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Family Leguminosae
Tapilan
Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi
RICE BEAN
Chi xiao dou

Scientific names Common names
Azukia umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi Anipai (Tag.)
Dolichos umbellatus Thunb. Kapilan (Bis.)
Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb. Pagsei (Bis.)
Phaseolus pubescens Blume Tapilan (Tag.)
Phaseolus ricardianus Ten. Black galingale (Engl.)
Phaseolus ricciardus Ten. Climbing mountain bean (Engl.)
Phaseolus torosus Roxb. Oriental bean (Engl.)
Vigna brachycalyx Baker Red bean (Engl.)
Vigna calcarata (Roxb.) Kurz Rice bean (Engl.)
Vigna papuana Baker f. Small red bean (Engl.)
Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H.Ohashi  
Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & H. Ohashi is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BURMESE: Beli, Be nauk, Be pwe, Be sang, Be te, Be tyel, Ning krung shapre, Pe nauk saung, Pe yin.
CHINESE: Chi xiao dou, Mi dou, Mi chi dou, Hong xiao dou, Xiao hong dou, Chi xiao dou.
DANISH: Risbanne.
FINNISH: Lehmanpapu.
FRENCH: Haricot riz, Haricot grain de riz.
GERMAN: Reisbohne.
INDONESIAN: Kacang uci,
JAPANESE: Shima tsuru azuki, Tsuru azuki, Raisu biin..
KHMER: Sandaek angkat miéhs, Sandaek riech mieh.
LOATIAN: Thwax la:ng te:l, Thwax sade:t pax, Thwax phi.
MALAYALLAM: Kattuzhunnu.
MALAYSIAN: Kacang sepalit.
PORTUGUESE: Feija-arroz.
SPANISH: Frijol de arroz, Frijolito rojo.
THAI: Thua daeng, Thua pae, Ma pae.
VIETNAMESE: Dau gao, Dau nho nhe.

Botany
Vigna umbellata is a warm-season short-lived annual vine legume, erect, semi-erect or twining, 30 to 100 cm in height, occasionally up to 200 cm, with an extensive root system and a taproot that can be as deep as 100-150 cm. Stems are branched and finely haired. Leaves are trifoliate with entire 6-9 cm long leaflets. Flowers are yellow and papillonaceous, borne on 5-10 cm long axillary racemes. Fruits are cylindrical, 7.5-12.5 cm long pods containing 6-10 oblong seeds. Seeds are 6-8 mm with a concave hilum. variable in color, from greenish-yellow to black or brown, but commonly red or yellow. (7)

Distribution
- Cultivated.
- Considered underutilized.

- Generally grown as intercrop with maize, on rice bunds or on terrace risers.

Constituents
- Composition of dried rice bean seeds per 100 g edible protein is: water 13.3 g, energy 1359 kJ or 327 kcal, protein 20.9 g, fat 0.9 g, carbohydrate 60.7 g, fiber 4.8 g, calcium 200 mg, phosphorus 390 mg, iron 10.9 mg, thiamin 0.49 mg, riboflavin 0.21 mg, niacin 2.4mg. (Leung, Busson & Jardin, 1968) (9)
-
Antinutritional factors include trypsin-inhibiting factors, phytates, tannins, and oligosaccharides. (Soaking, sprouting, hulling and cooking can reduce these antinutritional factors.) (9)

Properties
- Yellow-brownish seeds are considered most nutritious, while the red type provides common name in several languages.
- Rice beans are not easily processed into dhal because of its fibrous mucilage that prevents hulling and separation of cotyledons. (7)
- Considered galactagogue.
- Studies have suggested nutritional, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

Parts used
Seeds.

Uses

Edibility
- All varieties considered good sources of protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids and minerals. Dried seeds are added to cereal-based diet. (3)
- Often served as dal, soaked overnight and boiled with a few spices. Pulses are cooked or roasted as flour, to ground to make deep fried dishes or snacks. (3)
- Dry seeds are boiled and eaten with rice or replace rice in stews and soups. In Madagascar, they are ground to make a nutritive flour. (7)
- Young pods, leaves, and sprouted seeds are boiled and eaten as vegetable. Young pods sometimes eaten raw. (7)
Folkloric
- No folkloric medicinal use reported in the Philippines.
- Seeds used by lactating mothers.
Others
- Fodder: Valuable as high class fodder known to increase milk production in livestock. (3)

- Green manure / Cover crop: Used as green manure crop; shown by field experiments as one of the best legumes for that purpose due to its high biomass production over a short period of time, easily incorporating into the soil and decomposing rapidly. (3) Grown for green manure, as cover crop, or as living fence or biological barrier. (7)
- Environmental: Rice bean is valuable for its ability to fix nitrogen in depleted soils and in mixed cropping with local varieties of maize; also beneficial in preventing soil erosion. (3)

Studies
Antidiabetic / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the total phenolic content, antidiabetic, and antioxidant potential of 13 varieties of rice beans from China. Eight phenolic compounds were analyzed by U)PLC mass spectrometry i.e., catetchin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vitexin, isovitexin, sinapic acid and quercetin. Total phenolic compounds ranged from 123.09 to 843.75 µg/g. Antioxidant activity ranged from 39.87 to 46.40 µM TE/g. The α-glucosidase inhibition activity ranged from 44.32 to 68.71 and advanced glycation products formation inhibition activity ranged from 34.11 to 74.75. (5)
Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of raw and processed rice bean variety for bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The ME of seed coat showed highest phenolics (103.62 mg GAEg) and highest radical scavenging efficiency against DPPH (0.17 mg/ml). Results suggest a potential nutraceutical source from an exploited legume. (6)
Nutritional Potential / Antioxidant: Study reports on rice bean as a legume with nutritional potential. It has higher nutritional quality as compared to other legumes in the Vigna family. This study evaluated for major nutritional constituents viz. proteins content, total lipids, dietary fiber, total carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, amino acid and fatty acid profile. Fatty acid profile showed higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids viz., linoleic and linolenic acid. Albumins and globulins were the major portion of proteins. (8)
Rice Bean in the Formulation of Food Multi Mixes (FMM): Study for development of value added products like Food Multi-Mix from local ingredients for affordability, accessibility, and availability. FMM was developed using underutilized legume (Ricebean), millet (Konidhan) Fex seed, Rice, and tomato powder. Results showed FMM developed from malted ricebean with low levels of antinutritional factors and high nutritional composition can be used for development or incorporation of various value added products like cakes, cookies, etc. to enhance food and nutrient content. Vigna umbellata as a nutrient dense convenient product can be used by all age groups for supplemental or therapeutic uses including pregnancy, weaning, and community-based nutrition rehabilitation program for protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. (10)

Availability
Cultivated.

February 2021

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Vigna umbellata: Leaves and pods / © Natural Facts<edicine Info / click on image to go to source page / Natural Medicine Facts Info
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Vigna umbellata: Seeds / © Natural Facts<edicine Info / click on image to go to source page / Natural Medicine Facts Info
 
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photos (2) / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Rutaceae : Lunasia amara det. John Rey Callado / Leaf / Copyright © 2012 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL52015] / Non-Commercial Use / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / flickr / Click on graphic to see original image / flickr /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Cissampelos pareira L. [5809-247450-161657] / Indian medicinal plants, vol. 1: t. 42 / PlantIllustrations.org
flickr /
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
Photos ©Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Content / Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Vigna umbellata / Synonyms / The Plant List

(2)
Sorting Vigna names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.
(3)
Vigna umbellata / Wikipedia
(5)
Major Phenolic Cpmpounds, Antioxidant Capacity and Antidiabetic Potential of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) in China / Yang Yao, Zu-Zhen Cheng, Li-Xia Wang, Su-Hua Wang, Guixing Ren / Int J Mol Sci., 2012; 13(3): pp 2707-2716 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13032707
(6)
Antioxidant potential of processed Vigna umbellata (LL.) seeds: An Indian underutilized legume / Savita Rani and M Khabiruddin / International Journal of Chemical Studies, 2017; 5(4): pp 1407-1412
(7)
Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) / Feedipedia
(8)
Nutritional potential of rice bean (Vigna umbellata): an underutilized legume / Katoch R / Journal of Food Science, Dec 2012; 78(1): pp 8-16 / DOIL 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02989.x / PMID: 23278402
(9)
Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi / PROTA4U
(10)
Formulation and quality evaluation of rice bean (Vigna umbellata) based convenient food multi-mixes / Daisy Kameng Baruah, Dr Mamoni Das and Dr Rumamoni Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Home Science, 2018; 4(2): pp 216-221


                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

α(5)
                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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