HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Rutaceae
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.
Pu tao you

Scientific names Common names
Aurantium decumana (L.) Mill. Cabugao (P. Bis.) 
Aurantium maximum Burm. Gunal (Ting.) 
Citrus x aurantium var. decumana L. Luban (If.)
Citrus x aurantium var. grandis L. Lubban (Ibn.) 
Citrus x aurantium f. grandis (L.) M.Hiroe Lukban (Tag., Bik., Ilk.) 
Citrus costata Raf. Panubang (Bon.) 
Citrus decumana L. Pu tao you (Chin.)
Citrus grandis  (L.) Osbeck Sua (Ilk., Pamp.) 
Citrus grandis f. buntan Hayata Suha (Tag.)
Citrus grandis var. oblonga Hassk. Taboyog (Bon.) 
Citrus grandis var. sabon (Siebold) Karaya Chinese grapefruit (Engl.)
Citrus grandis var. sphaerocarpos Hassk. Forbidden fruit (Engl.)
Citrus grandis var. yamabuki (Yu.Tanaka) Karaya Pomelo (Engl.) 
Citrus. maxima (Burm.) Merr. Pummelo (Engl.)
Citrus obovoidea Takahashi Shaddock (Engl.)
Citrus pampelnos  Risso  
Citrus pompelnos  Risso  
Citrus sabon Siebold ex Hayata  
Citrus yamabuki  Yu. Tanaka  
Sarcodactilis helicteroides C.F.Gaertn.  
Citrus decumana L. is a synonym of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Laymûn hindî.
BENGALI: Bātābī lēbu, Chakotra, Jāmburā lēbu, Mahanibu, Sadaphal, Pumēlō.
BURMESE: Shouk ton oh, Kywegaw.
CHINESE: Dou you, Pu tao you.
DANISH: Pompelmus.
DUTCH: Pompelmoes.
FINNISH : Pummelo.
FRENCH: Pamplemousse doux des Antilles, Chadec, Shadek.
GERMAN: Pompelmus, Pampelmus, Riesenorange, Lederorangenbaum.
GUJARATI: Obakotru.
HINDI: Bataawii niimbuu, Cakōtarā, Mahanibu, Sanadāphala, Sadaphal.
INDONESIAN: Jeruk besar, Jeruk bali.
ITALIAN: Pampaleone.
JAPANESE: Buntan, Pomero, Bontan, Zabon.
KANNADA: Chakota, Chakota hannu, Chakotre, Sakkota, Tōran̄ji.
KHMER: Krôôch thlông.
LAOTIAN: Kièngz s'aangz, Ph'uk, Sômz 'ôô.
MALAY: Jeruk bali, Jeruk besar, Limau abong, Limau besar, Limau betawi, Limau bali, Limau serdadu.
MALAYALAM: Pamparamasam, Pamparamasan.
MARATHI: Papnasa.
NEPALI: Bhogate.
POLISH: Pompela.
RUSSIAN: Pomelo.
SANSKRIT: Madhukarkati,
SPANISH: Cimboa, Pampelmusa.
TAMIL : Elumicham, Pambalimasu.
TELUGU: Nimmapandu, Pampalamasam, Pampara.
THAI: Som o, Ma o.
VIETNAMESE : Bưởi, Bưởi chùm Thái Lan.

General info
- Pomelo (Citrus maxima) and grapefruit (Citrus ) are both citrus fruits, but separate species. Grapefruit is a hybrid from the crossing of pomelo (C. maxima) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), the fruits differing in shape, color, size, and taste.
- The occasional vernacular reference to is as "Chinese grapefruit" adds to the confusion.
- Pomelo is the biggest of all the citrus fruits.
- Grapefruits are smaller and round, and hung in bunches like grapes; ergo, the grapefruit reference.   (48)

• Suha is a small tree, 6 to 13 meters in height, with long, sharp, solitary spines. Leaflets are entire or nearly so, sparingly hairy beneath and on the margins, ovate-oblong to elliptic, and 8 to 12 centimeters long. Petioles are obovate and broadly winged. Flowers are white, fragrant, and crowded in short, axillary racemes. Fruit is large, obovoid to spherical, up to 20 centimeters in diameter. Rind is very thick and spongy, easily removed from the segments of the fruit. Pulp is pale yellow, pink or red, sweet or acrid, with large, distinct vesicles.

• The pomelo tree may be 5–15 meters (16–50 feet) tall, possibly with a crooked trunk 10–30 centimeters (4–12 inches) thick, and low-hanging, irregular branches. Leaf petioles are distinctly winged, with alternate, ovate or elliptic shapes 5–20 cm (2–8 in) long, with a leathery, dull green upper layer, and hairy under-leaf.  Flowers, single or in clusters, are fragrant and yellow-white in color. Fruit is large, 15–25 cm (6–10 in) in diameter, usually weighing 1–2 kilograms (2–4 pounds), with a thick rind (thicker than the grapefruit), and is divided into 11 to 18 segments. Flesh tastes like mild grapefruit, with a little of its common bitterness (the grapefruit is a hybrid of the pomelo and the orange). Enveloping membranes around the segments are chewy and bitter, considered inedible, and usually discarded.  Seeds are few, relatively large.

