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Family Boraginaceae

Trompang elepante
Heliotropium indicum Linn.

Da wei yao

Scientific names  Common names
Eliopia riparia Raf. Buntot-leon (Tag., Bik.) 
Eliopia serrata Raf. Higad-higaran (Tag.)
Heliophytum indicum (L.) DC. Hinlalayon (Tag.)
Heliotropium africanum Schumach. & Thonn. Ikog-ikog-sang-kuti (Bis.) 
Heliotropium cordifolium Moench Ikoi-pusa (Sbl.) 
Heliotropium foetidum Salisb. Kabra-kabra (Bis.)
Heliotropium horminifolium Mill. Kambra-kambra (Bis.)
Heliotropium indicum Linn. Kuting-kutingan (Tag.) 
Tiaridium indicum Lehm. Makabra (P. Bis.) 
  Malakudkuran (Tag.) 
  Pengñga-pengñga (Ilk.) 
  Punta elefante (P. Bis.) 
  Trompang elepante (Tag.)
  Trompa ng elepante (Tag.) 
  Indian turnsole (Engl.)
  Erysipelas plant (Engl.)
  Indian heliotrope (Engl.)
  Scorpion weed (Engl.)
Heliotropium indicum L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Hasti-sura.
CHINESE: Da wei yao.
FRENCH: Tournesol indien.
GUJARATI: Hathi-sundhara.
HINDI: Siriyari, Hathajori.
INDONESIA: Buntut tikus, Bandotan lombok, Ekor anjing.
MALAYALAM: Thekkada.
MALAYSIA: Rumput ekor kucing, Jengking kala.
MARATHI: Bhurundi.
NEPALESE: Hatti sunde jhar.
SANSKRIT: Chanchuphala, Shrihastini, Vrscikali.
SPANISH: Bigotitos, Lengua de sapo, Trompa elefante.
TAMIL: Thel, Kodukku.
TELUGU: Nagadanti, Nagadongi, Telukondi.

Trompang elepante is an annual, erect, branched, hirsute plant, 15 to 50 centimeters high. Leaves are opposite or alternate, ovate to oblong-ovate, somewhat hairy, acute or acuminate, base decurrent along the petiole, 3 to 8 centimeters long. Flowers are small, and borne on one side of curved, terminal, or leaf-opposed spikes which are 3 to 8 centimeters long. Calyx is green.
Corolla is pale lavender to nearly white, funnel-shaped, and about 5 millimeters long, with a slender and cylindric tube and the limb 3 to 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Stamens are 5, inserted on the corolla tube. Ovary completely or imperfectly 4-celled, 4 ovules, style terminal or leaf opposed, 3 to 10 centimeters long, flowers all in one side, the lower ones opening first. Fruit id 4 to 5 millimeters long, composed of 2, ovoid, beaked nutlets.

- A common weed in waste places and settled areas throughout the Philippines at low altitudes.
- Pantropic in distribution.

Parts used
· Entire plant.
· May be collected throughout the year.
· Rinse, use fresh.

- Stems and leaves contain tannin and an alkaloidal principle.
- Study isolated a major alkaloid, heliotrine, from the seed of Heliotropium indicum.
- Phytochemical screening yielded phytosterols, alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic compounds.
- Phytochemical screening of various extracts of aerial parts yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and flavonoids.
- Study of n-butanol fraction yielded two compounds viz., pestalamide B (1) and glycinamide, N-(1-oxooctadecyl)glycyl-L-alanylglycyl-L-histidyl (2). (see study below) (34)
- An ethanol leaf extract yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and tannins, saponins, proteins and amino acids, and flavonoids.. (see study below) (35)
- Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of whole plant yielded steroids, alkaloids, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. (see study below) (39)
- GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of leaves yielded squalene (23.84), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (20.14) and phytol (14.38). (46)

· No taste, cooling effect, insecticide-antidermatosis.
· Leaves are emollient and diuretic.
· Drug causes contraction of muscular fibers, mucous membranes and other tissues.

· Studies have suggest antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, diuretic, wound healing, repellent, gastroprotective, immunostimulant, abortifacient and antiimplantation properties.

