- Etymology: Scientific name derives from Greek peltophorum, meaning bearing a shield, referring to the peltate stigma, and Latin pterocarpum meaning winged fruited, referring to the species' fruit.
Peltophorum pterocarpum is a fast-growing deciduous tree reaching a height of 15-24 m, sometimes as high as 50 m, with a diameter of 50-100 cm. Bark is smooth and gray, with a dense spreading crown. Leaves are large and much divided, 30-60 cm long, with 8-10 pairs of pinnae, each bearing 10-20 pairs of oblong leaflets 0.8-2.5 cm long with oblique bases. Inflorescence is brown, tomentose. Panicles are terminal with rust-colored buds. Flowers are orange-yellow, about 2.5 cm in diameter, fragrant, especially t night. Fruits is a pod, flat, thin, winged, 5-10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, dark red and black on ripening. containing 1-4 seeds.
- Exotic in the Philippines, Nigeria, Pakistan, United States.
Native to tropical southeastern Asia and northern Australasia, in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and north Australia.
- In open or disturbed forest conditions; along beaches and in mangrove forests. (7)
- Often grown ornamentally.
- Methanolic flower extract yielded phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, xanthoproteins, carboxylic acids, coumarins and carbohydrates. (see study below) (6)
Study of methanol extract of flower isolated a cinnamic acid derived bisamide alkaloid (E,E)-terrestribisamide. HPLC quantification showed it to be the second major constituent (0,145%) next to coumarin bergenin (0.399%). (see study below) (14)
- Phytochemical study of ethyl acetate extract of stems isolated six compounds: bergenin (1), cinchonain 1a (2), lupeol (3), betulinic acid (4), gallic acid (5), and pyrogallic acid (6). (22)
- Study of stem bark isolated four phytoconstituents: stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, lupeol, and lupenone. (26)
- Study of methanolic extract of flowers isolated four bioactive phytoconstituents characterized as hentriacontanol, bergenin, kaempferol, and quercetin. (27)
- Methanol extract of stem bark yielded alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, terpenoids and phenols. (see study below) (31)
- Study of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate crude extracts of flowers, leaves, and bark yielded physcion (1), ß-sitosterol (2), naringenin (3), gallic acid (4), bergenin (5), and 11-O-acetylbergenin (6). (40)
- Phytochemical studies of methanolic flower extract yielded glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, catechin, and alkaloids. (see study below) (43)
- Phytochemical screening of various solvent extracts of leaf and flowers yielded phlobatannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannin, reducing sugars, phenols and steroids. In a comparative study, ethanolic extract of leaves showed highest total phenolic content (33.17 ± 4.72 mg/g) and highest flavonoid content (1.43 ± 0.01 mg/g). Ethanol flower extracts showed higher tannin content (844.59 ± 10.38 mg/g). (44)
- Study of methanolic extract of aerial parts isolated an isoflavone, mexitin. (47)
- Wind-firm because of a deep root system.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cognitive enhancing, antidiabetic, analgesic, antiurolithiatic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, acetyl- and butylcholinesterase inhibitory, neuroprotective, estrogenic, anthelmintic. pesticidal, antimalarial, membrane stabilizing, antiemetic properties.
- Stem, bark, flower, leaves.
- Used for treatment of stomatitis, insomnia, skin problems constipation, ringworm. Flowers used to induce sleep and treatment for insomnia. Bark used for dysentery, as eye lotion, and embrocation for pains and sores. Leaf decoction used for skin disorders,
- Stem infusion used in dysentery, as gargles, and muscle pains
- Flowers used as astringent for gastrointestinal disorders and for postpartum pain, sprains, bruises and swelling.
- Fuel: Used a fuel-wood; a
source of charcoal.
- Apiculture: In India, a source of pollen for the dammer bee (Trigona iridipennis). (41)
- Construction: Wood is moderately hard, heavy, and lustrous. Used for light construction, boat building, cabinetry, woodcarving and marquetry. (10)
- Fodder: Used as animal feed.
- Agroforestry: Used for revegetation and as source of green manure.
- Ornamental: Used as decorative flower in Telangana State's Batukamma festival.
- Tannin / Dyestuff: \Bark yields tannin (11-21%) of the proanthocyanidin type. Used for tanning leather and preserving and dyeing fishing nets. (10)Bark is a source of dark or black 'soga' dye in Java, used for batik work. (10) (41)
Cultural: In Singapore, considered a Heritage tree.
- Others: In Indonesia, bark used for fermenting palm wine. (41)
• Antiulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of leaves of P. pterocarpum on albino rats. Gastric lesions were induced by oral indomethacin followed by pylorus ligation. Results showed the methanolic extract exhibited dose dependent antiulcer effect as evidenced by significantly decreased ulcer index (p<0.01), significantly decreased total and free acidity (p<0.01), (3)
• Analgesic / Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity / Flowers: Study evaluated the in vivo analgesic cytotoxicity, and in vitro antibacterial activities of methanol:ethylacetate (1:8) extract of flowers of Peltophorum pterocarpum. The flower extract showed moderate dose dependent analgesic activity in acetic acid induced assay method. In in vivo cytotoxicity assay, the extract showed moderate activity with 30% cell growth inhibition against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. The extract was also active against all test bacterial except Staphylococcus aureus. (4)
• Antiglycemic / Antioxidant / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated leaf and bark extracts of Peltophorum pterocarpum for DPPH, ABTS, and galvinoxyl radicals scavenging activity, phenolic content, α-glucosidase, α-amylase and aldose reductase inhibition, and advanced glycation end-products inhibition activities. Results showed free radical scavenging activity, inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Leaf extracts prevented polyol and advance glycated end product formation, Quercetin-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranoside was identified as the active principle in the leaf extracts. (5)
• Antibacterial / Flowers: Study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of methanolic flower extract of P. pterocarpum against human pathogens. The flower extract showed significant activity against four gram positive (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. faecalis, and S. pyogenes) and three gram negative (P. mirabilis, A. baumannii and S. marsecens) bacteria. (see constituents above) (6)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Luffa operculata and Peltophorum pteropcarpum against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans using dichlormethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts. Results showed antimicrobial activity at 0.18 mg/10 mL. Activity was most prominent with the ethanol extracts and least or negligible with the hexane. (7)
• Antiurolithiatic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-urolithiatic activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Peltophorum pterocarpum leaves. Phenolic compounds were isolated from the benzene and aqueous fractions, and flavanoids and steroids from the aqueous fraction. Aqueous fractions showed highest dissolution of stones and was more effective in dissolving calcium oxalate. (11)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Inhibition of Superoxide Anion Generation and Elastase Release Leaves: Study of methanol extracts of air-dried and powdered leaves isolated two new sesquiterpenoids peltopterins A and B (compounds 1 and 2) along with 52 known compounds. Isolates 40, 43, 44, 47, 48, 51, and 52 exhibited potential effects on superoxide anion generation or elastase release in human neutrophils. (12)
• Antibacterial Against Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Study evaluated 58 preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure gastrointestinal infections for antibacterial activity against different strains of Escheriich8ia coli, including 6 strains of E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, O111:NM and O22 isolated from bovine, and E. coli ATCC25922. On 8 species (21.05%), including Peltophrum pterocarpum, exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 with inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 17 mm. The plants may provide alternative but bioactive medicines for treatment of of E. coli O157:H7 infection. (13)
• Terrestribissamide / Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic: Study of methanol extract of flower isolated a cinnamic acid derived bisamide alkaloid (E,E)-terrestribisamide. Terrestribisamide showed moderate antibacterial activity against tested strains and potent antioxidant activity at 1 mg/mL concentration. The compound showed prominent in vitro cytotoxic activity against COLO320 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line with 83.22% activity at 200 µg/mL dose with IC50 50µg/mL. (14)
• Antidiabetic / Roots: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of methanol:ethyl acetate (1:9) extract of root of P. pterocarpum on alloxan and glucose induced diabetic mice. The extract showed blood glucose reduction at dose of 150 mg/kg and increased antihyperglycemic activity at higher dose of 200 mg/kg. Brine shrimp lethality assay, the crude extract showed an LC50 of 26.25 µg/ml suggesting very low cytoxicity. Phytochemical screening of roots yielded flavonoids and steroids with absence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and triterpenes. (15)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Anticoagulant / Pods: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of pods of P. pterocarpum. Antibacterial activity of the AgNPs was demonstrated against E. coli and exhibited anticoagulant activity. (16)
• Bergenin / Cancer Chemopreventive / Wood: Study of an aqueous extract of P. pterocarpum wood exhibited potent inhibitory effects against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and against melanogenesis in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, as well as potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Two phenolic acid derivatives, bergenin (1) and gallic acid (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. Bergenin exhibited potent inhibitory effect against EBV-EA activation and against skin tumor promotion in an invivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test. Both compounds 1 and 2 exhibited melanogenesis-inhibitory activities in α-MSH-stimulated B16-melanoma cells. Compound 2 showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity. (17)
• Anticancer / Stem Bark: Study evaluated 70% ethanolic extracts of P. pterocarpum leaves (LPP) and stem bark (SPP) for LDL oxidation and cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines. Both extracts inhibited Cu2+-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in a dose dependent manner. In cancer cells, the extract triggered cytotoxic effects against human leukemia cells, CRF-SBA and HL-60. SPP mediated cytotoxicity in HL-60 and CCRF-SBA cells through activation of the apoptosis pathway, including activation of caspases 3, 9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Study results suggested stem extract may prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis and leukemia in humans. (18)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Acute Liver Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated a 70% ethanolic extract of P. pterocarpum leaves for hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol induced acute liver damage on albino wistar rats. Doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, bilirubin, TC, TG) and increased the level of tissue GSH and significantly decreased tissue lipid peroxidation. Effect was comparable to standard silymarin 100 mg/kg. Activity was attributed to antioxidant principles. (19)
• ZnO Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Flowers: Study reports on the eco-friendly, safe, simple, and non-toxic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using P. pterocarpum flower extract. The ZnONPs showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. Cytotoxic activity evaluation by MTT assay against HeLa cancer cell lines showed 50% cell viability at 10 µg/ml. (20)
• Acetylcholinesterase and Butylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves and Stem Bark: Plants have been found to be useful as memory enhancers and antiaging. Study evaluated 22 plants from 16 families for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activities. Peltophorum pterocarpum leaves and stem bark showed AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of 49.5% and 68.85%, respectively. (21)
• Peltogynoids and Phenoxychromones / Estrogenic Activity / Leaves: Study of a dichlormethane extract of leaves isolated 12 compounds: a new derivative of peltogynoid ophioglonin (1), a new 2-phenoxychromone (2) with its 3'-O-ß-D-glucoside derivative (3), along with nine flavonoid derivatives, including peltogynoid ophioglnin (4). Compounds 4 was revealed to be estrogenic. Compound 1 while unable to stimulate proliferation of breast and endometrial cancer exhibited substantial estrogen receptor α-mediated activation of gene expression. Compound 1 can be further evaluated for cancer chemopreventive potential. (23)
• Bergenin / Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: Study isolated bergenin as the major constituent of the most active ethyl acetate fraction of P. pterocarpum. The extract, fractions, and pure isolated bergenin tested for AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities showed significant inhibition of both enzymes with bergenin having an IC50 of 13.17 µM for AChE and 14.6- µM for B8ChE. Results suggest potential for traditional management of memory loss associated with AD. (24)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Flowers : Study reports on a facile green method for synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles using P. pterocarpum flower extracts as reducing and capping agents. (25)
• Neuroprotective Against H2O2 Induced Oxidative Stress / Leaves : Study reported on the neuroprotective properties of the ethanolic extract of P. pterocarpum leaf against oxidative stress induced cell death by H2O2, in an invitro model of neuronally differentiated IMR32 neuroblastoma cells. The leaf extract did not exhibit cytotoxicity to differentiated IMR32 cells. The leaf extract conferred neuroprotection to differentiated IMR32 by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment attenuated the increase of intracellular ROS induced by H2O2 in a dose dependent manner. (28)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for anthelmintic activity against earthworms. Pheretima posthuma. Dose dependent effects were observed with 25, 5-, and 100 mg/ml doses. Albendazole was used as standard drug. Further studies were suggested to isolate the active compound responsible for activity. (29)
• Antidiabetic / Flower Buds: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of methanol:ethyl acetate (1:9) extract of flower buds of P. pterocarpum on alloxan and glucose induced diabetic mouse model. Metformin was used as standard drug. The extract reduced blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by 60.40% compared to 65.48% by metformin. (30)
• Antimalarial / Modulation of Lipid Dysfunction and Hypoglycemia / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the effects of methanol extract of P. pterocarpum stem bark (MEPTS) on blood glucose level and lipid profile of Plasmodium berghei ANKA 65-parasitized mice. Parasitized extract treated mice showed dose dependent decrease in malaria parasitemia. Hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia were ameliorated by administration of MEPTS, and artemether lumenfantrin. Results suggest MEPTS may have potential antimalarial activity and modulated lipid dysfunction and hypoglycemia generated by malaria. (see constituents above) (31)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Acute Oral Toxicity Study / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the acute toxicity, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory potentials of n-hexane extract of P. pterocarpum stem bark. Acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality at 500 and 2500 mg/kbw. In analgesic testing using acetic acid-induced writhing, there was significant reduction in number of writhing. In formalin induced paw edema test for acute inflammation, extract showed inhibition of edema comparable to that of standard aspirin. (32)
• Cognitive Enhancing in Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia / Study / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the cognitive enhancing potentials of ethyl acetate extracts of Morinda lucida and P. pterocarpum in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice using Morris water maze test model. Results showed considerable enhancement of cognition in scopolamine induced amnesic mice. There was no effect on histology of the hippocampus. (33)
• Galactomannans / Seeds: Study reported on the extraction and characterization of seed galactomannans from leguminosae taxa of Bauhinia vahlii, Delonix elata, and Peltophorum pterocarpum. The seed galactomannans showed a total yield of 30.82, 24.01 and 25.25% with Man/Gal ratios of 4.21:1, 2.55:1 and 3.03:1 for Bv, Da, and Pp, respectively. The galactomannans showed an efficient water holding capacity, solubility, and emulsion properties.. Results suggest the seed galactomannans could be explored as an effective alternativ3e3 to commercial galactomannans for industrial applications. (34)
• Antifeedant / Pesticide / Pomacea canaliculata / Seeds: Pomacea canaliculata is a dangerous pest to paddy field due to fast eating of stem and young leaves of paddy. Use of synthetic pesticides have a negative impact to natural environment. Study evaluated P. pterocarpum and Ipomoea aquatica extracts for antifeedant activity to control O. canaliculata. All treatments gave high amounts of lupeol compared with catechin, rutin, salicylic acid, quercetin and kaempferol. Peltophorum pterocarpum methanol extracts showed highest antifeedant index (AFI: 46.9%) compared to other treatments. Results recommend P. pterocarpum as an alternative botanical pesticide due to its antifeedant properties on P. canaliculata. (35)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of P. pterocarpum. Pet-ether, ethyl acetate and water extracts showed pronounced antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram negative bacteria and fungus. Acute toxicity testing of flowers, leaves, and bark showed them to be free from toxic effects Antioxidant screening using DPPH assay showed various parts with pronounced antioxidant activity. In cytotoxicity testing, the ethanol crude extracts showed mild cytotoxic effect n colon cancer stem cells and human lung fibroblast. (37)
• Antiplasmodial / Hematopoietic / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the antimalarial activity of methanol extract of P pterocarpum stem bark and its amelioration of plasmodium-induced changes in hematological indices in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates, fats and oils, reducing sugars, phenols, resins, protein and steroids. No clinical signs nor mortality was noted 24 hours after a dose of 5000 mg/kbw. Treated of infected mice reduced percentage malaria parasitemia in a dose-dependent manner and restored hematological changes produced by infection. (38)
• Membrane Stabilization / Antioxidant / Protease Inhibition / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the membrane stabilization, albumin denaturation, protease inhibition and antioxidant activities and possible mechanisms for anti-inflammatory effects of stem bark of flavonoid-rich extract of P. pterocarpum (FREPP). FREPP inhibited hypotonicity-induced hemolysis by 61.03%, 76.84%, and 83.84% at 0.1, 0.4, 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. FREPP effectively inhibited albumin denaturation in a concentration dependent manner. Protease activity was significantly reduced (p<0.05) across varying concentrations. Results suggest FREPP has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may be attributed to its rich flavonoid contents to inhibit membrane, albumin denaturation and protease activity. (39)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Flowers, Leaves and Bark: Study of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate crude extracts of flowers yielded physcion (1), ß-sitosterol (2), naringenin (3), gallic acid (4), bergenin (5), and 11-O-acetylbergenin (6). All crude extracts exhibited zones of inhibition ranging from 12-20mm against six test microorganisms viz. B. subtiis, B. pumilus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and E. coli.
• Antifungal / Leaves: The crude extract of P. pterocarpum was found active against Trichophyton longifusus and Aspergillus flavus at a concentration of of 400 µg/ml, while standard Miconazole totally inhibited the growth of T. longifusus and A. flavus at concentration of 70 and 20 µg/ml, respectively. The extract showed no activity against Candida albicans, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata, (42)
• Antibacterial / Flowers: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of P. pterocarpum flower extracts against bacteria isolated from human infections. A methanolic extract was tested against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli using disc diffusion method. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Proteus mirabilis followed by Salmonella typhi. Activity was attributed to the presence of multiple antimicrobial compounds or synergistic effects of these compounds. (see constituents above) (43)
• Bergenin / Antimicrobial / Flowers: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antifungal properties of crude methanolic extract of P. pterocarpum flowers. Bergenin (C-glycosyl benzoic acid) was isolated from the methanol fraction of flowers. The compound showed antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger, and Botrytis cinerea.
There was no antibacterial activity noted. (45)
• Adsorption of Rhodamine / Removal of Dyes from Effluent / Activated Carbon from Leaves: Rhodamine B (RB) is widely used as a colorant in textiles and food stuff. It is carcinogenic and harmful to the environment. Study reports on the production of activated carbon prepared from dried leaves and evaluated its adsorptive removal of Rhodamine B. Desorption studies suggest that 79% of the dyes can be removed from the adsorbent. The PAC effectively removes Rhodamine B from aqueous solution and can be efficiently used for the adsorptive removal of dyes from real effluents from the dye industries. (46)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride / Leaves: Study evaluated various doses of hexane and ethanol leaves extracts and pure compound bergenin for invitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective albino rats with carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. Among all test samples, bergenin demonstrated maximum decrease in AST, ALT, y-GT, DB, and TB serum levels, (48)
• Antiemetic / Bergenin / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiemetic property of bergenin isolated from Peltophorum pterocarpum leaves. Activity was assessed using copper sulfate induced emesis in chick's model. Bergenin exhibited significant antiemetic activity when compared to standard drug, chlorpromazine. (49)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Delivery of Doxorubicin / Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a simple, fast, efficient, environmentally friendly and economical green method using P. pterocarpum leaves and the invitro and invivo delivery of doxorubicin using biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. Administration of doxorubicin-loaded DDS resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells (A549, B16F10) in vitro and of tumor growth in an in vivo model compared to doxorubicin alone. The cellular uptake and release of Dox in the nanoconjugated form were faster than the uptake and release of unconjugated Dox. In vivo toxicity study did not show significant changes in hematology, clinical biochemistry or histopathology in C57BL6/J mice. Results suggest potential application as an alternative cost-effective treatment strategy for cancer therapy. (34)
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