. aureus, K. pneumonia, E. coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeuriginosa, B. anthracis, and B. subtilis and fungi viz. F. oxysporum, A. flavus, Penicillium sp. and C. albicans. (see constituents above). (41)
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic and PE extracts of leaves for antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats. Results showed increased utilization of glucose by a-amylase inhibition assay suggesting inhibition of digestion and absorption of glucose through the intestine. (42)
• Germicidal / Herbal Antiseptic Detergent: In the background of skin dryness and irritation caused by alcohol-based sanitizers, study evaluated a T. asiatica stem-bark extract formulated into a germicidal herbal antiseptic detergent. Results showed high antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones of 24 mm (S. aureus) and 22 mm (M . gypseum) compared to 22 mm and 14 mm respectively by commercial hand wash. The remarkable potency showed promising potential for use of the non-synthetic germicidal ingredients for formulation of antiseptic ingredients. (43)
• Essential Oil / Fumigant / Repellent / Leaves: Study of essential oil of leaves of Todalia asiatic showed fumigant toxicity and repellency against Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus oryzae, and Tribolium castaneum. (see constituents above) (44)


Last Update February 2017

Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / File:Toddalia asiatica.jpg / Vinayara / 3 March 2013 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Digitally modified image from Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / Wild Food Plants of the Philippines / William H Brown / Figure 36 / Toddalia asiatica / 1920

