HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Bignoniaceae

Dolichandrone spathacea (Linn. f.) K. Schum.

Scientific names Common names
Bignonia longissima Lour. Pata (Ilk.)
Bignonia spathacea Linn. f. Tañgas (Tagb.)
Dolichandrone longissima (Lour.) K.Schum. Tanhas (C. Bis.)
Dolichandrone rheedii Seem. Tanghas (P. Bis.)
Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) K.Schum. Tewi (Mbo.)
Pongelia longiflora Raf. Tiwi (Tag., Bik., C. Bis .)
Spathodea diepenhorstii Miq. Tua (Tag.)
Spathodea grandiflora Zipp. ex Span. Tui (Tag.)
Spathodea longiflora P. Beauv. Mangrove trumpet tree (Engl.)
Spathodea loureiroana DC. Singapore mangrove (Engl.)
Spathodea luzonica Blanco  
Spathodea rheedei Spreng.  
Spathodea rostrata Span.  
Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) K.Schum. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Kelaju, Toi, Towi, Tuih, Tui, Tuwi.
FRENCH: Bignone de Malaysie.
MALAY: Kaju, Kaju pelok, Kaju pelumping, Poko kulo.
MALAYALAM: Neerpongilium.
MARATHI: Samudrashingi.
RUSSIAN: Bignoniia dlinneyshaia.
SINHALESE: Diya danga
SRI LANKAN: Diyadanga, Diya daga.
TAMIL: Kaliyacca, Mankulanchi, Pannir, Vilpadri.
THAI: Khaena, Khaepa.

Gen info
- Dolichandrone spathacea is a species of plant in the family Bignoniaceae.
- Etymology: The scientific name derives from the Greek words dolichos meaning "long," and andron meaning "male
" and referring to the long stamens of the flowers, and spathe meaning "broad leaf blade." (7) The species epithet spathacea derives from Latin meaning "spathe-bearing."

Tiwi is a smooth tree, growing 5 to 15 meters high. Leaves are opposite, 30 to 40 centimeters long, pinnately compound with seven to nine leaflets. Leaflets are ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic, 7 to 15 centimeters long, unequal at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are borne on short, terminal, few-flowered racemes. Calyx is 4 to 5 centimeters long, spathelike, and split down one side to the base. Corolla is white, with a rather slender, cylindrical tube 9 to 11 centimeters long, becoming funnel-shaped or bell-shaped above, 5 to 7 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is a capsule, somewhat cylindrical or slightly compressed, 30 to 40 centimeters long, 2 to 2.5 centimeters thick, with numerous, rectangular, winged seeds.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Along the seashore and tidal streams from La Union to Palawan, Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.

- Also native to Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam. (5)

- Phytochemical screening yielded triterpene and saponin compounds.
- Study of methanolic extract of leaves yielded five new compounds three iridoid glycosides (1-3) and two triterpenoid saponins (4,5), along with 32 known compounds. The new iridoids were esterified derivatives of 6-ajugol and 6-catalpol, and the new saponins were glucosides of two polyhydroxy triterpenes with ursan skeleton. (see study below) (6)
- Study of methanol extract of leaves yielded 16 iridoids, 3 saponins, 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, 4 flavonoid glycosides, 3 monoterpenic acids, 5 phenolic acids and 1 megastigman glucoside. (see study below) (8)
- Study of leaves and bark isolated two new cycloartanes, named dolichandrone A (1) and dolichandrone B (2), as well as two new iridoids, named [6-O-[(E)-4-methoxycinnamoyl]-1β-hydroxy-dihydrocatalpolgenin (3) and 6-O-[(E)-4-methoxy-cinnamoyl]-1α-hydroxy-dihydrocatalpolgenin (4), together with four known iridoids (5–8). (see study below) (12)
- Phytochemical screening of flower extracts yielded alkaloids, amino-acids, carbohydrates, starch, reducing sugars, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. (see study below) (14)

- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antioxidant, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, cytotoxicity, antidiabetic, α-glucosidase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves, seeds.

• The flower is edible; used in Thai cuisine, known as Dok Khae Thale or Dok Khae Pa. (10)
• In the Philippines, poultice of fresh leaves and bark is applied against flatulence to women after childbirth.
• Seeds are powdered, and taken for nervous complaints.
• In Java, leaves are used for making mouthwash for thrush.
• Leaves and bark used for bronchitis and gastrointestinal diseases.
• Leaf decoction used for various infections of the mouth.
• Also, has a reputation as abortifacient.
• In Palau, for yaws (frambesia), bark is squeezed together with young stem and flower stalk of Croton sp., and the sap is poured in heated coconut oil; when cooled, applied to affected part of the body.
• Leaves and roots used for liver detoxification. In India, seeds mixed with ginger used to treat pain caused by muscle spasms. Leaves used for asthma. Root bark used for body detoxification. (15)
Fish poison: The bark used as fish poison. Some reports that a decoction of bark in dogs have no ill effects.

