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Family Violaceae
Viola odorata L.

Xiang jin cai

Scientific names Common names
Viola hirta var. odorata (L.) Fiori Bayoleta (C. Bis.) 
Viola hirta subsp. odorata (L.) Fiori Violeta (Tag., Span.) 
Viola hirta subsp. odorata (L.) Schimp. & Spenn. Common violet (Engl.)
Viola odorata L. English violet (Engl.)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Florist's violet (Engl.)
Viola odorata subsp. odorata (82 synonyms) Garden violet (Engl.)
Viola odorata subsp. stolonifera (J..Rodr.) J.J.Orell & Romo Violet (Engl.)
  Scented violet (Engl.) 
  Sweet violet (Engl.) 
  Wood violet (Engl.) 
Violeta is a shared common name for two species of plants: (1) Kolintang-violeta (Barleria cristata Linn.) and (2) Violeta (Viola odorata Linn.), sweet violet.
Viola odorata is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Banafsaj, Albanafsaj alhelou
CHINESE: Xiang jin cai.
FRENCH: Violette des jardins.
IRAQ: Banafshah.
OTHERS: Banafsha.

Gen info
- Viola is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae, the largest genus in the family, containing over 680 species.
- Viola is one of 25 genera in the family Violaceae. Most genera are monotypic. (37)
- Taxonomy: Viola was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 with 19 species.
- Together with another Viola, V. tricolor (heartease), used medicinally since ancient times.
- Used by the Athenians to "moderate anger." Violet garlands were worn to prevent headaches and dizziness. Heartease was once used in love potions.

• Violeta is a low herb with stout rootstocks. Stems are short or lacking, with slender stolons. Leaves are crowded at the ends of the stems, orbicular to subreniform, 5 to 8 centimeters long, with heart-shaped base, round-tipped, and toothed margins. Flowers are fragrant, 1.5 to 1.8 centimeters. Sepals are green, about 1 cm long. Petals are violet with the throat marked with white spots or lines.

- Introduced.
- Ornamental cultivation as border plants around houses. Thrives best in Baguio and the Benguet area; not well adapted to lower altitudes.

- Plant yields saponins, salicylates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, coumarins.
- The flowers contain a coloring matter and traces of a volatile oil, three acids (one red, another colorless, and a third salicylic acid), and an emetic principle called violin, probably identical with emetine, violaquercitrin, closely related but not identical with, quercitrin or rutin, and sugar. The violin is supposed to be found in all parts of the plant.

- The flowers contain a glucoside
and methyl salicylic ester.
- The seeds contain salicylic acid.
- Roots yield salicylic acid, viola-emetin, a glucoside.
- Leaves yield two crystalline bodies, one glucosidal and the other alkaloidal in character, and a dark green oil.
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 25 compounds representing 92.77% of the oil with
butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)- benzofuranone (12.03%) as the two main components. (17)
- HPTLC analysis of ethyl acetate extract fraction of V. odorata aerial parts yielded esculetin and umbelliferone, which are the most common simple coumarins in nature. (see study below) (43)

- May be toxic in high doses and can cause gastroenteritis/ The adverse effects may be due to high content of saponins in the roots. Aerial parts (leaves and flowers) contain less saponins, but in high doses can be emetic.
- Considered anti-inflammatory, anticancer, demulcent, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, purgative.
- Seeds considered purgative and diuretic.
- Flowers considered diuretic, expectorant, purgative.
- Studies suggested cytotoxic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihypertensive, diuretic, laxative, analgesic, antidyslipidemic, sedative, anti-asthma, antidiarrheal, mosquite repellent, antimalarial, antimetastatic, antimelanogenic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers, roots.

- Young leaves and flower buds, raw or cooked.
- Leaves make a good salad.
- Leaves and flowers for tea.
- Leaves are cooked, added to stews and soups.
- Flowers, both decorative and edible, for salads and deserts.
- In northers Surigao del Sur, infusion of leaves, stems, and flowers drunk three times daily to treat cough and digestive disorders. (38)
- Decoction of root is a strong emetic; in large doses, the roots and seeds can be toxic and can cause gastroenteritis.
- Poultice or compress of fresh leaves for inflammation and pruritic skin diseases.
- Fresh leaves have been used internally and externally in the treatment of cancer. Decoction of leaves, 4 to 5 glasses daily; poultice of leaves externally, infusion of leaves, syrup made from petals, or a liquid extract of fresh leaves used for cancer of the throat and tongue. In other countries, used for breast and lung cancer.
- Fresh leaves prepared as compress for local applications.
- Flowers, used dry, valued as diuretic and expectorant, and as purgative in bilious disorders. Also used as antipyretic and diaphoretic.
- In Sind, flowers used as anodyne.
- Decoction of dried flowers for fever.
- Syrup of the violet is used for cough and hoarseness.
- Seeds are purgative and diuretic.
- Plant poultice also used for headaches, coughs, colds, bronchitis, nervousness and general debility.
- In South Africa, leaves chewed as anticancer.
• Fragrant oil: Essential oil from flowers used in perfumery.
• Pigment: Pigment extract from flowers used for litmus testing strips.
• Makes excellent ground cover.

Cyclotides / Cycloviolacin / Cytotoxic Activity: Study isolated cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 from Viola odorata, Cyclotides belong to the largest family of naturally cyclized proteins with potent cytotoxic activity. Study showed disintegration of cell membranes of exposed human lymphoma cell lines. (3)
Cyclotides / Novel Cytotoxic Agent: Study isolated three naturally occurring macrocyclic peptides (cyclotides) from two violets - V arvensis and V odorata. All three cyclotides exhibited strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activities. With its chemical and biologic stability, they present a potential pharmacologic tool as antitumor agents. (4)
Cyclotides / Antitumor:
Study evaluated the cytotoxic activities of three naturally occurring macrocyclic peptides (cyclotides) – varv A, varv F and cycloviolacin O2 – from two violets, V arvensis and V odorata. With a new mode of action, the cyclotides present a novel pharmacologic tool and potential antitumor agent.
Study showed significant oral antipyretic activity in rabbits with the various extracts of plants, including V odorata. More prominent activity was found in the hexane-soluble portion of the plants tested. (5)
In a study of aqueous extracts of ten medicinal plants tested for antibacterial potential against strains of human pathogenic bacteria, Viola odorata was found to be the most effective antibacterial. (6)
Elemental Composition:
Flowers contained an odorous principle, blue coloring matter and a glucoside. Salicylic acid, a natural aspirin, was found in the plant. Violine, an alkaloid, was found in roots, leaves, flowers and seeds. Elemental analysis showed C, O, An, M.G., Al, Si, Claw, K, Ca, Fe in different parts of the plant. (7)
Anticancer / Chemosensitizing / Cycloviolacin O2:
Cycloviolacin, a cyclotide from Viola odorata has antitumor effects and causes cell death by membrane permeabilization. The study documents several cyclotides with robust cytotoxicity that may be promising chemosensitizing agents against drug resistant breast cancer. (9)
Antihypertensive / Antidyslipidemic / Leaves:
Extract of leaves caused a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. The vasodilator effect of the extract is presumed mediated through multiple pathways like inhibition of Ca++ influx via membranous Ca++ channels, release from intracellular stores and NO-mediated pathways. Extract also exhibited an antidyslipidemic effect possibly through inhibition of synthesis and absorption of lipids and antioxidant activities. (
Diuretic / Laxative / Toxicity Study / Aerial Parts:
Aqueous extract of Viola odorata aerial parts showed significant diuretic activity. Butanolic and aqueous extracts showed good laxative effect in rats. On acute toxicity, no lethal effects were observed within 24 hours at dose level of 2000 mg/kg. (
Antibacterial Activity on Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Study showed Viola odorata extract exhibited antibacterial activity against resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Use in Hypertension and Dyslipidemia:
Study evaluated the use of V. odorata in hypertension and dyslipidemia using in vivo and in vitro assays. Leaves extract yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenolics, coumarins, flavonoids. Results showed a hypotensive effect via a vasodilator effect mediated through multiple pathways like inhibition of Ca++ influx via membranous Ca++ channels, release from intracellular stores and NO-mediated pathways. Plant also showed an antidyslipidemic effect possibly due to inhibition of synthesis and absorption of lipids and antioxidant activities.
Sedative and Pre-Anesthetic Effects / Comparison to Diazepam:
Study evaluated the sedative and pre-anesthetic effects of V. odorata extract compared to diazepam in rats. Results showed Viola odorata exhibited better sedation and pre-anesthetic effects than diazepam, with dose-dependent effects. (15)
Analgesic / Aerial Parts:
Study evaluated the analgesic effect of various extracts of aerial parts. The aqueous and methanolic extracts showed significant dose-dependent analgesic effect in the peripheral and central models of pain (tail immersion and hot plate method). (
Essential Oil / Leaves:
Study evaluating leaf essential oil composition yielded 25 compounds, representing 92.77% of the oil. The two main components were butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalate (30.10%) and 5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (12.03%). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities were evaluated. (
• Use in Bronchial Asthma, Hypertension, and Diarrhea:
Study undertook to validate its folkloric use. Study showed a relaxant effect on spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparation as shown by decrease in magnitude and frequency of contractions. It caused relaxation of K+-induced contractions similar to verapamil, confirming Ca2+ channel blocking activity. It exerted a relaxant effect on phenylephrine and K+-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aortic preparations providing rationale for its folkloric uses in the treatment of diarrhea, asthma, and hypertension. (20)
• Effect of Flower Syrup on Cough of Asthmatic Children / Clinical Trial:
A double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of violet syrup for alleviation of cough in 182 children aged 2 to 12. Results showed the adjuvant used of violet syrup with short-acting ß-agonist can enhance cough suppression in children with intermittent asthma. (22)
• Mosquito Repellency:
Study evaluated 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures for activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, filariasis and encephalitis vector. Culex quinquefasciatus. Oils of Viola odorata exhibited a protection time of 8 h at maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species, Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes. (23)