· In the Philippines, decoction of dried roots used as emmenagogue.
· Few seeds, masticated and eaten, said to be a good stomachic.
· Skin pruritus, scabies: use pounded fresh material (quantity sufficient combine with kerosene applied over the afflicted area.)
· Concentrated decoction may also be used as external wash over afflicted area.
· Decoction of leaves used for washing cuts and sores; also used for the treatment of cholera.
· Decoction of leaves used as pectoral and antiscabious.
· Poultice of pounded leaves or bruised leaves applied to wounds and boils; also, inflamed joints.
· Juice of leaves used for facial acne, gum-boils, sores and wounds.
· Sap of leaves, mixed with salt, used for clearing vision.
· Plant used for ear and skin infections.
· Leaves used for poulticing herpes and rheumatism.
· Decoction of leaves and flowers used as gargle for sore throats and tonsillitis.
· Flowers in small doses are emmenagogue; in large doses, abortive.
· In Mexico, decoction of roots or any plant part used for asthma.
· In Liberia, considered and used as "erysipelas" plant.
· In India, juice of leaves used for treating sores and insect bites.
· Leaf juice given to infants for cough.
· In Costa Rica, leaves are crushed and used as resolvent for abscesses and furuncles.
· In Indo-China, decoction of leaves used for urticaria.
· In Nigeria, used for fevers and ulcers.
· Sino-Annamites used the plant for beri-beri.
· In West Africa, used for vomiting, amenorrhea, high blood pressure; sap applied to gumboils, clean up ulcers and for eye infections.
· In Jamaica, plant decoction used for treatment of fever, sore throat, and venereal diseases.
· In Ghana used to treat systemic and ocular ocular disorders.
· In Sierra Leone , decoction of leaves used for washing new-born babies.
· In Senegal, leaf powder used for dermatitis, eczema, impetigo in children.
· In Indonesia, leaf decoction is used for thrush; poultices used for herpes and rheumatism.
· In Thailand, traditionally used for wound healing.
· In Taiwan, a folk remedy for sore throat and lung diseases.
· In India and Bangladesh, used for treatment of diabetes.
· In Benin, used to treat splenomegaly, hypertension, fever, leucorrhea, candidiasis, dementia, colic, eczema, impetigo, and malaria. (53)

Gastroprotective: Study of the aqueous extracts of dried leaves of Heliotropium indicum showed dose-dependent gastroprotective effects. (1) Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloid, saponins and tannins. A gastroprotective function is through its ability to mobilize endogenous prostaglandins in the gastric mucosa, and may be in part due to tannins and saponin constituents.
Wound Healing: Study of 10% topical application increased the percentage of wound contraction, increased tensile strength and decreased time of healing from rapid epithelization and collagenization. (•)
Ethanolic extract of HI showed to have better wound healing activity than P zeylanicum and A indica. (5)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated various leaf extracts for wound healing activity in rats using excision, incision, and dead space wound models. Results showed significant promotion of wound healing with methanol and aqueous extracts. In the wound infection model (Staph aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity compared to standard nitrofurazone. In the dead space wound model, there was significant increase in granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level in extract treated animals. (13)
Anti-Tumor: Isolated oxide of alkaloid indicine from HI showed significant anti-tumor activity in carcinosarcoma, leukemia, and melanoma tumor systems.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study of H indicum produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and subacute models of inflammation, with activities comparable to acetylsalicylic acid and phenylbutazone respectively.
Anti-Inflammatory: Petroleum and ethanol extracts exhibited considerable anti-inflammatory activity compared with ketorolac trimethamine as standard.
Anti-Tuberculosis: Study of the volatile oil from the aerial parts of HI showed significant antituberculosis activity against M tuberculosis. The major constituents were phytol, e-dodecanol, and ß-linalool. (4)
Anti-Tumor / Indicine N-Oxide: Extract study yielded an active principle, an N-oxide of the alkaloid indicine, which showed significant activity in several experimental tumor systems. (6)
Anti-Proliferative: One of nine Thai medicinal plants studied on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line; all extracts showed IC50 in the potential range for activity against cancer cells.
• Heliotrine / Alkaloid / Seed: A 1982 study reported on the isolation of a major alkaloid from the seeds of Heliotropium indicum. It was found to possess ganglion blocking activity. (8)
Immunostimulant Effect: Dried leaves extract significantly increased in vitro phagocytic index and lymphyocyte viability in all assays, increase in antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice. Results conclude a dose-dependent immunostimulant effect, probably due to the alkaloid content or combination of other components. (10)
Repellent Effect: In a search for insecticides and antifeedants of plant origin against Utetheisa pulchella, H indicum killed 56% of the young larvae but did not affect fifth- and sixth-instar larvae. (12)
Antimicrobial / Phytochemical Screening: Antimicrobial screening of various extracts of aerial parts showed significant zones of inhibition against 70% of the test organisms. Extracts yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and flavonoids while phlobotannins, steroids, coumarin, and cardiac glycosides were absent in all the crude extracts. (15) Aqueous and chloroform extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against seven bacterial and five fungal organisms. The aqueous extract showed more significant activity than the chloroform extract. Maximum zone of inhibition was seen with E. coli among the bacteria, and Ganoderma lucida among the fungal strains. (36)
Analgesic / Stem: Study of hydroalcoholic extract of the stem of H. indicum in a hot plate model showed significant analgesic effect compared to the standard drug Diclofenac. (16)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of H. indicum for antimicrobial activity against four strains each of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and three strains of fungi and two yeast. Results showed dose-dependent antimicrobial activity to all the test organisms. (20)
Immune Function Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunostimulatory activity of H. indicum in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Dried leaves significantly increased the in vitro phagocytic index and lymphocyte viability in all assays. It also showed an increase in antibody titer, carbon clearance, and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice. In conclusion, H. indicum showed dose-dependent immunostimulant effect, which may be attributed to the alkaloid content or combination of components. (21)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of H. indicum. A methanolic extract showed good antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa and mild to moderate antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis and B. megaterium. Extract showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 of 58.30 µg/ml compared to ascorbic acid with 45.74 µg/ml. On brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it showed significant cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 6.607 µg/ml compared to vincristine sulfate with 6.026 µg/ml. (23)
Antifertility / Abortifacient: Study evaluated n-hexane fractions of ethanol extract of H. indicum for antifertility activity in rats using anti-implantation and abortifacient models. Results showed promising abortifacient activity and moderate effects on implantation and sperm motility. (24) (25)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of H. indicum, Senna fistula, and Spigella anthemia using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms. Results showed anthelmintic activity: H. indicum > S. fistula > S. anthelmia. Acetone and ethanol extracts showed the most effective activity. Results validate the use of the plants as worm expellers by the Yorubas tribe of South West Nigeria. (26)
Anti-Diarrheal Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of H. indicum and W. indica using charcoal meal test and castor oil induced diarrhea model in rats. Both plants showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in propulsion of charcoal meal test through the GIT. (27)
Oral and Ocular Safety Profile: Study evaluated the safety profile of sub-chronic oral and ocular use in rodents to provide a predictive basis for human usage. Results showed the extract to be safe for topical ocular application; however, medium term oral use induced subtle kidney, liver, and spleen toxicities. (28)
Analgesic Activity / Safety Assessment: Study evaluated the analgesic and safety assessment of H. indicum using formalin-induced pain model in mice. Morphine and diclofenac sodium were used as reference opioid and NSAID. Results showed analgesic activity and was well tolerated in acute toxicity studies. However, it can have cumulative toxic effects and prolonged and continuous use is not advised. (29)
Antianaphylactic / Antihistaminic / Leaves: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of H. indicum leaves for antianaphylactic activity in rats using active anaphylaxis model. Antihistaminic activity in guinea pigs was studied using histamine-induced bronchospasm. Results showed both antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity attributed to mast cell stabilizing potential, suppression of IgE, and inhibition of release of inflammatory mediators. (30)
Diuretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of chloroform and ethanol extract of leaves. The extracts showed significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increase in total urine volume and urine concentration of Na, K, and Cl. Furosemide was used as standard. (31)
Cytotoxic Effect / HeLa Cell Line / Stem and Leaf: Study evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of H. indicum against human cancer cell line (HeLa). Results showed the methanolic extracts of stem and leaf showed good amount of anticancer activity. The IC50 for both extracts showed to be 200 µg/ml with the stem extract showing excellent activity up to 64.5% at 200 µg. followed by the leaf extract at 49.6% at 200 µg/ml. (32)
Anti-Cataract Potential / Myth or Reality: Study aimed to verify the anti-cataract properties of aqueous whole plant extract of H. indicum. Results showed the extract, at all doses, significantly alleviated selenite-induced cataracts (p≥ 0.001). The extract exhibited activity relevant for scavenging free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Results showed significant inhibition of cataract development in rats via multiple mechanisms. (33)
• Wound Healing Compounds: Study evaluated the wound healing effect of n-butanol fraction in H292-cells. The wound healing effect was attributed to two compounds isolated viz., pestalamide B (1) and glycinamide, N-(1-oxooctadecyl)glycyl-L-alanylglycyl-L-histidyl (2). The wound healing effect compared with the control (p<0.05). (34)
• Antipyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of H. indicum for antipyretic activity in rats using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, the extract significantly reduced the temperature of pyretic rats. The presence of flavonoids may contribute to the antipyretic activity in addition to an analgesic effect. (see constituents above) (35)
• Receptor Activity on Smooth Muscle: Study sought to find the receptors that possible mediate activity of H. indicum to explain the mechanisms of its reported traditional uses. Using isolated guinea-pig ileum, rat jejunum, rat uterus, and rat anococcygeus preparations, the extract caused dose dependent contractions similar to acetylcholine, methylcholine, carbamylcholine, nicotine, histamin and oxytocin on the smooth muscle preparations. Results suggested adrenoreceptor activity and inhibition of synthesis and/or effect of products of COS such as prostaglandin. The receptor activity explains some of its traditional medicinal uses such as relieving abdominal pain, treating hypertension, impotence and sexual weakness. (37)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of H. indicum for in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts showed free radical scavenging activity that may be attributed to contents of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. (38)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of whole plant powder in STZ induced diabetic rats. An alkaloid rich fraction at dose of 750 mg/kbw produced a significant (60%) falls in fasting blood glucose of diabetic rats, with no effect in normal rats. The blood glucose lowering effect was higher than oral hypoglycemic agent, glibenclamide (20 mg/kbw). (see constituents above) (39) Study evaluated the ameliorative effect of aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Results showed attenuation of selected toxicological parameters supported by histological assessment of the liver and kidney of test animals. (42)
• Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study evaluated water and ethanol extracts of H. indicum for cytotoxicity against two types of lung cancer cell lines (A549 and NCI-H226), anti-inflammatory effect and antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract showed cytotoxic activity against NCI-H226 whereas the water extract showed no cytotoxic effect. On anti-inflammatory testing, EE showed most potent inhibitory activity on NO production. For antioxidant activity, the EE showed high antioxidant activity with EC50 28.91 ± 4.26 µg/ml, while the water extract showed no activity (EC50>100 µg/ml). (40)
• Neuroprotective / Transient Global Ischemia: Study evaluated the protective effects of ethanolic extract of whole plant on cerebral ishcemia/reperfusion brain damage in rats induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Pretreatment with HI extract significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, increased total thiol content, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain homogenates. Results showed the plant could significantly reduce infarct size, rescue neural dysfunction, and prevent death of neuron cells from cerebral I/R injury. (41)
• A 5-Month Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the safety of leaves of H. indicum after a 5-month oral administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. LD50 was 9.78 g/kbw for Swiss mice. Prolonged administration of the crude leaf extract is considered safe and nontoxic at doses studied. However, there is a possible negative effect on the testes at higher dose of the extract. (43)
Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of leaves of H. indicum against Indian adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose-dependent paralysis. The methanol extract was more effective than the aqueous extract. (44)
• Antileishmanial / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of Heliotropium indicum and Cordia dentata leaf fractions on human promonocytic cell line U937 and leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (V) panamensis. Results showed HI fractions were more cytotoxic than C. dentata against U937 cell line. Results showed the plant species are rich potential source of molecules useful for treatment of cancer and parasitic diseases. (45)
• Gastroprotective / Indomethacin Induced Ulcers / Leaves: Study evaluated a non-polar (n-hexane) fraction of dried leaves of H. indicum showed dose-dependent gross morphological and histo-gastroprotective effects against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerations in rats. Activity of mucosap protection induced by non-prostanoid compounds may be mediated through mobilization of endogenous prostaglandins in the gastric mucosa. (47)
• Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis: In a study of various solvent fractions of methanol extract of H. indicum, the chloroform fraction showed highest potency in causing induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in normal liver cells. Results suggest the fraction could be useful for studies for drug development for up-regulation of apoptosis in diseases. (48)
• Anti-Glaucoma: Study evaluated the anti-glaucoma potential of an aqueous whole plant extract in experimentally induced glaucoma in rabbits. Pretreatment with extract significantly reduced intraocular pressure (p<0.05-0.001) in acute and chronic glaucoma, preserved glutathione level and glutamate concentration, along with histological evidence of decreased inflammatory infiltration. Results showed ocular hypotensive, antioxidant, and possible neuroprotective effects. (49)
• Membrane Stabilizing Activity / Anti-Inflammatory / Roots and Leaves: Study evaluated various organic soluble extracts of roots and leaves for cell membrane stabilizing activity. A chloroform soluble fraction of roots showed 31.59% and 64.7% inhibition whereas an n-hexane fraction of leaves showed 29.27% and 56.9% inhibition of hemolysis of RBC induced by heat and hypotonic solution, respectively. (50)
• Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids / Antioxidant / Roots: Study isolated a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid, helindicine (1), together with a known lycopsamine (2) from the roots of H. indicum. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate antioxidant activity. by DPPH radical scavenging assay. (51)
• Antidiabetic / Glucose and Lipid Lowering / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic potentials of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. An aqueous leaf extract showed both antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activities, suggested clinical potential in the management of diabetes and associated secondary complications. (52)
• Insecticidal / Leaves: The cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) is a major pest of stored cowpea, militating food security in developing countries. Study evaluated various powders of H. indicum and Lawsonia inermis leaves for insecticidal properties against C. maculatus. Results showed both plants exhibited activity against the pest and offers potential for the development of environmentally friendly phyto-insecticides. (54)
• Antitussive / Leaves: Study evaluated the antitussive activity of H. indicum leaf extract. The plant contains an alkaloidal principle, specifically heliotrine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits the cough reflex by inhibition of acetylcholine to bind at M3 receptors, consequently suppressing smooth muscle contraction. In a study of healthy guinea pigs, the H. indicum leaf extract showed inhibition of cough induced by citric acid. (also read: 8, 9 ) (55)

Toxicity concern
- Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) is found virtually in all plants in the Boraginaceae family. PAs have been shown to cause toxic reactions in humans, primarily veno-occlusive disease, when taken as herbal medicine or with food. It has also believed to cause liver damage. (9)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated July 2018 / May 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Heliotropium indicum Blanco1.184-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Public Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Evaluation of the Histo-Gastroprotective and Antimicrobial Activities of Heliotropium Indicum Linn (Boraginaceae) / Adelaja, Akilolu Abdulazeez et al / Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2008, pp. 22-30
Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali, (West Africa) in the regions Doila, Kolokani and Siby / J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2005; 1: 7. / doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-1-7.
Composition and antituberculosis activity of the volatile oil of Heliotropium indicum Linn. growing in Phitsanulok, Thailand / Flavour and Fragrance Journal Vol 21 Issue 2, Pages 265 - 267 / 10.1002/ffj.1577
Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats / J Suresh Reddy et al /Journal of ethnopharmacology / 2002, vol. 79, no2, pp. 249-251 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00388-9
Indicine-N-oxide: the antitumor principle of Heliotropium indicum / Lloydia. 1976 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):125-8.
Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line / Primchanien Moongkarndi et al / Fitoterapia 75 (2004) 375–377 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2004.01.010
Isolation and Pharmacological Action of Heliotrine, the Major Alkaloid of Heliotropium indicum Seeds
/ Planta Med. Aug 1982 ; 45(8): pp 229-33 /
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-971378
SAFETY ISSUES AFFECTING HERBS: PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS / Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon

Stimulation of Immune Function Activity of the Extract of Heliotropium Indicum Leaves / M Ashoka Shenoy et al / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 7 Number 1
Title: Preliminary study of insecticides and repellents of plant origin for Utetheisa pulchella Linn. / Pandey P N and Chattoraj, A N / Indian Journal of Entomology
Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats / G. K. Dash and P. N. Murthy / ISRN Pharmacol. 2011; 2011: 847980 / doi: 10.5402/2011/847980
Study on the anti-inflammatory activity of Heliotropium indicum / Shalini.S, Rajesh Kaza, Shaik Firoz / JITPS 2010, Vol.1 (1), 43–46
Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on the aerial parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn
/ Shoge Mansurat Oluwatoyin et al / Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (2) :129-136
/Ashutosh Meher et al / IJPRD, 2011; Vol 3(10): December 2011 (1 - 4)
Indian Heliotrope / Indian common names / Flowers of India
Heliotropium indicum / Common names / efloraofindia
Heliotropium indicum / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Studies on the Antimicrobial Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. / P. R. Rao, S. Nammi, A. D. V. Raju / Journal of Natural Remedies, Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2002
Stimulation of Immune Function Activity of the Extract of Heliotropium Indicum Leaves
/ M Ashoka Shenoy, C Shastry, K Sridevi, P Gopkumar / Internet Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 7, Number 1
Heliotropium indicum / Synonyms / The Plant List
Yesmin Begum / The Experiment, 2014, Vol.23 (1)1564-1569
A Review on Heliotropium Indicum L. (Boraginaceae). / Dash KG, Abdullah SM. / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2013; 4(4):1253- 1258.
Pharmacological Activities of Indian Heliotrope (Heliotropium Indicum L.): A Review
/ Anupam Roy / Pharmacological Activities of Indian Heliotrope (Heliotropium Indicum L.): A Review
In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria / Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi, A.O. Tom Ashafa / Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, Vol 10, No 2 (2015)
Evaluation of Anti-diarrhoeal effect of Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae) and Waltheria indica L. (Sterculiaceae) leaves in rats / Vadivel Siva, Navis Jeyaraj Maria Francis Jeffrey Bose, and Palanichamy Mehalingam∗ / sciencesconf.org:botatropasia:76423
Oral and Ocular Safety Profile of Whole Plant Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Rodents / Samuel Kyei, George Asumeng Koffuor, Paul Ramkissoon and Du-Bois Asante / Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9: 321-330. / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2015.321.330
Analgesic Activity and Safety Assessment of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae) in Rodents
/ Alex Boye, George Koffuor, Patrick Amoateng, Abaitey AK / International Journal of Pharmacology, February 2012; 8(2): pp 91-100
Antianaphylactic Activity of Heliotropium indicum Leaves / M Shenoy Ashoka, C. Shastry Shashidhar / IJRAP 2011, 2 (3): 999-1002
Physio-Phytochemical Screening and Diuretic Activity of Leaves of Heliotropium indicum / Meera R, Devi P / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2009
/ V. Sivajothi, Shruthi S. D, R. Jasmin Sajini / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 7, Issue 6, 2015
The Claim of Anti-Cataract Potential of Heliotropium indicum: A Myth or Reality? / Samuel Kyei, George Asumeng Koffuor, Paul Ramkissoon, Clement Afari, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah / Ophthalmology and Therapy, December 2015; Volume 4, Issue 2: pp 115–128
Isolation of wound healing compounds from Heliotropium indicum / Dodehe Yeo, Barthélémy Attioua, Christine Lehalle, Metowogo Kossi , Jean David N’guessan, Allico Joseph Djaman, Annelise Lobstein and Nelly Frossard / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2011; 01(10): pp 102-106
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIPYRETIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM L. / Mrinmoy Basak*, Biplab Kr. Dey / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 4 (2): pp 6 –10
Antimicrobial activity and Phytochemical screening of the medicinal plant Heliotropium indicum L
. / P. Bharathajothi, C. T. Bhaaskaran, P. Menaka, S. Tamilselvi / Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 2015; Vol 5, No 2
Investigating the Site of Action of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum Linn (Boraginaceae) on Smooth Muscles / George Asumeng Koffuor, Alex Boye, Patrick Amoateng, Elvis O Ameyaw, and Alfred K Abaitey / Research Journal of Pharmacology,  2012; Vol 6, Issue 1: pp 12-19 / DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.12.19
In vitro studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn.
/ Dr. Jayachitra J and Bharathi M / Int. J. of Res. in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2016; 5(2): pp 108-114
Cytotoxic, Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Heliotropium indicum Extracts / Chunthorng-Orn J, Dechayont B, Phuaklee P, Prajuabjinda O, Juckmeta T, Itharat A / J Med Assoc Thai, 2016; 99 (7):102
Neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Heliotropium indicum against transient global ischemia induced brain damage in rats / Dasarapu Santhosha, Alluri Ramesh, Emandi Hemalatha, Malothu Nagulu / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), Sept-Oct 2016; Vol 11, Issue 5, Ver III: pp 6-11 / DOI: 10.9790/3008-1105030611
Aqueous Leaf Extract of Heliotropium indicum Ameliorates Hyperglycemia-Induced Tissue Complications in Albino Rats / Rasheed Bolaji Ibrahim, Jubril Olayinka Akolade, Abdulhakeem Olarewaju Sulyman, Saheed Sabiu, Babalola Ola Yusuf, Lateefah Badrudeen Yusuf / Iranian Journal of Toxicoloty, 2018; 12(1): pp 19-26
A 5-month toxicity study of the ethanol extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum in Sprague Dawley rats after oral administration. / Owolabi MA, Oribayo OO, Ukpo GE, Mbaka GOO, Akindehin OE / Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, July 2015; 25(3): pp 184-192
Evaluation of in-vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. leaves in Indian adult earthworm / Kabita Mahato, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti, Sudarshana Borah, Mritunjay Kumar / Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2014; 4(Suppl 1): S259-S262 / doi: 10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60451-5
PNAI-30: In vitro ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY OF Heliotropium indicum LINN AND Cordia dentata POIR FRACTIONS / Gomez Estrada, Mercado Camargo J, Cervantes-Ceballos L, Jiminez-Villalobos T, Robledo Restrepo / J Pharm Pharmacogn Res, 2015; 3(suppl 1): S122, 2015
GC-MS Determination Of Bioactive Constituents Of Heliotropium indicum Leaf / R. Meenatchi Ammal and G. Viji Stella Bai / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies (2013); Vol 1, Issue 6, Part A: pp 30-33
Gastroprotective Activities of the n-Hexane Fraction of Heliotropium indicum on Gastric Ulceration
/ M.D. Ayoola, A. A. Akinlolu, S. Adeboga and J.O. Otulana / Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, June, 2016; 24(1): pp 7-13 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njbas.v24i1.2
Induction of Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis by Solvent Fractions of Methanol Extract of Heliotropium indicum in Rat Liver Cells / Adeola O. Olowofolahan, Yemisi D. Adeoye and Olufunso O. Olorunsogo / Annual Research & Review in Biology, Vol 17, Issue 2 / DOI : 10.9734/ARRB/2017/36334
Anti-glaucoma potential of Heliotropium indicum Linn in experimentally-induced glaucoma / Samuel Kyei, George Asumeng Koffuor, Paul Ramkissoon, and Osei Owusu-Afriyie / Eye and Vision, 2015; 2:16 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s40662-015-0027-1
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity through Assaying the Stability of Erythrocytes’ Membrane by Different Organic Extracts of Heliotropium Indicum (Boraginacea) / Md. Hamiduzzaman, Farjahan Nur and Mazharul Islam Bhuiyan / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2017; 7(2): pp 74-78
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum / João Sammy N. Souza; Luciana L. Machado; Otília D. L. Pessoa; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Cassia R. Overk; Ping Yao; Geoffrey A. Corde; Telma L. G. Lemos / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.16 no.6b São Paulo Nov./Dec. 2005 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532005000800019 
Glucose and Lipid Lowering Potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats / Rasheed Bolaji IBRAHIM, Jubril Olayinka AKOLADE, Raliat Abimbola ALADODO, Omoaruemike Ebele OKEREKE, Sarah Abimbola AKANDE / Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2016; Vol 8, No 4. / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nsb849850
In vitro antiplasmodial activity of plants used in Benin in traditional medicine to treat malaria / Joanne Beroa, Habib Ganfona, Marie-Caroline Jonville, Michel Frédérich, Fernand Gbaguidi, Patrick DeMol, Mansourou Moudachirou, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 122 (2009) 439–444
Oviposition, Infestation Deterrent Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Heliotropium indicu and  Lawsonia inermis Against Callosobruchus maculatusFabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Cowpea Seeds  / Adeolu Rufus Jose, Jacobs Mobolade Adesina / International Journal of Molecular Zoology, 2014; Vol 4, No 1 /  doi: 10.5376/ijmz.2014.04.0001 
The Antitussive Effect of formulated Syrup from Trompang Elepante (heliotropium indicum linn.) Leaf extract in Citric Acid Cough-Induced Guinea Pigs / Donnah D Nahial, Rocel Joy C Obra, Jennifer Gwen L Santiago, Emily R Vasquez / Root Gatherers, 2012; Vol 3, No 1

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