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Family Sapotaceae
Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard

Scientific names Common names
Achras mammosa Sieber ex A.DC. Sawai (Tag.)
Imbricaria malabarica Poir. Adam's fruit (Engl.)
Kaukenia kauki (L.) Kuntze Caqui (Engl.)
Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard Kauki (Engl.)
Mimusops bojeri A.DC. Wongai plum (Engl.)
Mimusops browniana (A.DC.) Benth. Wongi (Engl.)
Mimusops elengi Bojer  Wongi plum (Engl.)
Mimusops hookeri A.DC.     
Mimusops kauki L.     
Mimusops kauki Bojer     
Mimusops kauki var. browniana A.DC.  
Mimusops manilkara G.Don     
Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
INDIA: Adão.
INDONESIAN: Sawo Kacik, Kayu sawo, Sabo.
JAVA: Sawo kacik, Sawo kecik.
MALAYSIA: Sawah, Sawai, Sawau.
SIDDHA: Palai.
THAI: Lamut sida, Lamut thai.

Gen info
- Manilkara kauki is a plant in the subfamily Sapotoideae, and the tribe Sapoteae of the family Sapotaceae. It is the type species for the genus Manilkara. (2)
- Etymology: Van Rheede suggests that "Manil" was adapted from Portuguese "Manihas Insulas" or "Manilha" referring to Manila, Philippine Islands
and "kara" referring to the Malayan for edible fruits. (Sytematics and biogeography of the pantropical genus Manilkara Adans. (Sapotaceae) (6)
- Trees from the genus yield edible fruit, used wood, and latex.

Manilkara kauki is a medium sized tree growing up to 25 meters high, with a trunk diameter up to 100 centimeters. Bole is low-branched and gnarled. Leaves cluster at the end of twigs, silky white on the underside. Flower buds are ovoid; pedicels curved and long; sepal up to 7 millimeters long with a distinct hairless ovary at the disc. Fruit is ovoid or obovoid, up to 3.7 millimeters long.

Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Borneo, Cambodia, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, New Guinea, Queensland, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Study of methanol and aqueous crude extracts of various parts of of M. kauki (fruits, leaves, seeds, stem barks and woods) yielded total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the range of 10.87 to 176 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents and 14.33 to 821.67 mg QE (quercetin equivalents) per gram of crude extract, respectively. (see study below) (3)
- Seeds yield 16% fatty oil and 1% saponin. (7)
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extract for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, triterpenes/steroids, and tannins. (see study below) (9)

- Root and bark are astringent.
- Study suggested antioxidant , anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, antidiabetic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, fruits, seeds.


- Fruit is edible, raw or cooked; sweet. Used for making syrup.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Various plant parts used for a variety of ailments, from boils to beri-beri. (6)
- Root and bark are astringent; used in infantile diarrhea. Seeds used as febrifuge, anthelmintic, anti-leprotic. Leaves used as poultice for tumors. (7)
- Fruits used for canker sores and thrush.
- Rootstock: Cultivated as rootstock for Manilkara zapota.
- Wood: Used for light and heavy construction; especially for furniture and fine carving. Also for turnery and mills. Used for house posts, bridges, railroad sleeper, telephone poles, flooring. (4)
- Fuelwood: Used to make charcoal.
- Agrofrestry: For reforestation purposes, M. kauki is a useful graft stock for M. zapota. (2)

Antioxidant / Antityrosinase / Stem Bark:
Study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of different parts of M. kauki (fruits, leaves, seeds, stem bark and woods) and fractions of stem barks. Leaves and stem barks exhibited higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities than fruits, seeds, and woods. Ethyl acetate extract of stem bark exhibited highest anti-tyrosinase activity. (3)
Antityrosinase / Stem Bark: Study evaluated five extracts from different parts of M. kauki for tyrosinase inhibitory activity using L-DOPA as substrate. The stem bark exhibited most potent activity (82.41% inhibition), followed by leaves (80.55%), fruits (72.25%), and seeds (11.11%). The wood extract showed no tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Results suggest potential of EA extract of stem bark as excellent source for tyrosinase inhibitors and natural agent in cosmetics as skin whitening agents. (8)
Blood Sugar Reduction in Induced Diabetes / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of Sapodilla leaves extract on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. The leaf extract at dose of 500 mg/kbw from 4th day, dose of 250 mg/kbw from 8th day, and dose of 125 mg/kbw from 12th days was able to reduce blood sugar levels in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. (see constituents above) (9)
Antibacterial / Roots: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sawo kecik roots extract against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using methanol and chloroform extracts. The methanol root extract was effective in slowing down the growth of S. aureus, but was ineffective against E. coli. (10)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated.
- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated May 2024
August 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Wongai Plum (Manilkara kauki): Leaves and fruits / click on image to go to source page / © Andra Farms
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Manilkara kauki / Rumphus (Rumpf) G E : Herbarium amboinense (1741-1750) Vol 3: 1743 /PlantIllustrations.org
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Manilkara kauki - Mini Sapodilla fruit / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / ebay

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Manilkara kauki / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Manilkara kauki / Wikipedia
In vitro antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of Manilkara kauki / Sirinada Srisupap, Chanya Chaicharoenpong / Acta Pharmaceutica, Mar 2020; 71(1): pp 153-162 / DOI: 10.2478/acph-2021-0009 / Corpus ID: 220716714
Manilkara kauki: Caqui / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) micronization of Manilkara kaukibioactive fraction (DLBS2347) / Edward Widjojokusumo, Raymond R Tjandrawinata et al / Journal of CO2 Utilization, Dec 2013; Vol 3-4: pp 30-36 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcou.2013.09.001
Systematics and biogeography of the pantropical genus Manilkara Adans. (Sapotaceae) / Kate Armstrong / Jan 2011
Manilkara kauki / C P Khare / Indian Medicinal Plants, 2007 Edition / DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-70638-2_976

Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard / Sirinada Srisupap, Sutthiduean Chunhakant, Chanya Chaicharoenpoeng / The 6th Burapha University International Conference 2017
Phytochemical Screening And Antidiabetic Test Of Ethanol Extract of Sapodilla Kecik Leaves (Manilkara kauki L. Dubard) on Decreasing Blood Glucose of Diabetic Rats / Novandi Purba, Urip Harahap, Poppy Anjelisa Z Hasibuan / International Journal of Science, Technology & Management, 2023; 4(4): pp 902-908 / DOI: 10.46729/ijstm.v4i4.869 / ISSN: 2722-4015
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SAWO KECIK (Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard) ROOTS EXTRACT / Novida Pratiwi, Rini Retnosari, Sitoresmi Prabaningtyas / Jurnal Biodjati, 2021; 6(1): pp 146-152 / eISSN: 2541-4208 / pISSN: 2548-1606

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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