• Effect in Chronic
Insomnia / Nasal Drops / Violet Oil: A pretest-posttest evaluation of violet oil efficacy in 50 patients with chronic insomnia used two drops of VO consisting of 66 mg in each nostril nightly before sleeping for one month. Results showed improvements in sleep and ISI scores in patients after a month of VO treatment (p<0.05). Study suggests VO can be a safe, well-tolerated and effective herbal preparation for patients with chronic insomnia. (24)
• Antimicrobial Synergism / Polyherbal Formulation: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antifungal activity of a polyherbal formulation of Moringa oleifera, Viola odorata and Allium sativum in specific proportions i.e., PF-1, PF-2, and PF-3, against gram-positive (S. aureus and B subtilis) and gram-negative (S. typhi, E coli) bacteria and fungi (A. niger and C. albicans). The PF-3 formulation showed the significant high zone of inhibition against all the microorganisms. Activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of secondary metabolites in the selected plants. (toxicity study below) (26)
• Acute Toxicity Study of Polyherbal Formulation: Study evaluated the acute oral toxicity of polyherbal formulation in different combinations of Moringa oleifera, Viola odorata, and Allium sativum extract in Wistar albino rats suing OECD guidelines with a test dose limit of 2000 mg/kg. Results reported no behavioral changes, toxic effects or deaths. (31)
• Protective Effect of Viola odorata and V. tricolor on Glucose Deprivation Neurotoxicity: Oxidative stress play a role in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Study evaluated if V. odorata and V. tricolor can protect neurons against serum/glucose deprivation (SGD)-induced cell death in an in-vitro model of ischemia and neurodegeneration. SGD led to significant decrease in cell viability (p<0.001). Pretreatment with the herbal extracts reduced the SGD-induced cytotoxicity. Both extracts at 25 and 50 µg/ml could reverse the increased ROS production (p<0.05). Protection of the neuronal cells was attributed to antioxidant activities. (27)
• Antimalarial: Study evaluates the antimalarial effect of V. odorata by through pLDH method in vitro. Results showed petroleum ether, chloroform. methanol, and aqueous fractions inhibited heme polymerization up to 62, 77, 100, and 53%, respectively. Results suggest potential for the methanol fractions for further antimalarial studies. (28)
• Tumor Growth Inhibition and Antimetastatic / Breast Cancer Model: Study evaluated the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-metastatic properties of V. odorata hydroalcoholic extract in 4T1 breast cancer model in mice. VOE significantly decreased cell viability and inhibited cell proliferation. The VOE at 250 mg/kbw significantly reduced metastatic rate in liver and lungs compared to other doses. (29)
• Immunological / Cytotoxic / Hepatoprotective / Methothrexate Toxicity: Study evaluated the immunological, cytogenetic, and hepatoprotective effect of V. odorata in methothrexate-induced damage. Results showed VO has the ability to enhance immunity and reduced the frequency of micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells, along with hepatoprotective activity. (30)
• Antitumor / Induction of Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme: Study evaluated the antitumor activity of V. odorata and its mechanisms on primary culture of human gliobastoma multiform (GBM). Results showed decrease in survival time of astrocytes from the BGM in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with DNA fragmentation. The induced apoptosis activated the mitochondrial death pathway, released cytochrome C, and activated caspase-3. (32)
• Tyrosinase Inhibition:
Study evaluated various extracts of V. odorata for inhibitory potential against tyrosinase (TYR( and cholinesterase by microplate assays. Only the ethanol extract inhibited TYR (80.23 ± 0.87 % at 100 µg/mL). None of the extracts inhibited
cholinesterases. The extracts were able to scavenging NO radical better than other radicals tested. HPLC analysis of the aqueous extract yielded substantial vitexin (18.81 mg/g), while the ethanol extract yielded rutin and vitexin (1.31 NS 4.65 mg/g, respectively). (33)
• Cyclotide Cycloviolacin O2 / Bactericidal:
Study investigated the antibacterial activity of small cyclic plant proteins, i.e., cyclotides. Prototypic cyclotides, including Möbius kalata B1 and bracelet cycloviolacin O2 (cyO2) were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC. CyO2 was the most active cyclotide and efficiently inhibited growth of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and E. coli. CyO2 also showed bactericidal activity against gram-negative K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa. (34)
• Ionone / Antibacterial Against Respiratory Pathogens / Aerial Parts:
Study for bioactive compounds from aerial parts of V. odorata yielded an ionone-like compound, 3-(2′,4′,6′,6′-tetramethylcyclohexa-1′,4′-dienyl)acrylic acid (1). The compound showed antibacterial efficacy (7.3  ± 0.28 to 9.3 ± 0.28 mm) against selected respiratory bacteria at 6 mg/disc concentration. Hemophilus influenza showed more sensitivity than P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and S. pyogenes. (35)
• Hepatoprotective / Methothrexate Toxicity:
Study evaluated the protective effect of V. odorata against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX in male mice. Results showed hepatoprotective activity as suggested by diminished deterioration of hepatocytes. Activity may be due to membrane stabilization and free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the flavonoid content effect on binding of free radicals and reduction of lipid peroxidation. (36)

Anti-Inflammatory / Pneumoprotective / Formalin-Induced Lung Damage:
Study evaluated  the anti-inflammatory propertiies of aqueous extract of Viola odorata compared to hydrocortisone in formalin-induced lung injury in rats, measuring area of hemorrhage, thickness of alveolar wall, rupture of alveolar septa, and alteration of of epithelial lining of the bronchioles. V. odorata given prophylactically was partially effective in preventing lung damage, equal to hydrocortisone. Results suggest the extract can be used as an alternative and safer agent than hydrocortisone in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the lung. (39)
Safety and Efficacy as Add-On in Treatment of COVID-19 / Clinical Trial:
A randomized parallel-group double-blind controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of sweet violet syrup in alleviating the manifestations of COVID-19 infection in 108 outpatients. The intervention group received violet syrup and the control group received placebo syrup, an add-on to conventional treatment. Manifestations such as dyspnea, cough, myalgia, headache, and diarrhea were evaluated twice daily. Although all symptoms significantly improved in both groups, patients who received violet syrup recovered faster and the mean severity scores of symptoms of cough, myalgia, headache, and diarrhea decreased greater in comparison to control. Results suggest V. odorata effectively controls prevalent COVID-19 manifestations and the violet syrup can be considered as a complementary treatment of viral influenza-like infections in which cough, myalgia, headache and diarrhea are prominent. (40)
Flower Decoction in Chronic Rinosinusitis / Clinical Trial:
Prospective randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of Viola odorata flower decoction against chronic rhinosinusitis in 30 patients. Outcome measures were improvement in sinonasal symptoms, reduction in absolute eosinophil count, and improvement in paranasal sinus xrays. The 22-item sinonasal outcome score (SNOT-22) was significantly low in the test group. Xrays showed no significant difference. Results suggest the flower decoction was effective in reducing symptoms of CRS. (41)
Anti-Melanogenic / B16F10 Murine Melanoma Cells:
Study investigated the anti-melanogenic effect of extract and fractions of  V. odorata in B16F10 cell line. Parameters measured were cell viability, cellular tyrosiinase, melaninn content, and mushroom tyrosinase and ROS production in B15F10 murine melanoma cell line. V. odorata (1-20 µg/ml) decreased all measured parameters. Among all extracts and fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed best effect (p<0.05). Results suggest promising anti-melanogeic activity via inhibition of tyrosinase activity, ROS production, and melanin content. (42)
Coumarins Umbelliferone and Esculetin / Aerial Parts:
Study of ethyl acetate extract of V. odorata aerial parts yielded esculetin and umbelliferone, which are the most common simple coumarins in nature. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin/UMB) has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anticancer, antiepileptic effects, along with cosmetic application as sunscreen agent. (43)

- Wild-crafted.
- Supplements, tea, and dried flowers in the cybermarket.

Updated Decembeer 2023 / March 2019 / October 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Viola odorata / Jacob Sturm, Johann Georg Sturm - Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen (1796) / alterVISTA / Public Domain / Modifications by G Stuart
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Common violet (Violeta odorata) / Bermard DUPONT / CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Violeta odorata / Frank Vincentz / CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Violeta odorata / leaf / Llandrich Anna / CC BY-SA / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Pl@ntNet

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Complete Guide to Medicinal Herbs. Penelope Ody MNIMH. A Dorling Kindersley Publication
Viola odorata - L. / Sweet Violet : Plants For A Future
Mechanism of action of cytotoxic cyclotides: cycloviolacin O2 disrupts lipid membranes. / J Nat Prod. 2007 Apr;70(4):643-7
Cyclotides: A Novel Type of Cytotoxic Agents / Petra Lindholm et al / Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, April 2002; Vol. 1: pp 365–369
Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants / Sahib Gul Khattak et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 14, Issue 1, September 1985, Pages 45-51doi:10.1016/0378-8741(85)90027-3
Antibacterial activity of some Indian medicinal plants / Daljit Singh Arora et al / Journal of Natural Medicines, July 2007; Volume 61, Number 3 / DOI: 10.1007/s11418-007-0137-8
ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF VIOLA ODORATA LINN / Samra Bibi et al / Pak. J. Pl. Sci., 2006; 12(2): pp 141-143
Anticancer and chemosensitizing abilities of cycloviolacin O2 from Viola odorata and psyle cyclotides from psychotria leptothyrsa / Samantha Gerlach, Ramesh Rathinakumar et al / / DOI: 10.1002/bip.21435 / Wiley OnLine Library / Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010
Viola odorata L. (Chinese scientific name) / Catalogue of Life, China
Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract / Hasan S Siddiqi, Malik H Mehmood, Najeeb U Rehman and Anwar H Gilani / Lipids in Health and Disease, 2012; 11:6 / doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-6
Diuretic, Laxative and Toxicity Studies of Viola odorata Aerial Parts / A Vishala et al / Pharmacologyonline, 2009; 1: pp 739-748
Effect of Viola odorata extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce β-lactamase enzyme / Thamer M. Jasim Ph.D., Suhad F. Hatem MSc., Ayad M. Raauf Ph.D., Rawaa Assad MSc. / Mustansiriya Medical Journa,l Vol 11, No 1, June 2012
Studies on the antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic activities of Viola odorata leaves extract / Hasan S Siddiqi, Malik H Mehmood, Najeeb U Rehman, Anwar H Gilani / Lipids in Health and Disease
January 2012, 11:6,
Evaluation of Sedative and Pre-Anesthetic Effects of Viola odorata Linn. Extract Compared With Diazepam in Rats / Alireza Monadi*, Ali Rezaie / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 2 (7) June 2013: 125-131 /
Evaluation of the analgesic activity of Viola odorata aerial parts in rats. / Antil V, Kumar P, Kannappan N, Diwan A, Saini P, Singh S. / J Nat Pharm 2011;2:24-7 / DOI: 10.4103/2229-5119.78493
Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran. / Maryam Akhbari, Hossein Batooli, Fereshteh Jookar Kashi / Natural Product Research, 2012; 26(9) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.558013
Viola odorata / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
A Narrative study about the role of Viola odorata as traditional medicinal plant in management of respiratory problems / Mohaddese Mahboubi, Leila Mohammad Taghizadeh Kashani / Advances in Integrative Medicine, Dec 2018; 5(3): pp 112-118 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aimed.2017.12.003
Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Viola odorata in diarrhea, bronchial asthma and hypertension / Khalid Janbaz, Waseem Ullah, Fatima Saqib, Mamoona Khalid / Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, Oct 2015; 4(10): pp 836-843 / DOI: 10.3329/bjp.v10i4.23889
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF VIOLA ODORATA / Payal Mittal, Vikas Gupta, Manish Goswami, Nishant Thakur and Praveen Bansal / IJP: International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2015; 2(5): pp 215-220
The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial / Mohammad Javad Qasemzadeh, MD; Hosein Sharifi, MD, PhD; Mohammad Hamedanian, MD; Mohammad Gharehbeglou, MD; Mojtaba Heydari, MD, PhD3; Mehdi Sardari, MD, PhD; Meisam Akhlaghdoust, MD; and Mohammad Bagher Minae, PhD / Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2015; 20(4): pp 287-291 / DOI: 10.1177/2156587215584862
Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes.
/ Amer A, Mehlhorn H / Parasitol Res., Sept 2006; 99(4): pp 478-490 / DOI: 10.1007/s00436-006-0184-1
Efficacy of Viola odorata in Treatment of Chronic Insomnia
/ Zohre Feyzabadi, Farhad Jafari, Seyed Hamid Kamali, Hassan Ashayeri, Shapour Badiee Aval, Mohammad Mahdi Esfahani and Omid Sadeghpour / IRCMJ: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 2014; 16(12): e17511 /
DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.17511.
SR: How Does the Sweet Violet (Viola odorata L.) Fight Pathogens and Pests – Cyclotides as a Comprehensive Plant Host Defense System / Blazei Stazak et al / Front. Plant Sci., 11 September 2018 /  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01296
The efficacy of polyherbal formulation of Moringa oleifera, Viola odorata, Allium sativum against microbes- synergistic effect / Meenakshi P Singh , Jagadeesh Singh SD , Rajesh R / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research (IJPBR), 2015; 3(4): pp 6-10
Protective effect of Viola tricolor and Viola odorata extracts on serum/glucose deprivation-induced neurotoxicity: role of reactive oxygen species / Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Behnaz Naghizade et al / Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, June 2016; 6(4): pp 434-441 / DOI: 10.22038/AJP.2016.6327
Antimalarial assessment of Viola odorata L. by heme polymerization inhibition method
/ A Salimi, S Esmaelli, M Hamzeloo-Moghadam, M Irani, and S Mohammadi Motamed / Research Journal of Pharmacognosy, Autumn 2017; 42(4) Supplement
Inhibitory Effect of Viola odorata Extract on Tumor Growth and Metastasis in 4T1 Breast Cancer Model / Hiva Alipanah, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli, Mohammad Ali Esmaeli / IJPR: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Winter 2018; 17(1): pp 276-291 / DOI: 10.22037/IJPR.2018.2149|
Immunological, Cytogenetic and Hepatoprotective Effect of Viola odorata Methanolic Extract on Methotrexate Induced Albino Male Mice / Ruqaya Mohammed Ibrahim /Journal of Biotechnology Research Center, 2017; 11(2 ): pp 47-55
Apoptosis Induced by Viola odorata Extract in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme /  Mansoureh Hashemi, Zeinab Gharaylou, Mohammad Reza Sepand, Shokouh-Sadat Hamedi, Samira Raminfard, Maysam Alimohamadi,  Narjes Sherkatkhamene, Leila Zarepour  and  Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem / Archives of Neuroscience: January 31, 2019; 6(11): e81233
Tyrosinase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Potential and Flavonoid Characterization of L. (Sweet Violet) / Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Fatma Sezer Senol et al / Phytotherapy Research, 2015; 29: pp 1304-1310 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5378
The cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 from Viola odorata has potent bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria  / Maria Pränting, Camilla Lööv, Robert Burman, Ulf Göransson, Dan I. Andersson / Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1 Sept 2010; Vol 65, No 9: pp 1964–1971 / https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq220
A new derivative of ionone from aerial parts of Viola odorata Linn. and its antibacterial role against respiratory pathogens / and  / International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy, 2016; 2:4 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-016-0018-3
Protective role of Viola odorata against hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate in albino male mice / Mayssaa E. Abdalah, Ruqaya M. Al-Ezzy, Zahraa Ahmed Okhti / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res., 2018; 10(11): pp 2775-2782
Viola (plant) / Wikipedia
Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Residents in Northern Surigao del Sur, Philippines / Gemma A Gruyal, Romel del Rosario, Nenita D Palmes / Natural Products Chemistry & Research, 2014; 2(4) /
DOI: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000140
The Effectiveness of Viola odorata in the Prevention and Treatment of Formalin-Induced Lung Damage in the Rat / M H Koochek, M H Pipelzadeh, H Mardani / Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, 2003; 10(2):P pp 95-103 / DOI: 10.1300/J0n02_11
Efficacy and safety of add-on Viola odorata L. in the treatment of COVID-19: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. / Adel Mehraban, Mohammad Sadegh, Meysam Shirzad, Kamalinejad Mohammad et al /  J Ethnopharmacol, 2023; 304: 116058 / Medline ID: covidwho-2159253
Efficacy of Viola odorata flower decoction in chronic rhinosinusitis / Imamuddin Mulla, Mariyam Roqaiya, Mohd Imran Khan / Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences,  2019; 27(3): pp 77-84 /
DOI: 10.5505/ias.2019.08379
Anti-melanogenic activity of Viola odorata different extracts on B16F10 murine melanoma cells /  Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Vahid Reza Askari, Seyed Emami / Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 2017; 20(3): pp 242-249 / DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2017.8350
Detection of Coumarin Derivatives of Viola odorata Cultivated in Iraq / Zainab Aziz, Ibrahim Saleh, Widad MK Alani / Journal of Pharmacy & BioAllied Sciences, 2023; 15(Suppl2): pp 948-951 /
DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_270_23

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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