- Introduced.
- Cultivated, not naturalized.
- Found throughout the Philippines, in settled areas, usually planted.
- Probably not a native of the Archipelago.
- Found throughout all warm countries.
- Native of the Old World.

• Leaves - volatile oil, 1.7% - dipentene, 25%; linalool, 15%; citral, 3.5%; α-pinene, 0.5-1.5%; d-limone, 90-92%.
Pericarp yields saccharose, reducing sugar; organic acid.
• Juice yields insulin like substance; lycopene; vitamin C; peroxidase; sugar, 14.3%; acid, 1.1%; fat, 0.33%; cellulose, 1.3%; nitrogenous substances, 1.6%
• Rind yields a crystalline glycosidal bitter principle, naringin (previously reported as hesperidin), 0.2-1.6% ; , 10%; pectin, 10%; peroxidase. Also yields a volatile oil, "pompelmus" oil, containing d-pinene, 0.5-1.5%; d-limonene, 90-92%; linalool, 1-2%; citrate, 3-5%; geraniol, 1.2%; linalyl and geranylacetate; citral 25%; free alkaloid, 8.61%; and ester, 4.38%.
• Phytochemical studies of various Citrus spp. yielded naringin, hesperidin, diosmin and naringenin.
• Phytochemical study of the peel of the grapefruit isolated five compounds: friedelin, ß-sitosterol, limonin, cordialin B, and a previously unreported compound, 7(3',7',11',14'-tetramethy)pentadec-2',6',10'-trienyloxycoumarin.
• GCMS analysis of buds and flowers for fragrant components yielded a strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma from ß-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool, and caryophyllene as major compounds. Ocimene and linalool were higher in the blossom than the bud, 7.37 and 15.93%, respectively, while limonene was highest in the bud at 4.57%. (11)
• Methanol extract of peel yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, tannin, proteins, phenol, gum and mucilages. (see study below) (36)
• Proximate composition of juice and peel extract (%/100g) yielded moisture 79.57 ± 0.06 and 13.20 ± 0..19, ash 0.73 ± 0.06 and 2.49 ± 0.19, fat 0.83 ± 0.19 and 9.74 ± 1.01, protein 1.76 ± 0.19 and 0.42 ± 0.02, crude fiber 0.32 ± 0.03 and 2.58 ± 0.41, and total CHO 16.79 ± 0.23 and 71.57 ± 0.83, respectively. (39)
• Study of C. maxima for main flavonoids and their characterization yielded naringin and their aglycone naringenin. (39)
• Phytochemical composition of juice and peel extract (mg/100g) yielded alkaloid 23.61 ± 2.68 and 3498.37 ± 917.51, flavonoid 377.98 ± 20.81 and 1511.74 ± 35.27, saponin 1.84 ± 0.18 and 24.51 ± 0.48, phenolics 180.86 ± 17.03 and 1799.04 ± 19.95, respectively. Antinutrient composition for juice and peel (mg/100g) yielded phytic acid 86.00 ± 5.88 and 444.11 ± 13.52, tannin 36.99 ± 17.93 and 230.04 ± 18.78, and oxalate 63.00 ± 3.12 and 100.80 ± 8.25, respectively. (39)
• Vitamin and mineral composition analysis showed a vitamin content to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in peel extract than juice, except for vitamin C which was higher in the juice. Calcium was the most abundant mineral in the peel and juice, followed by phosphorus and sodium. Magnesium content in the juice and peel (mg/100g) yielded 1.88 ± 0.05 and 5.39 ± 0.09, respectively; for potassium, 1.30 ± 0.06 and 8.75 ± 0.50, respectively. (39)
• GC-MS study of leaf and fruit rind for essential oil yielded 42 and 34 compounds, respectively, with major component of citronellol (28.26%) in the leaves and D-limonene (89.04%) in the rind. Yield of oil was more in the rind (0.12%) compared to leaf (0.07%). (41)
• Nutritional value per 100 g of edible portion yielded calories 25-58, moisture 84.82-94.1 g, protein 0.5-0.74 g, fat 0.2-0.56 g, carbohydrates 6.3-12.4 g, fiber 0.3-0.82 g, ash 0.5-0.86 g, calcium 21.3- mg, phosphorus 20-27 mg, iron 0.3-0.5 mg, vitamin A 20 IU, thiamine 0.04-0.07 mg, riboflavin 0.02 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, ascorbic acid 30-43 mg. (52)

Studies have suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, biofilm inhibitory, antiangiogenic, cardioprotective, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, ACE-inhibitory, larvicidal, anti-Dengue, wound healing, analgesic, anxiolytic properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers, fruit, rind.

- Fresh fruit is edible; rind preserved.
- Fresh fruit is a good source of vitamin B, iron and calcium.
- For nausea and fainting, rind is squeezed near nostrils for patient to inhale.
- In the Philippines, leaves are used for aromatic baths.
- Infusion or decoction of flowers, leaves and pericarp used as sedative for nervous affections; also for coughs and ulcers.
- Peel or rind, dried or in decoction, used for dyspepsia.
- Boiled seeds in a gallon of water can be used for sitz-baths.
- In
Malaya, lotion of boiled leaves used for painful swellings.
In the
Himalayas, fruit juice recommended for ulcers; used in diabetes; and mixed with black pepper and a little rock salt, used for malaria. Fruit juice with its pulp, with honey, is given to improve urinary flow.
- In India, essential oil used for convulsive cough, epilepsy, hemorrhagic diseases and as sedative. In India, fruit rind used as brain tonic, antiasthmatic, antiemetic, antidiarrheal, and for headache and abdominal pain. In Nepal, fruit juice applied to pimples and dandruff. In Nigeria, fruits used for diabetes. In Thailand, fruits used for headache, fever, flu, sore throats, dyspepsia. In China, fruit peels used for obesity and hypertension. (57)

- Wood:
Potential source of firewood. Heavy, hard and tough wood suitable for making tool handles.   (25)
- Essential oil:
Fruits and leaves yield essential oil that serve as perfumery and toiletry ingredients. (25)
- Fodder:
Pulp molasses and residues from juice extraction use as cattle feed. (25)
- Apiculture:
Tree is a valued honey plant. (25)
- Erosion control: Pumelo is interplanted with Erythrina fusca to help retain the soil with its extensive, fibrous root system and enrich the soil with fallen leaves. (25)

See: Dalanghita

Interaction of with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes:
Study of the relationships of plant constituents and CYP450 enzymes, such as grapefruit with CYP2A6. (1)
Grapefruit seed extract (C paradisii) was found effective against P aeruginosa. The active ingredient was naringenin.
Anthelmintic: Alcoholic extract of the rind of Citrus decumana showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides.
Antioxidant / Anti-inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of peel extract in four solvent systems showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity, a significant decrease in paw volume and pain. Results suggest the peel extract may be a useful as a natural antioxidant in the treatment of inflammation and pain. (5)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Fresh red pomelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and showed great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. (8) Study of Citrus maxima for hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, DPPH activity, total antioxidant activity showed elevated levels of antioxidant activity attributed to the presence of phytochemicals such as steroids, phenol, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates in aqueous, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts. (43)
Cyclosporin / Pharmacodynamic Effects / : Co-administration of Citrus grandis peels significantly decreased the systemic exposure of cyclosporin and resulted in higher macrophage and Th1 type activities than in mice treated with cyclosporin alone. (9)
Anti-Inflammatory / Nobiletin: Study yielded a nobilietin, shown to contribute to pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results showed dangyuja leaves can inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory markers by blocking NF-kB and MAPKs signaling in RAW264.7 cells. (10)
Flower Fragrance / Components: Study of active components attributed to the fragrance of the C. grandis flowers showed the buds and blossoms of the flower possessing a strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma contain B-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool and caryophyllene as the major compounds. (see constituents above) (11)
Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of an aqueous extract of leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. in mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time in both TST and FST. It showed psychostimulant effect of locomotor activity testing. The antidepressant effect may be mediated by an increased in norepinephrine level in the synapses. (14)
Antidiabetic / Lipid Profile Effects / Fruit: Study evaluating C. maxima fruit juice showed beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in STZ-induced type-II diabetic rats. (15) Ethanolic extract of Citrus maxima fruit peel exhibited significant antidiabetic potential by decreasing blood glucose levels and maintaining body weight and serum lipid concentrations to normal. (32)
Antibacterial / P. aeruginosa / E. coli: A comparative study was done on antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of V. negundo, F. vesca, T. arjuna, and C. maxima. Citrus maxima showed maximum zone of inhibition for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (16)
Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity / Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated the effects of some citrus fruit juices (C. maxima, C. paradisii, C. limoni, C. reticulata) on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The juices exhibited dose-dependent radical scavenging and dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest citrus juices make good dietary supplements for the management of Alzheimer's disease. (18)
Cardioprotective / Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced Cytotoxicity: Study investigated the protective effect of pummelo (C. maxima) fruit juice in rat cardiac H9c2 cells against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cytotoxicity. Results showed CM fruit juice can be promoted as a functional fruit to protect cells from oxidative cell death, enhance phase II GSTP enzyme activity, and decrease senescence phenotype population induced by cardiotoxic agent such as DOX. (19)
Endothelial Health Benefits / Potential for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction / Fruit: Study investigated the effects of pomelo fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. HUVECs treated with fruit extract improved cell migration and hindered the onset of phenotypical aging. Further animal and human studies are warranted before it can be promoted as a functional fruit for cardiovascular risk reduction. (21)
Antitumor Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of C. maxima leaves for antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Results show dose-dependent significant decrease in tumor parameters, i.e., tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and increase in body weight, hematological parameters and life span. (22)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity / Peel Powder: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel power in a carbon tetrachloride rat model of hepatotoxicity. Dietary supplementation of CM peel powder exhibited significant reduction of liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats, together with significant reduction of oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restoration of catalase activity. (23)
• Toxicity Study / Seeds: Acute toxicity study at dose of 2000 mg/kbw of C. maxima leaves given orally appeared to be non-toxic. Subacute toxicity study showed no marked changes in hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters. (26)
• CNS Activities / Leaf: Study evaluated ethanolic extract of Citrus maxima in experimental animal models for central nervous system activities, i.e., depressant, anxiolytic, convulsant, hypnotic and muscle relaxant. Results showed reduced rearing, central motor and ambulation activities in the locomotor test. There was decreased locomotion in elevated-plus-maze and actophotometer test. The extract protected mice against PTZ and strychnine induced convulsions in a dose dependent manner and decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension, increased hypnotics time and decreased motor coordination of experimental animals. (27)
• Prevention of AGE-Mediated Diabetic Complications / Antiglycation Effect: Study evaluated the antiglycation effect of pomelo extract against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation. The pomelo extract significantly inhibited the overall formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in a dose dependent manner and markedly decreased the levels of fructosamine and CML. HPLC yielded naringin (11.90 ± 021 mg/g dried extract) and naringenin (9.20 ± 0.19 mg/g DE). (28)
• Prevention of High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders / Peels: Study evaluated the anti-metabolic effects of peels of different pomelo varieties on obese C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diet. Results showed pomelo peel extracts could prevent high-fat diet induced metabolic disorders through activation of the PPARa and GLUT4 signaling. Study suggests a potential source of drug for metabolic disorders. (29)
• Ovicidal, Larvicidal, and Adulticidal / Anti-Dengue Vector / Peels: Study evaluated the ovicidal, larvicidal, and adulticidal toxicity of hexane extract of C. grandis peels against dengue vector, A. aegypti. Results showed highest lethal concentration against 3rd and 4th instar larvae with LC50 and LCC80 of 1.11 mg/L and 3.32 mg/L, respectively. The test mosquito mortality was 100% after 24h. Results suggest great potential for a sustainable and environmentally safe plant for control of dengue vector, A. aegypti. (33)
• Hypocholesterolemic / ACE-Inhibitory Activity: Study investigated the effect of juices of grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) for effect on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro and hypocholesterolemic effect in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Grapefruit juice showed higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than shaddock juice, while both inhibited ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. The juices also caused significant reduction in TC, triglyceride, and LDL with an increase in HDL levels. (34)
• Effect in Experimentally Induced Wounds in Diabetic Rats / Peels: Study evaluated the healing effect of oral pomelo peel extracts on induced excision skin wound in diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction in blood glucose, significant wound size reduction, high content of granulation hydroxyproline, and total protein content of healed wound. Study suggests good therapeutic potential in the treatment of complicated wounds in diabetes. (35)
• Analgesic / CNS Depressant / Anti-Inflammatory / Peels: Study investigated the analgesic, CNS depressant, and anti-inflammatory activities of crude methanolic extract of C. maxima fruit peels. At 500 mg/kg dose, extract showed analgesic activity (73.34%) against acetic acid induced writhing in mice compared to reference drug Diclofenac at 87.13% at 10 mg/kg dose. In formalin induced hind paw licking and biting, the extract exhibited 54.11% protection. Anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan induced paw edema model was comparable to ibuprofen. The extract also showed significant dose dependent CNS depressant activity by hole cross test and open field test. (see constituents above) (36)
• Antimicrobial / Seed and Pulp: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to grapefruit (C. paradisii) against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. Pomelo seeds and pulp showed more antimicrobial efficacy against B. subtilis, S. aureus, and E. coli compared to grapefruit. It showed no activity against Candida albicans. (38)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. maxima on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia hermanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Maximum zone of inhibition was shown by S. aureus. MIC values for S. aureus and B. subtilis (20 µg/ml) were lower than E. hermanii (30 µg/ml) and P. aeruginosa (40 µg/ml). (40) Study C. maxima extract of leaves showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (24)
• Fragrant Compounds / Flowers: Soxhlet extraction and SPME were used to extract active fragrant components from C. grandis flowers. Results showed the flower buds and blossoms, which emit strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma, yield ß-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool, and caryophyllene as major compounds. Hydrodistillation showed ocimene and linalool were higher in the blossoms than in the buds. In Soxhlet extraction, buds yielded limonene (27.25%), ocimene (5.55%), and linalool (2.97%). (42)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant / Acute Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of a methanol leaf extract of C. maxima in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The extract significantly (p<0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels, serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH compared to STZ control. The activity was attributed to C. maxima leaf antioxidant property. Acute toxicity study in Swiss albino mice showed the extract to be safe up to 2000 mg/kbw. (44)
• Antidiabetic Potential / Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit peels of C. maxima and ethanolic extract of dried whole plant of Anville garcinii on STZ-induced diabetic rats and glucose tolerance test. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential as evidenced by decreased blood glucose levels, improving body weight, along with serum lipid lowering activity. (45)
• Effect on Hematological Parameters and Lifespan in EAC Tumor Bearing Mice / Anticancer Effect: Study evaluated the effect of various extracts of Citrus maxima on hematological parameters in animal models. All extracts showed significant prolongation of lifespan, reduction in tumor volume, and improvement in hematological parameters. (46)
• Antidiabetic / Stem Bark: In-vivo hypoglycemic activity of fruits and fruit peels have already been documented in literature. This study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of an ethanolic extract of stem bark of Citrus maxima using Alloxan and Streptozotocin induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Results showed dose dependent antidiabetic activity compared to reference drug Glibeclamide. Antidiabetic activity of C. maxima at 400 mg/lg was more effective than 200 mg/kg. (47)
• Anti-Alzheimer Activity / Fruit Peel: Study evaluated the effect of ethanol fruit peels extract of C. maxima in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer's disease in mice using Morris maze and Y-maze methods. Results showed anti-Alzheimer activity as suggested by dose dependent and significant improvement in memory of young mice and reversal of memory deficits induced by scopolamine. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in brain acetylcholinesterase level, thereby increasing neurotransmitter acetylcholine level. (49)
• Larvicidal / Culex quinquefasciatus / Fruit Peels: Study evaluated crude extract and various solvents of fruit peel of C. maxima for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito. Crude fruit peel extract showed strong lethal activity against all instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, with the 1st instar larvae showing most susceptibility. No mortality was observed on control treatments. (50)
• Antiproliferative / Fruit: GC-MS analysis of supercritical CO2 extract from fruits of Citrus hassaku (phalsak), Citrus iyo (Yeagam) and Citrus grandis (dangyuja) from Korea yielded 70, 70, and 76 compounds respectively. Limonene prevailed in C. grandis. α-Terpineol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, hexadecanoic acid, pentacosane, stigmasterol, and y-sitosterol were prominent in all species. Antiproliferative activity was revealed through MTT assay against human glioblastoma, gastric cancer cells, HeLa cervix adenocarcinoma cells and gastric adenocarcinoma cells. All tested fruit extracts exhibited antiproliferative effects toward cancer cells, with varying sensitivity of different cell lines. (51)
• Toxicity of White Flesh of Fruit against Aedes aegypti Larvae and Effect on Non-Target Organisms: Study evaluated the bioefficacy of white flesh of C. grandis fruit peel extracts, essential oil and isolated compounds against late third stage instar Aedes aegypti larvae. Results showed C. grandis fruit peel as potential to be used as alternative larvicides against Ae. aegypti larvae. In an earlier study, GC-MS analysis of a hexane fraction that cause highest mortality in test larvae population revealed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, a major bioactive in the fraction. (53)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils: Study evaluated the chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of C. paradisii and C. grandis. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. grandis (cold 32.63%, distilled 55.74%). C. grandis oils were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited lowest activity in antioxidative assays. C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than C. paradisii, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. (54)
Cytotoxic Acridone Alkaloids / Stem Bark: Study isolated a new acridone alkaloid, 5-hydroxynoracronycine alcohol (4), along with six known acridone alkaloids, glycocitrine-1 (1), 5-hydroxynoracronycine (2), citrusinine-1 (3), grandisine -1 (5), natsucitrine-II (6), and citracridone-III (7). Compounds 1-4 and 7 were cytotoxic to two tumor cell lines. (55)
Anti-Obesity / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-obesity activity of 80% ethanolic extract of leaves against cafeteria diet and olanzapine-induced obesity in Wistar albino rats. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg resulted in significant decrease in body weight, body temperature, serum parameters (TG, TC, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, SGPT) and liver weight compared to obese control group. Results suggest leaves are effective against cafeteria diet- and olanzapine-induced obesity. (58)
Pure Flavonoids / Peels: Study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and possible use of pure total flavonoids (PTFC: naringin, hesperidin, narirutin, neohesperidin) isolated and purified from dry and ripe peels of C. maxima. Study reviewed biological functions and components in preventing or treating liver metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and malignancies. PTFC can regulate glycolipid metabolism, block peroxidation, protect the integrity of intestinal barrier, and regulate intestinal microbiota. Extraction technology and chemical properties were summarized. PTFC has potential for treatment of some chronic diseases. (59)
Anxiolytic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study evaluated the anxiolytic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of seeds of Citrus maxima, using doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. The extract significantly (p<0.01) increased the number of head dipping in the hole board test and increased rate and time in the elevated plus-maze test. It showed high potential (p<0.001) as an analgesic agent in the acetic acid-inducing writhing method. In formalin-induced pain assessment, the extract showed significant effect (p<0.01) at early phase as central acting effect and very high potential (p<0.001) during late phase as peripheral analgesic. It showed anti-inflammatory potency (p<0.01) in  formalin and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema test. (60)
Antioxidant / Inhibitory Efficacy against Carbohydrate Digestive Enzymes / Peels: Study evaluated the antioxidant and carbohydrate digestive enzyme inhibitory effects of peel extracts from two varieties of pomelo, flavedo and albedo. Qualitative analysis of the peel extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannin. The flavedo variety showed high antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS,, and FRAP assays. The albedo variety showed better inhibitory effect against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results suggest anti-hyperglycemic effect of the pomelo peel extract  varieties and potential as nutraceutical in food and pharmaceutical industries. (61)
Antimicrobial / Antibiofilm Activities / Leaves: Study evaluated antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of methanol leaf extract of Citrus maxima against bacterial isolates including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) by invitro agar well diffusion method and 96 well microtiter plate methods. Maximum antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates were recorded with 11.8 mm zone of inhibition at 200 mg/mL and MIC if 25 mg/mL. The clinical isolates exhibited highest (85.94%) biofilm inhibition at 6.25 mg/mL. (62)
Antiangiogenic / Peel: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is important in the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. Study evaluated the antiangiogenic activity of C. maxima peel extract using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in duck's (Anas platyrhynchos) embryos. Only the highest concentration of C. maxima ethanolic extract (100%) showed potential anti-angiogenic activity as observed in the significant decrease in the number of blood vessels and branching points. (63)
Alternative Component of Medicinal Soap / Peel: Study evaluated three formulations of medicinal soap with ingredients of coconut oil, pomelo peel, lye, rubbing alcohol, and glycerin. Results suggest the pomelo peel can be an effective component of medicinal soap with potential for treating acne and skin blemishes. (64)

- Commercial cultivation.

Updated January 2024 / Dec 2018 / Dec 2017 / Jan 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Interaction of Herbal Constituents with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes / Eric Yarnell, Kathy Abascal. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. October 2007, 13(5): 239-247. doi:10.1089/act.2007.13508
Natural Preservatives / Anthony C. Dweck
Forbidden fruit / Grapefruit-Drug Interaction / News and Views . Nature Medicine 7, 29 - 30 (2001) doi:10.1038/83312
Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II. / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1975 Jan-Mar;19
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of the Citrus decumana L. peel extract / Sjailja Sood et al / Inflammopharmacology • Volume 17, Number 5 / October, 2009 / DOI 10.1007/s10787-009-0015-y
Grapefruit Extract / HeathLine
Drug Interactions with Grapefruit and Related Citrus Fruits / Table compiled by Dean Elbe BSc (Pharm), BCPP Clinical Pharmacist, Richmond, BC, Canada / Excerpted from Food-Medication Interactions 14th Edition
Antioxidant Content and Free Radical Scavenging Ability of Fresh RedPummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] Juice and Freeze-Dried Products / Hsiu-Ling Tsai et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (8), 2867-2872 • DOI: 10.1021/jf0633847
Effects of Citrus grandis Peels on Cyclosporin Concentration and Immune Responses in Mice /SHIH-HUA FANG, YU-CHI HOU et al / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2006, Pages 166-173
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Leaves in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells / Eun-Jin Yang, Hye-Ja Lee, Gyeoung-Jin Kang, Sun-Soon Park et al / Food Sci. Biotechnol. Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 1063 ~ 1070 (2009)
Analysis of Major Fragrant Compounds from Citrus grandis Flowers Extracts
/ Zarina Zakaria, Suhana Zakaria and Mohd Ishak / Sains Malaysiana 39(4)(2010): 565–569
A new coumarin from Citrus paradisi Macf. / Meera, SB Khalidhar / Indian Journ of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008, No: 70, Issue: 4,Page : 517-519
Sorting Citrus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression
/ Vikram H Potdar* and Swati J Kibile / Iran J Basic Med Sci., Sep-Oct 2011; 14(5): pp 478–483.
Effects of Shaddock (Citrus maxima) Fruit Juice on Glucose Tolerance and Lipid Profile in Type-II Diabetic Rats / A. OYEDEPOT* and S.O. BABARINDE / Chemical Science Transactions,, 2013, 2(1), 19-24 / DOI:10.7598/cst2013.244
A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Vitex negundo L, Fragaria vesca, Terminalia arjuna and citrus maxima / Mukundam Borah, Shagufa Ahmed, Swarnamoni Das. / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2012; 2(3): 183-187
Drug Interactions with Grapefruit and Related Citrus Fruits / Excerpted from Food-Medication Interactions 14th Edition / Table compiled by Dean Elbe BSc (Pharm), BCPP Clinical Pharmacist, Richmond, BC, Canada For more information and references, visit www.powernetdesign.com/grapefruit.
Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Fe2+-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro by Some Citrus Fruit Juices / Ayokunle O. Ademosun and Ganiyu Oboh / Journal of Medicinal Food. May 2012, 15(5): 428-434. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2011.0226.
Pummelo Protects Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Cell Death by Reducing Oxidative Stress, Modifying Glutathione Transferase Expression, and Preventing Cellular Senescence / L. Chularojmontri, O. Gerdprasert, and S. K. Wattanapitayakul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2013 (2013) /
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging / Paiwan Buachan, Linda Chularojmontri, and Suvara K. Wattanapitayakul* / Nutrients. 2014 Apr; 6(4): 1618–1634. / doi: 10.3390/nu6041618
Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice / Sriparna KunduSen, Malaya Gupta, Upal K. Mazumder, Pallab K. Haldar, Prerona Saha, and Asis Bala / ISRN Pharmacology, Volume 2011 (2011) / http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/138737
Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats / Mohammad Riaz Hasan Chowdhury, Md Abu Taher Sagor, Nabila Tabassum, Md Abdullah Potol, Hemayet Hossain, and Md Ashraful Alam / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015 /  doi:  10.1155/2015/598179
Citrus maxima / WorldAgroForestry
Acute and Sub Acute Toxicity Studies of Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants / Haja Sherief Sheik*, Niraimathi Vedhaiyan and Sengottuvelu Singaravel / Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res. 2013; 3 (2): 166-169
Evaluation of central nervous system activities of Citrus maxima leaf extract on rodents / Haja Sherief Sheik, Niraimathi Vedhaiyan, Sengottuvelu Singaravel / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4 (09), pp. 077-082, September, 2014 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.40914
THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF POMELO EXTRACT (CITRUS GRANDIS L. OSBECK) AGAINST FRUCTOSE-MEDIATED PROTEIN OXIDATION AND GLYCATION / Natarin Caengprasath, Sathaporn Ngamukote, Kittana Mäkynen, Sirichai Adisakwattana* / EXCLI Journal 2013;12:491-502
Extracts of Pomelo Peels Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in C57BL/6 Mice through Activating the PPARα and GLUT4 Pathway / Xiaobo Ding, Lu Guo, Yu Zhang,Shengjie Fan, Ess Gu, Yan Lu, Dong Jiang, Yiming Li, Cheng Huang, Zhiqin Zhou  / PLOS/one / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077915
Drug Interactions / WebMD
Drug Interactions with Grapefruit Juice / Nadeem Mazi-Kotwal and Madhavan Seshadri / BJMP 2012; 5(4): a538
ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CITRUS MAXIMA FRUIT PEEL AND ANVILLEA GARCINII / Kharjul Mangesh*, Gali Vidyasagar, Kharjul Ashwini / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovations, Vol 4, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2015
Ovicidal, Larvicidal, and Adulticidal Activities of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) / Rosalinda Torres, Alicia G Garbo, and Rikkamae Zinca Marie L. Walde / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 7(3): pp 252-255
Hypocholesterolemic properties of grapefruit (Citrus paradisii) and shaddock (Citrus maxima) juices and inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity
/ Ganiyu Oboh, Fatai O Bello, Ayokunle O Ademosun / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Dec 2014; 22(4): pp 477-484 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2014.06.005
The Role of Pomelo Peel Extract for Experimentally Induced Wound in Diabetic Rats / Asser Ashraf Ahmad, Ihab Ibrahim Al Khalifa, Zead Helmi Abudayeh / Pharmacogn J., Sept-Oct 2018; 10(5): pp 885-891
Methanolic Extract of Peel of Citrus maxima Fruits Exhibit Analgesic, CNS Depressant and Anti-inflammatory Activities in Swiss Albino Mice / Md. Ibrahim, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Md. Shalahuddin Millat, Jahangir Alam Raju, Md. Saddam Hussain, Far- hana Sultana, Md. Monirul Islam, Md. Murad Hasan / BEMS Reports, 2018; 4(1): pp 7-11
STUDY OF FLAVONOIDS PRESENT IN POMELO (CITRUS MAXIMA) BY DSC, UV-VIS, IR, 1H AND 13C NMR AND MS / Leticia Malgarim Cordenonsi, Rafaela Martins Sponchiado, Sarah chagas campanharo, Cassia Virgina Garcia, Renata Platcheck Raffin, Elfrides Eva Schermann Schapoval / Drug Analytical Research, 2017; 1(1)
Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract / Muhamad Sahlan, Vina Damayanti, Dewi Tristantini, Heri Hermansyah, Anondho Wijanarko, and Yuko Olivia / AIP Conference Proceedings 1933, 030002 (2018) / doi: 10.1063/1.5023949
Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract / Peace Nwanneka Ani, Happiness Chiamaka Abel / Food Science & Nutrition, 20 Feb 2018 / https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.604
Study of in vitro antibacterial activity of leave extract of Citrus maxima / Amiya Kumar Prusty, Saroja Kumar Patro / Annals of Plant Sciences, 2014; 3(12): pp 899-904
GC-MS Compositional Analysis of Essential Oil of Leaf and Fruit Rind of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. from Coastal Karnataka, India / D. Anupama Prasad, B. Rajendra Prasad, D. Krishna Prasad, Puneeth Shetty, K. N. Sunil Kumar / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, May 2016; 6(5): pp 68-72 /
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2016.60511
Analysis of Major Fragrant Compounds from Citrus grandis Flowers Extracts / Zarina Zakaria, Suhana Zakaria, and Mohd Azland Mohd Ishak / Sains Malaysiana, 2010; 39(4): pp 565–569
In vitro studies on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima
/ G.VADIVUKARASI and X. AGNES JENITHA / International Journal of Research in Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, April-June 2015; Vol 4, Issue 2: pp 245-251
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY OF CITRUS MAXIMA LEAF IN STREPTOZOTOCIN- INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Sriparna KunduSen, Malaya Gupta, Upal K. Mazumder, Pallab K. Haldar, Prerona Saha, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Biswakanth Kar, Asis Bala / Diabetologia Croatica, 2011; 40-4
Effect of Citrus maxima on Hematological Parameters on 14th day in Normal and EAC Tumor Bearing Mice / SHIVANANDAA, MURALIDHARA RAO D, AND JAYAVEERA KN / Journal of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Jul-Sept 2014; 8(3): pp 15-19
Evaluation of the Anti-diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus maxima Stem Bark / Abdul Muneer MT, Ashok Shenoy, Karunakar Hegde, Sayed Aamer and AR. Shabaraya / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Jul-Sept 2014; 3(3): pp 642-650
Pomelo and grapefruit! What's the difference / Heike Kreutz / CleverStorate
Anti-alzheimer activity of citrus maxima (J. Burm.) Merr fruit peel extract in mice with scopolamine
induced alzheimer’s disease
/ Vijayalakshmi P, Radha R / International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, April 2016; 1(4): pp 77-82
Larvicidal Efficacy of Fruit Peel Extracts of Citrus maxima against Culex quinquefasciatus  / Subrata Mallick, Devaleena Mukherjee, Anushree Singha  Ray, Goutam Chandra / Journal of Mosquito Research, 2016; Vol 6, No 20: pp 1-8 /  doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0020 
Chemical Composition and Antiproliferative Activity of Supercritical CO2 Extracts from Citrus Fruits / Rajendra Gyawali, Jeong Yong Moon, Deok Hyeon Jeon, Hyoen Ji Kim, Yeon Woo Song, Ho Bong Hyun, Tae Hwan Kang, Keun Sik Moon, Seungweon Jeong, Jong-Chan Kim, Kwang Seok Ahn and Somi Kim Cho / Food Sci. Technol. Res., 2012; 18(6): pp 813-823
Pummelo - Citrux maxima / hort.purdue.edu
Toxicity of white flesh Citrus grandis Osbeck fruit peel extracts against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae and its effect on non-target organisms / Manorenjitha Malar S, Mailina Jamil, Nuziah Hashim, Ling Sui Kiong and Zairi Jaal / International Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017; 4(4): pp 49-57
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/804091/ / Ming-Chiu Ou, Yi-Hsin Liu, Yung-Wei Sun, Chin-Feng Chan / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2015, Article ID 804091 /
Cytotoxic Acridone Alkaloids from the Stem Bark of Citrus maxima / Wen-Yuh Teng, Yu-Ling Huang, Chien-Chang Shen, Ray-Ling Huang, Ren-Shih Chung and Chien-Chih Chen / Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 2005; 52(6): pp 1253-1255
Pomelo / iNaturalist
Citrus maxima (Brum.) Merr. (Rutaceae): Bioactive Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities / Biswash Sapkota, Hari Prasad Devkota, Prakash Poudel / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 2022: 8741669 / PMID: 35677374 / DOI: 10.1155/2022/8741669
Antiobesity activity of ethanolic extract of Citrus maxima leaves on cafeteria diet induced and drug induced obese rats / Dinesh Shetty Sudeep, Hegde Karunakar / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2016; 9(7): pp 907-912 / DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00173.6 / pISSN: 0974-3618 / eISSN: 0974-360X
The new exploration of pure total flavonoids extracted from Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. as a new therapeutic agent to bring health benefits for people / Shuning Ding, Peipei Wang, Xi Pang, Leyin Zhang, Lihui Qian et al / Front. Nutr., 2022; Sec. Nutrition and Metabolism; Vol 9 / DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2022.958329
Anxiolytic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Seed extract in Swiss albino mice model / Md Tanveer Ahsan, Nazratun Noor Maria, Umme Tahmida, Ayesha Akter Jasmin, Dil Umme Salma Chowdhury / Internal Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy, 2023; 9(2) /
DOI: 10.1186/s40816-023-00354-7
Antioxidant activity and inhibitory efficacy of Citrus grandis peel extract against carbohydrate digestive enzymes in vitro / Thanh Toan Ha, To Nguyen Phuoc Mai, Van Muoi Nguyen et al / Food Science and Technology, Campinas, 2022; 42: e109721 / DOI: 10.1590/fst.109721 / pISSN: 0101-2061 / eISSN: 1678-457X
Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Citrus maxima against Clinical Isolates of Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Sanjeev Kumar, Arup Kumar Samanta, P Roychoudhury, Honeysmita Das, T K Dutta et al / Indian Journal of Animal Research, 2021 / DOI: 10.18805/IJAR.B-4559
Antiangiogenic activity of Citrus maxima (Pomelo) ethanolic extracts on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (cam). / Jewel Marie Angeles, Vince Nigel Blanco, Jeff Lorenz Booc, Peter Yang et al / Thesis/Dissertations MD, 2016 / HERDIN: Health Research and Development Information Network /  Cebu Institute of Medicine
Pomelo (Citrus maxima)Peelas an Alternative Componentin Medicinal Soap Making
/ Mark Joven A Tibayan / Ascendens Asia Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Abstracts, 2019; 3(20)

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT