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Family Oxalidaceae
Taingang daga
Oxalis corniculata Linn.


Tsa-chiang Ts'ao

Scientific names  Common names 
Acetosella bakeriana Kuntze Daraisig (Bik.) 
Acetosella corniculata (L.) Kuntze Kango (Pamp.) 
Acetosella fontana (Bunge) Kuntze Kanapa (Ig.) 
Acetosella herpestica (Schltdl.) Kuntze Malabalugbug-dagis (Pamp.) 
Acetosella stricta (L.) Kuntze Marasiksik (Ilk.) 
Acetosella villosa (Progel) Kuntze Piknik (Iv.)  
Oxalis albicans Kunth Salamagi (Bon.) 
Oxalis bradei R. Kunth Salmagi  (Bon.)
Oxalis corniculata Linn. Susokoyili (Tag.)
Oxalis foliosa Blatt. Taingang-dage (Tag.) 
Oxalis grenadensis Urb. Yayo (Pamp.) 
Oxalis herpestica Schltdl. Creeping oxalis (Engl.)
Oxalis langloisii (Small) Fedde Creeping wood sorrel (Engl.)
Oxalis lupulina Kunth Procumbent yellow sorrel (Engl.)
Oxalis meridensis Pittier  
Oxalis minima Steud.  
Oxalis nematodes Spreng.  
Oxalis parviflolia DC.  
Oxalis pilosiuscula Kunth  
Oxalis procumbens Steud. ex A.Rich.  
Oxalis pubescens Stokes  
Oxalis repens Thunb.  
Oxalis simulans Baker  
Oxalis steudeliana Kunth  
Oxalis taiwanensis (Masam.) Masam.  
Oxalis trinidadensis R.Knuth  
Oxalis villosa M.Bieb.  
Oxys corniculata (L.) Scop.  
Xanthoxalis albican (Kunth) Small  
Xanthoxalis corniculata (L.) Small  
Xanthoxalis filiformis (Kunth) Holub  
Xanthoxalis langloisii Small  
Xanthoxalis parvifolia (DC.) Holub  
Xanthoxalis repens (Thunb.) Moldenke  
Xanthoxalis trinidadensis (R.Knuth) Holub  
Oxalis corniculata Linn. is usually referred to as Oxalis repens Thunb. in earlier Philippine literature and shares the local name with "Jew's ear". an edible fungus.
Taingan-daga is a shared common name of: (1) Taingan-daga, Auricularia auricula-judae, Jew's ear; and (2) Taingan-daga, Oxalis repens, Indian sorrel.
Oxalis corniculata L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC : Hhâmidah hhullwah, Hhamdîd.
CHINESE: Zuo jiang cao, Suan wei cao, Jio suan, Suan cu jiang, Tsa-chiang ts'ao.

DUTCH : Gehoornde klaverzuring.

ESTONIAN : Aed-jänesekapsas.
FINNISH : Tarhakäenkaali.
FRENCH : Alléluia, Alleluya, Oseille à trois feuilles, Oseille trois feuilles, Oxalide corniculée, Oxalis corniculée, Oxalis jaune, Oxalis vulgaire, Pain de coucou, Pain d'oiseau, Petit trêfle, Pied de pigeon, Surelle, Surelle jaune, Surette, Trèfle aigre, Trèfle jaune.
GERMAN: Gelber Sauerklee, Gehörnter Sauerklee, Horn-Sauerklee.
ITALIAN : Acetosella dei campi, Ossalide corniculata, Erba lujula, Trifoglio acetoso.
NEPALESE: Caremalaa, Carii amilo.
PORTUGUESE : Azedinha (Brazil), Erva-azeda, Erva-azeda-de-folha-pequena, Erva-azedinha, Erva-canária, Trevo-azedo, Trevo-azedo-bastardo, Trevo-azedo-da-Índia, Trevo-azedo-de-folhas-pequenas.
SPANISH : Acederilla, Vinagrera, Vinagrillo.
SWEDISH : Krypoxalis.
TURKISH : Eksi yonca.

Taingang-daga is a small variable, prostrate, creeping herb, somewhat pubescent with long, scattered hair, the stems creeping, up to 50 centimeters in length, usually rooting at the nodes. Leaves are trifoliate, with three small heart-shaped leaflets, their petioles 5 centimeters long or less, sessile. Leaflets are obcordate, 0.5 to 1.5 centimeters long and stalkless. At noontime, the leaflets droop like folded umbrellas. At night, the leaflets close and fold together. Flowers are yellow, one to several on each peduncle, subumbellately disposed, nearly 1 centimeter long. Petals are obcordate. Fruits are capsules, hairy, tomentose, subcylindric, 1 to 1.8 centimeters long, divided into minute segments with numerous black seeds the size of sand grains.

- In waste places, open grasslands, etc., from sea level to an altitude of 2,200 meters throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in the warmer parts of the Old World.

- Phytochemical study yielded tannins, palmitic acid, a mixture of oleic, linoleic, linolenic and stearic acids.
- Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, proteins, amino acids, and volatile oil.
- Phytochemical studies have yielded flavanoids, tannins, phytosterols, phenol, glycosides, fatty acids, galacto-glycerolipid and volatile oil. Leaves yield flavonoids, iso-vitexine and vitexine-2"-O-betaD-glucopyranoside. Plant is rich in essential fatty acids like palmitic acid, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and stearic acids. (23)
- Study of an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of whole plant yielded a new flavonoid glucoside, Corniculatin A, along with luteolin, luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside and ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-D-glucoside.  (33)

- Acidic tasting, cooling effect, astringent, appetizing, febrifuge, antibilious, antiscorbutic, blood refrigerant, tranquilizer.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, anticancer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, steroidogenic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiamoebic, diuretic, emmenagogue, styptic, cardioprotective, anti-urolithiatic, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anxiolytic properties.

Parts utilized
· Entire plant.
· May be collected throughout the year.
· Rinse, sun-dry, compress.
· Propagate by seeds or vegetative propagation.

· Leaves are edible, with a tangy taste.
· In the Philippines, leaves used as salad ingredient.
· Juice of leaves used for cleansing wounds and for itches.
· Cold-fever, enteritis-diarrhea, infection of the urinary tract, neurasthenia: Decoction of 30 to 60 gms of the prepared material.
· Sprains, bruises, poisonous snake bites: Apply poultice of pounded fresh materials.
· Burns, dermatoses of the lower limb, skin eczema: Rub fresh sap over afflicted area or use decoction of the fresh material as external wash.
· Used for removing corns, warts, and other excrescences on the skin.
· Poultice of bruised leaves, with or without water, applied over inflamed parts.
· Fresh juice of leaves used to relieve intoxication produced by Datura.
· Juice of leaves also used as application to remove fiber over the cornea or opacities of the cornea.
· Expressed leaf juice, made into sherbet with sugar, used for dysentery and rectal prolapse, and to allay thirst.
· Leaves boiled in buttermilk, used for chronic dysentery and enteritis.
· Juice considered antidotal to mercurial and arsenical poisoning; also used for burns, insect and scorpion bites, and eruptions.
· Plant considered antiscorbutic in China and India.
· Paste from leaves pounded with a little rice-flour applied to prickly heat. Also used for mouth and gum sores.
· In Java, leaves mixed with onion and salt, used for stomachaches. Juice used for coughs.
· In Nepal, leaves used ritually for stomachaches.
· In Zairean pharmacopoeia, used as antivenom: (1) Paste of whole plant of O corniculata rubbed on the wound; swallow the juice of the masticated plant (2) Make paste with a salted mixture of O corniculata and Aframomum sanguineum, and cover the bite.

· In traditional Indian medicine, used to treat epilepsy, dysentery and diarrhea, piles, ophthalmia, anemia, digestive disorders.
· In Siddha and Ayurvedic medicine, used for liver and digestive problems; also for piles, dyspepsia, anemia and skin diseases.

Antibacterial: (1) In a study of the traditional medicinal plants from North East India, OC showed antibacterial activity against E. coli. (2) In a study of aqueous extracts of leaves of 46 plants, Oxalis corniculata was one of only 12 that exhibited antibacterial activity against test pathogens.
Antibacterial: Leaf material was tested for antibacterial activity against three important pathovars of Xanthomas and fourteen human pathogenic bacteria. Results revealed significant antibacterial activity attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. (7)
Anti-fertility: Report on the post-coital antifertility activity of the whole plant of Oxalis corniculata in female albino rats.
Abortifacient: Report on the abortifacient activity of O corniculata.
Antifungal: Study on the water extract of Oxalis corniculata showed it to be active against Aspergillus niger.
Anti-Urolithiasis / Antibacterial: Of 17 plants studied, O corniculata was one of six with antibacterial efficacy that showed promising roles in the prevention and cure of urolithiasis. (6)
Anti-Epileptic: Study showed the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata increased the monoamines on rat brain, which may decrease the susceptibility to MES and PTZ-induced seizures in rats.

Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study of ethanol extract of Oxalis corniculata showed significant antitumor and antioxidant activities in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) induced in Swiss albino mice. There was effective inhibition of tumor growth in ascitic and solid tumor models. (10)
Antibacterial / Cream Formulation: Study of aqueous extract OC showed strong antibacterial activity especially with increased extract concentration. A cream formulation showed potential as a topical to protect the skin against S. aureus and E coli. (11)
Cardioprotective: In vitro studies confirmed that O. corniculata extract could protect the myocardium against ischemic insult and the protective effect can be attributed to its antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic activities. (12)
Novel Galacto-Glycerolipid / Anti-Amoebic / Anti-Giardia: Study of extracts identified several compounds that showed anti-amoebic activity in axenic cultures of E. histolytica. Of the different compounds, the strongest anti-amoebic activity was found with GGL (galacto-glycerolipid). GGL was also found to be effective in killing Giardia lamblia, another protist pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. (13)
Anxiolytic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for anxiolytic effect in mice using the open field test, elevated plus maze test, and anti-fighting test. Results suggest anxiolytic activity, consistent with the anxiolytic effects of diazepam. (16)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of a methanol extract of whole plant. There was significant antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH and NO radicals and TBARS method. There was significant biphasic response in the paw edema induced by carrageenan. (17)
Antibacterial: In a study of three medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity, the leaves and seeds extracts of Oxalis corniculata showed high antibacterial activity against E coli and Bacillus subtilis. (18)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant effect of O. corniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results showed free radical scavenging, and antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects. Effects were compared to glibenclamide as reference drug. (19)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4 and PHH Induced Toxicity: Study showed a hydroalcoholic extract of Hummaz (O. corniculata) counteracted the hepatotoxic effect induced by CCl4 and PHH. Although the protection by Silymarin seemed relatively greater, Hummaz can be used as hepatoprotective agent in some liver disorders. (20)
Gastroprotective / Antiulcer: Study investigated a methanolic extract of O. corniculata in pylorus ligated and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerations in Wistar rats. Results suggest OC possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects. (21)
Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective / Stem and Leaves: Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves lower oxalates on sequential extraction and showed good antioxidant activity by DPPH and ß-carotenenoleate models and in vivo hepatoprotective activity in isoniazid and rifampin-induced oxidative stressed rats (p<0.05). (24)
Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of whole plant for acute and chronic toxicity in rats. On acute toxicity testing, the extract was safe at doses of 2000 mg/kbw orally, with no toxicity or deaths. In chronic toxicity study, no significant treatment changes were seen in hematologic, renal, and hepatic parameters. Results suggest the methanol extract of whole plant to not have significant toxicity, with a wide margin of safety for therapeutic use. (25)
Antibacterial / Insecticidal: Study evaluated various extracts and fractions of Oxalis corniculata for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. Crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae, S. typhi and B. subtilis and significant activities against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, A. flexneri, and A. flavus. Crude extract and chloroform fractions showed high mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum. Of two isolated compounds, compound 2 (5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone) showed more activity than compound 1 against tested bacterial strains and insects. (26)
Hepatoprotective / Thioacetamide Intoxication: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed significant reductions in SGOT, SGPT, GGTP, ALP, and total bilirubin. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver showed dose-dependent reduction of necrosis. (27)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of whole plant showed hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. (28)
Nutritional Benefits of Food Products Enriched by Sorrel Leaves: Study analyzed the proximate constituents of value added products from underutilized fresh Indian sorrel leaves. Results showed products enriched with fresh sorrel leaves are rich in protein, energy, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, and vitamin C. Incorporation of Indian sorrel leaves in various food items can improve nutritional qualities.   (29)
Anti-Inflammatory / Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study of ethanolic extract of O. corniculata leaves in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats showed significant (p<0.01) anti-inflammatory activity. (30)
• Proteinaceious Alpha Amylase Inhibitor / Antidiabetic Potential: Study evaluated the alpha amylase inhibitory potential from the leaves of Oxalis corniculata. A previous work with solvent extraction of leaves showed maximum inhibition against porcine pancreatic alpha amylase. The inhibitor AI-1 isolated from OC showed a molecular weight of 30kda. Further study can elucidate the complete structural structure of the inhibitor and prove important in the development of a plant based medication for treatment of T2DM. (31)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic action of ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata in streptococci induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed antidiabetic effect with increased trend with increase in dose and gradual decrease in blood glucose levels with increase period of exposure to the test drug. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. (32)
• Neuroprotective / Antioxidant / Potential Benefit in Parkinsonism Disease: Study evaluated the effects of O. corniculata extract against MPTP induced oxidative stress in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Treatment showed significant restoration of peroxides and antioxidant levels to near normal in the brains of test animals. Standard drugs were L-dopa+ carbidopa combination also significantly restored the peroxides and antioxidant levels to near normal. (34)
• Amelioration of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity: Study investigated the antioxidant potential of methanolic crude extract of Oxalis corniculata against lung injuries initiated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats at histological and biochemical level. Treatment with the ME dose-dependently prevented the alterations in the measured parameters. The OCME protected via its intrinsic properties by scavenging of free radicals generated by CCl4. (35)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated November 2017 / June 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES (1) Public Domain / File:Oxalis corniculata Sturm10.jpg / Johann Georg Sturm (Painter: Jacob Sturm) / Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen / 1796 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES Flower / File:Oxalis corniculata - blossom top (aka).jpg / André Karwath aka Aka / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Phytochemical and Antibacterial Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants of North East India on Escherichia coli / Asian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 23, No. 1, 2009; 103-108
Abortifacient activity of Oxalis corniculata (Whole plant) / Indian Society for the Study and Reproduction and Fertility-2005, Annual Meeting, held at IICB and IRM, Kolkota from February 4-6.Abs.No.PP 33.
Post coital Antifertility activity of Whole plant Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) in female albino rats / International Conference on Sustainable Development and Resource Utilization: Current trends and Perspectives. Dept. of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur from September 23-25. Abs.No.16.
Antifungal Activity from Water Extracts of Some Common Weeds / Pakistan Journ of Biol Sciences: 4(7):843-845, 2001
Evaluation of the Antibacterial Potential of Some Plants Against Human Pathogenic Bacteria / S Satish et al / Advances in Biological Research 2 (3-4): 44-48, 2008
Anti-bacterial efficacy of elite medicinal plants on urolithiasis inducing flora / Laikangbam Reena et al / International journal of food, agriculture and environment • 2009, vol. 7, no2, pp. 40-45
Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Oxalis corniculata; a known medicinal plant
/ M P Raghavendra et al / mySCIENCE 1(1), 2006, 72–78
Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used by Bantar of Bhaudaha, Morang, Nepal / E Acharya and B Pokhrel / Our Nature (2006)4:96-103
Antivenomous plants used in the Zairean pharmacopoeia / Chifundera K / African Study Monographs, 7 : 21 -35, March 1987
Evaluation of Antitumor and Antioxidant Activity of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma on Mice / Kathiriya A, Das K, Kumar EP, Mathai K B / Iran J Cancer Prev 2010; 4: 157-65
Formulation and evaluation of an antibacterial cream from Oxalis corniculata aqueous extract / Somayeh Handali, Hyam Hosseini et al / Jundishapur Journ of Microbiol, 2011; 4(4):255-260.
Cardioprotective effects of aqueous extract of Oxalis corniculata in experimental myocardial infarction / Abhilash PA, Nisha P, Prathapan A et al / Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Sep;63(6):535-40. Epub 2010 May 11.
A novel galacto-glycerolipid from Oxalis corniculata kills Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia
/ Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy ISSN: 1098-6596
Oxalis corniculata L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Sorting Oxalis names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Anxiolytic effect of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) in mice / Gaurav Gupta, Imran Kazmi, Muhammad Afzal, Mahfoozur Rahman, Firoz Anwar* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S837-S840
Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata
/ A Juvekar, S Sakat, S Wankhede, M Juvekar, M Gambhire / Planta Med 2009; 75 - PJ178 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234983
Ethno botanical, antibacterial and antifungal study of three medicinal plants of Morigaon district of Assam, India / Debajit Kalita, Jayabrata Saha and Bharthi, S. / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2012; 2(4): 234-239
Antidiabetic,Antihyperlipidaemic and Antioxidant Activity of Oxalis corniculata in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice / K.N.Agila, R.kavitha* / Journal of Natural Sciences Research, Vol.2, No.7, 2012
Studies on Hummaz (Oxalis corniculata Linn.) for its Hepatoprotective Activity in Rat Models
/ Ashraf, Nadeem / Dissertation / 2011 / Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka,Bangalore
Gastroprotective Effect of Oxalis corniculata (Whole Plant) on Experimentally Induced Gastric Ulceration in Wistar Rats / S. S. Sakat, Preeti Tupe, and Archana Juvekar / Indian J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jan-Feb; 74(1): 48–53. / doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.102543
Oxalis corniculata / Synonyms / The Plant List

An Absolute Review on Oxalis corniculata Linn. / Ashwani Kumar*, Niketa, Sapna Rani and Somiya / Sagwal / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol. 3 (3) July-Sept 2012
Analytical, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Studies on Extracts of Oxalis corniculata Linn
/ Irfan Sohail, Khalid Hussain, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Naureen Shahzadi / Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan 36(4):630-638 · August 2014
Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds /
Azizur Rehman, Ali Rehman, and Ijaz Ahmad / International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/842468
Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata against intoxication of thioacetamide induced rats / Kuntal Das; Anil Kumar Kathiriya; Kumar E. P.; Benson M. K.; John Wilking Einstein / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.22 no.2 Curitiba Mar./Apr. 2012 Epub Oct 14, 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000189
Hepatoprotective activity of Oxalis corniculata L. ethanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and its in vitro antioxidant effects / G Sreejith et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 52, Feb 2014, pp 147-152
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS PREPARED FROM THE UNDERUTILIZED INDIAN SORREL LEAVES (Oxalis Corniculata) / Gupta. A., Sahai. R., Sheikh. S., and Gupta S. / International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science 2014; 4(1): 1-5
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Oxalis corniculata in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats / Arijit Dutta, Chimi Handique, Mangala Lahkar. / Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2015; 4(4): 744-748 / doi: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20150383
Identification of a Proteinaceous Alpha Amylase Inhibitor from a Medicinal Herb Oxalis corniculata L. (Oxalidaceae)  / Jyothi KSN, Shailaja M, Viveni J, and Suresh C /  J Homeop Ayurv Med 3:165. / doi: 10.4172/2167-1206.1000165
Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Oxalis corniculata in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / Arijit Dutta, Mangala Lahkar, Chimi Handique / Internation Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IJBCP), Vol 5, No 5 (2016) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20163258
Corniculatin A, a new avonoidal glucoside from Oxalis corniculata / Muhammad Ibrahim, Iqbal Hussain*, Muhammad Imran, Nusrat Hussain, Amjad Hussain, Tooba Mahboob / Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. Braz. J. Pharmacogn. 23(4): Jul./Aug. 2013
The Effects of Oxalis corniculata l. Extract against MPTP Induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease / K. Aruna *, P. Devi Raja Rajeswari *, S. Raja Sankar / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 8(10), 2016, 1136-1140
Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced pulmonary toxicity with Oxalis corniculata
/ Bushra Ahmad, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Naseer Ali Shah / Toxicology and Industrial Health

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