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa / Orwa J A et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2008, vol. 115, no2, pp. 257-262
A new antiplasmodial coumarin from Toddalia asiatica roots / Oketch-Rabah H A; Mwangi J W; Lisgarten J; Mberu E K / Fitoterapia, Vol 71, Issue 6, December 2000, Pages 636-640 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00222-7 /
Identification of antiviral activity of Toddalia asiatica against influenza type A virus / Lu SY, Qiao YJ, Xiao PG, Tan XH. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Jul;30(13):998-1001.
Antimicrobial activity of the hexane and methanol extracts of collected ethnomedicinal plants
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Toddalia asiatica / V K Saxena, R N Sharma / Fitoterapia Vol 70, Issue 1, 1 February 1999, Pages 64-66 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(98)00002-1,
Chemical compositions and antibacterial activities of essentials oil from the family Rutaceae / International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, Volume 2, Number 4, December 2008 , pp. 158-162(5)
Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India / Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan et al /
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006, 6:35doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-35
A study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica / Hao X Y et al /
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2004 Nov;2(6):450-2.
New geranyloxycoumarins from Toddalia asiatica / Fei Wang et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 8 August 2009 , pages 752 - 756 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020903048975
Tumor-selective cytotoxicity of benzo[c]phenanthridine derivatives from Toddalia asiatica Lam. / Hironori Iwasaki et al / Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, Volume 65, Number 4 / March, 2010 / DOI 10.1007/s00280-009-1077-7
Larvicidal and smoke repellency effect of Toddalia asiatica and Aegle marmelos against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) / Arunachalam Vineetha and Kadarkarai Murugan / Entomological Research, Volume 39 Issue 1, Pages 61 - 65 / DOI 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2008.00193.x
In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity studies on the roots of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae)
/ V Madhavan, Poonam Shah et al / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2010, 5 (5)
Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus / Borah R, Kalita M C, Kar A, Talukdar A / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(16), pp. 2527-2530, 19 April, 2010
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Antimicrobial activity of Ulopterol isolated from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.: a traditional medicinal plant. /
Karunai Raj M, Balachandran C, Duraipandiyan V, Agastian P, Ignacimuthu S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 6;140(1):161-5. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Jan 14.
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE STEM OF Toddalia asiatica.L. var. floribunda
/ Praveena & Suriyavathana / Mintage journal of Pharmaceutical & Medical Sciencesǀ12-14
Study on Determination of Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity of Toddalia Asiatica Polysaccharides by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method / TIAN Chun-Lian. / FOOD SCIENCE, 2013, 34(13): 0-0.
Antinocieptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice / Hellen Nyambura Kariuki, &, Titus Ikusya Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh Patel, Paul Mungai Mbugua / The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;14:133 / doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.14.133.2130
Triterpene Acids from Toddalia asiatica / HUANG Ping, Karagianis Gloria, WEI Shan-xin, WATERMAN Peter / NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, Volume 17, Issue 04, 2005
Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus / Borah R.*, Kalita M. C., Kar A. and Talukdar A. K. / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(16), pp. 2527-2530, 19 April, 2010
Antimalarial and safety evaluation of extracts from Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) / Orwa, J.A., Ngeny, L., Mwikwabe, N.M., Ondicho, J., Jondiko, I.J.O. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 587-590 (2013) / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.034
Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. leaves in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj, Christudas Sunil, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 143, No. 2. (September 2012), pp. 515-523, / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.006
Phytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae / Korir, Erick Kipkoech / Kenyatta University Institutional Repository
Todalia asiatica (L.) Lam / Synonyms / The Plant List
Ethnomedicinal and pharmacognostical studies on leaves of Toddalia asiatica L.
/ Arun V. Patil, Varsha D. Jadhav(Rathod) and Poonam C. Patil / Pelagia Research Library Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2013, 4(4):76-80
Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Siddha Herbal Drug Milagaranai Ver Chooranam (Roots of T. asiatica) / A. Karthikeyan et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 5(3), May-June 2014
Analysis of chemical composition and evaluation of antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. / Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan*, Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar, Murugaiyan Prabhakaran / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S1276-S1279
Antimicrobial activity of Ulopterol isolated from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.: A traditional medicinal plant / M. Karunai Raj, C. Balachandran, V. Duraipandiyan, P. Agastian, S. Ignacimuthu / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012 , 140, 1, pp161-165. / DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.005
GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Components from Methanol Leaf Extract of Toddalia asiatica (L.) / Arun Patil*, Varsha Jadhav (Rathod) / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 29(1), November – December 2014; Article No. 04, Pages: 18-20
Identification of antiviral activity of Toddalia asiatica against influenza type A virus / China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Anti-Diarrheal Activity of Toddalia asiatica in Castor Oil Induced Diarrhea in Rats / Monic Shah, Pradeep Kumar Reddy P, Yerram Raju Behara, Chandra Mouli / International Journal of Research in Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Vol 1(1), 2012, pp 5-9.
Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells / Akio Watanabe , Momochika Kumagai, Takashi Mishima, Junya Ito, Yurika Otoki, Teppei Harada, Tsuyoshi Kato, Mikihiko Yoshida, Misora Suzuki, Izumi Yoshida, Kazuhiro Fujita, Masatoshi Watai, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Teruo Miyazawa / PLoS ONE 10(5): e0127158. / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127158
Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root bark / T NYAHANGA,∗, J ISAAC JONDIKO, L ONYANGO AROT MANGURO,∗ and J ATIENO ORWA / J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 1115–1121
Prenylated Coumarins: Natural Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors from Toddalia asiatica / Ting-Ting Lin , Yi-You Huang , Gui-Hua Tang , Zhong-Bin Cheng , Xin Liu , Hai-Bin Luo *, and Sheng Yin / J. Nat. Prod., 2014, 77 (4), pp 955–962 / DOI: 10.1021/np401040d
Insecticidal and Repellent Activities of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Extracts against Three Major Stored Product Pests / Gopal Nattudurai, Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Kathirvelu Baskar, and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu* / Entomol Ornithol Herpetol 4:148. / doi: 10.4172/2161-0983.1000148
In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. leaves in Triton WR-1339 and high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. / Irudayaraj SS, Sunil C, Duraipandiyan VIgnacimuthu S / Food and chemical toxicology, 60: 2013 Oct, pg 135-40
PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Toddalia asiatica.L Var. Floribunda STEM / PRAVEENA, A AND SURIYAVATHANA, M / Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 6 Issue 4, 2013, 148-151
Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain / Hellen N. Kariuki*, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua / Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 122-129
Safety and Analgesic Properties of Ethanolic Extracts of Toddalia Asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) Used for Central and Peripheral Pain Management Among the East African Ethnic Communities / Andrew Kimang'a, Joseph Gikunju, Daniel Kariuki, and Millicent Ogutu / Ethiop J Health Sci. 2016 January; 26(1): 55–64.
PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Toddalia asiatica.L Var Floribunda / PRAVEENA A AND SURIYAVATHANA M / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 4, 2012
Evaluation of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. leaf extracts for antidiabetic activity / Suman Kumar Mekap, Sabuj Sahoo, Kunja Bihari Satapathy, Sagar Kumar Mishra* / PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS, February 2016; vol. 3 (Issue 1): 115-125.
Design, preparation and evaluation of germicidal Toddalia asiatica herbal antiseptic detergent / Were L. L. Munyendo*, Ambrose K. Kiprop / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 6 (11), pp. 100-104, November, 2016 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2016.601116

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