• Betel substitute: Leaves and fruits can be used as betel leaf substitutes. (7)
• Wood: Used for making wooden shoes, toys, matchsticks, fishing net floats. (7)
• Fuel: Wood used as fuelwood.

Antibacterial / Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Stems and Leaves:
Study of methanol extracts of stems and leaf showed inhibitory activity against MRSA clinical isolates. Stem extracts showed better inhibitory activity which was attributed to triterpene and saponin compounds. (2)
Antioxidant: In a study of 52 traditionally used Thai medicinal plants, Dolichandrone spathacea leaves was one of six plant species that showed effective DPPH radical scavenging activity. (4)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of leaves yielded five new compounds three iridoid glycosides (1-3) and two triterpenoid saponins (4,5), along with 32 known compounds. In this study, th major compounds, verbascoside and p-methoxycinnamic acid, showed strong antibacterial activity; the 6-O-esterified iridoids showed weaker antibacterial activity. (see constituents above) (6)

• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated compounds against 22 microorganisms. Results showed several new natural compounds with interesting level of antimicrobial activity with lowest MIC of 31.2 µg/ml, and mixtures of compounds showing synergy. (see constituents above) (8)
• Dolichandrone B / Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Line / Leave and Bark: Study of leaves and bark yielded two new cycloartanes, dolichandrone A (1) and B (2), along with two new iridoids, [6-O-[(E)-4methoxycinnamoyl]-1ß-hydroxy-dihydrocatapolgenin (3) and 6-O-[(E)-4-methoxycinnamoyl]-1a-hydroxy-dihydrocatapogenin (4), together with four known iridooids (5-8). Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 7 were tested for in vivo cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines. Compound 2, dolichandrone B, showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against KB cell line with IC50 of 18.77 µM. (9)
• Xanthine Oxidase Enzyme Inhibition / Leaves: Xanthine oxidase is pivotal in the development of hyperuricemia, contributing to excessive production of uric acid during purine metabolism in the liver. Study showed the leaf extract of D. spathacea inhibited XO in ethyl acetate and butanol fractions at concentration of 100 µg/mL, at 78.57% (IC50 55.93 µg/ml) and 69.43% (IC50 70.17 µg/ml), respectively. Of the main leaf extract constituents, six compounds, namely trans-4-methoxycinnamic acid (3), trans-3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (4), p-coumaric acid (5), martynoside (6), 6-O-(p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl)-ajugol (7), and scolymoside (17), were identified as potent XO inhibitors with IC50s ranging from 19.34 µM to 64.50 µM. Compounds 3-5, 7, and 17 exhibited competitive inhibition like allopurinol, while compound 6 showed mixed-type inhibition. Study suggests D. spathaceae possess potential for modulation of xanthine oxidase enzyme. (11)
• Cycloartanes and Iridoids / Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Bark: Study of leaves and bark isolated two new cycloartanes, named dolichandrone A (1) and dolichandrone B (2), as well as two new iridoids, named [6-O-[(E)-4-methoxycinnamoyl]-1β-hydroxy-dihydrocatalpolgenin (3) and 6-O-[(E)-4-methoxy-cinnamoyl]-1α-hydroxy-dihydrocatalpolgenin (4), together with four known iridoids (5–8). Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 7 were evaluated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines KBm Ku, HepG2, and MCF7. Only compound 2 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell line with IC50 18.77 µM. (12)
• Catapol Iridoids as Glucosidase Inhibitor / Antidiabetic Potential: D. spathacea iridoids are promising antidiabetic inhibitors towards
α-glucosidase protein and oligo-1,6-glucosidase protein (PDB-3AJ7). Study isolated five catalpol iridoids (1,2,10,13,14) were isolated from the mangrove plant and derivatives 3-9, 11,12,15) were obtained by reduction, acetylation, O-alkylation, acetonisation or hydrolysation from naturally isolated compounds. In-vitro bioassay revealed compound 10 to be the most effective inhibitor of α-glucosidase with IC50 of 0.05 µM, in the order of 10>2>14>13>1. Results suggest an alternative approach for diabetes treatment based on inhibitalibity of the catalpol iridoid derivatives towards carbohydrate-hydrolases. (13)
• Antimicrobial / Flowers: Flower extracts prepared by seven solvents (pet ether, chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and ethanol and distilled water) were tested from antimicrobial activity against six types of organisms by agar-well diffusion method invitro. Distilled water extract show effective activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. (14)
• Zinc Oxide Microparticles / Protection of V. radiata Against Cr(VI) Stress: Study reports on a green and simple synthesis of ZnO microparticles (ZnO MPs) from Zn solution and aqueous leaf extract of D. spathacea for protecting the legume plant (Vigna radiata) against Cr(VI) stress. The Zn MPs successfully exhibited potential protective effects on seed germination and seedling vigor. Results suggest potential for a new and green zinc-micronutrient fertilizer to mitigate adverse effects of heavy metal contamination on crop cultivation. (15)
• Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids / Leaves, Barks, Flowers: Study of leaves and barks of D. spathacea isolated three iridoids 6-O-[(E)-4-methoxy cinnamoyl]catalpol (1), 6-O-[(E)-3,4-dimethoxy cinnamoyl]catalpol (2), nemoroside (3); and study of fruits isolated three ursane-type triterpenoids ursolic acid (4), pomolic acid (5), uncaric acid (6), along with sucrose octaacetate (7), daucosterol tetraacetate (8) and 1-hentriacontanol (9). Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-α on RAW 264.7 cells at concentration of 25 µg/ml. (16)


Updated May 2024 / February 2019 / April 2014

IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) Seemann [as nir-pongelion] / Rheede tot Drakestein, H.A. van, Hortus Indicus Malabaricus, vol. 6: t. 29 (1686)/ PlantIllustrations.org
IMAGE SOURCE: Line drawing / Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) Seem / Brandis, Dietrich, Sir., 1824-1907 / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Close-up of flower / Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) Seem / Sott.zona / CC BY-NC / Click on image  or link to go to source page / Useful Tropical Plants
IMAGE SOURCE: Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) Seem / © Marina Khaytarova / Non-commercial use / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / TopTropicals

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
THE PALAUAN AND YAP MEDICINAL PLANT STUDIES OF MASAYOSHI OKABE, 1941-1943 / Robert Defilipps, Shirley Maina and Leslie Pray

Inhibitory potential against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of Dolichandrone spathacea, a mangrove tree species of Malaysia / Saiful, Azmi J.; Mastura, Mohtar; Mazurah, Mohamed; Nuziah, Hashim / Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 2011; 30(2): pp 359-362 / ISSN: 0326-2383
Sorting Dolichandrone names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants / Chutima Kaewpiboon, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Chantragan Srisomsap, Pakorn Winayanuwattikun, Tikamporn Yongvanich, Preecha Puwaprisirisan, Jisnuson Svasti and Wanchai Assavalapsakul
/ BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012; 12:217 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-217
Dolichandrone spathacea / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Antimicrobial Constituents from Leaves of Dolichandrone spathacea and Their Relevance to Traditional Use / Phuc-Dam Nguyen, Amin Abedini, Sophie C. Gangloff, Catherine Lavaud / Planta Med Int Open, 2018; 5: e14-e23 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-125339
Dolichandrone spathacea (L.f.) K. Schum. / NParks Flora & Fauna Web
Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial evaluation of Dolichandrone spathacea (Bignoniaceae) / P D Nguyen, A Abedini, S C Gangloff, J Madoux, C Lavaud / Planta Med, 2016; 82(S 01): S1-S381 /
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1596346
New cycloartanes and new iridoids from Dolichandrone spathacea collected in the mangrove forest of Soc Trang province, Vietnam / Van Tuan Nguyen, Le Quyen Do, The Anh Nguyen, Tuan Thanh Nguyen, Van Loc Tran, Ngoc Anh Ho / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2018; 20(9)
Dolichandrone spathacea / Wikipedia
Xanthine oxidase inhibition study of isolated secondary metabolites from Dolichandrone spathacea(Bignoniaceae): In vitro and in silico approach / Dang-Khoa Nguyen, Ta-Wei Liu, Su-Jung Hsu, Ching-Kuo Lee et al / Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2024; 32(4): 101980 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2024.101980
New cycloartanes and new iridoids from Dolichandrone spathacea collected in the mangrove forest of Soc Trang province, Vietnam / Van Tuan Nguyen, Le Quyen Do, The Anh Nguyen, Tuan Thanh Nguyen, Van Loc Tran, Ngoc Anh Ho et al /  Journal of Asiasn Natural Products Research, 2018; 20(9): pp 889-896 /
DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2017.1406927
Isolation, semi-synthesis, docking-based prediction, and bioassay-based activity of Dolichandrone spathacea iridoids: new catalpol derivatives as glucosidase inhibitors / Tran Thi Phuong Thao, Thanh Q Bui, Nguyen Thi Ai Nhung et al /  RSC Adv., 2021; 11: pp 11959-11975 / DOI: 10.1039/D1RA00441G
Antimicrobial Activity of Dolichandrone Spathace (L.F.) K.Schum. Flowers / Moet Khine, Tin Nwe, Win Shwe, Mya Win / Yangon University of Distance Education Research Journal, 2019; 10(1): pp 226-231 (15)
Green synthesis of zinc oxide microparticles using the leaf extract of Dolichandrone spathacea in sustainable agriculture: a new approach for protecting the legume plant (Vigna radiata) against the Cr(VI) stress / Nguyen-Huan Pham-Khanh, Nhat-Quynh Huynh, Hong-Ngoc-Bao Le, Thi-Kim Quy Ha / Asian J Agric & Biol., 2923; 40(10) / DOI: 10.35495/ajab.2023.245
Phytochemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of iridoids from Dolichandrone spathacea collected in the mangrove forest of Phu Loc district, Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam / Tran Thi Phuong Thao, Nguyen Linh Chi, Nguyen Thi Luu, NguyenThi Dung et al / Vietnam J Chem, 2021; 59(6): pp 943-950 /
DOI: 10.1002/vjch.202100121

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL