- The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, sub-shrubs, and herbs in the seasonably dry tropics of the Old and New World. (18)
Jatropha integerrima is a medium-sized branching shrub, growing up to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate to oblong, up to 10 centimeters long and 7 centimeters wide, fiddle-shaped or with 3 sharply pointed lobes. Blade is dark green above and light green below, with petioles up to 5 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are red, showy, emerging as clusters on terminal cymes and borne by a peduncle up to 12 centimeters long. Fruit is an oval 60loobed capsule containing 3 smooth and spotted seeds.
- Introduced to the Philippines in the 50s, now widely spread.
- Native to the West Indies.
- Diterpene constituents consist of macrocyclic diterpenes jatrophone, jatrophatrione, jatropholone A-B, riolozatrione, curcusones A-D, rhamnofolane, lathyrane.
- Extracts of leaves and stems yielded tannin, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins.
- Seed oil of J. pandurifolia yielded 38.40% oil content. Methyl ester analysis showed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in varying proportions along with hydroxy fatty acid up to 8.6%.
- Methanolic extract of stem bark of J. pandurifolia isolated seven compounds viz. 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), jatropholone A (2), jatropholone B (3), 2α-hydroxyjatropholone (4), 2β-hydroxyljatropholone (5), scopoletin (6) and aleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxycinnamate (7).
- Phytochemical screening using two solvent crude extracts (ethyl acetate and methanol) yielded alkaloids (EA,M),
flavanoids (EA,M), steroids (EA,M), tannins (EA), and phenols (EA). Total phenol content was 408.00±34.00 µg GAE/g. Total flavanoid content for ethyl extract of leaves was 10.14±0.59 µg QE/g. (14)
- Study of essential oil of
leaves yielded pentadecanal (32.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%) and ß-ionone (10.8%) as major components. Seeds oil yielded mainly alipathic hydrocarbons viz. pentacosane (13.6%), hexacosane (13.3%), octacosane (12.3%) and heptacosane (10.1%). (see study below) (15)
- Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). (see study below) (16)
- Study of roots yielded five new compounds, 2a-hydroxyjatropholone (1), 2ß-hydroxyjatropholone (2), 1,5-dioxo-2,3-dihydroxyrhamnofola=4)10),6,11(18),15-tetraene (3), 2-keto-5-hydroxyguai-3,11-diene (4), and a sesquiterpene-coumarin conjugate, jatrophadioxan (5), along with nine known compounds. The six diterpenes were evaluated for antiplasmodial, antituberculosis, and cytotoxic activities. (19)
- Study of ethyl acetate extract of latex of J. integerrima yielded a new cycloheptapeptide, integerrimide C (1). (see study below) (20)
- Considered purgative, styptic, emetic.
- Latex considered toxic.
- Leaves, when accidentally chewed. can cause stomachalgia and can be purgative.
- Studies have shown antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiproliferative properties.
- Caution: Seed capsules which follow the flowers hold several smooth, speckled and toxic seeds, a fact that advises the plant should be place out of the reach of children. (17)
- Plant sap can cause contact dermatitis with skin irritation, itching, and rashes.
- Monkolvisut et al (2006) reported the latex to be toxic and the leaves can cause stomachache and purgative effects.
Levine et al (2000) reports of toxicity on two boys who developed who developed intractable vomiting, colicky abdominal pains and water diarrhea one hour after ingestion of ten seeds each. (18)
- No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, used in the treatment of warts, tumors, rheumatism, herpes, pruritus, toothaches, scabies, eczema and ringworm.
- Dye: Flowers yield a natural dye. (21)
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study on the n-hexane extract of the plant showed significant inhibitory activity against tested microorganisms. It also showed significant cytotoxicity when subjected to brine shrimp lethality assay. (1)
• Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Five indigenous plants, including J pandurifolia, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. All the extractives were shown to possess significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Significant antioxidant activity was noticed by the chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of J pandurifolia, and moderate antioxidant activity from the methanolic extract of the leaves of JP. (2)
• Integerrimene / Roots: Study isolated integerrimene, a possible biogenetic precursor of the rhamnofolane diterpenes and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide 2-epicaniojane from the roots of J. integerrima. (3)
• Cyclic Peptides / Cytotoxic Activity / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclopeptides: integerrima cyclopeptide 4 and integerrima cyclopeptide B from fractionation of ethyl acetate extract of latex. The two cyclopeptides showed significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against KB tumor cells with IC values of 0.46 ±0.04 and 0.66 ±0.08, respectively. (6)
• Cyclic Heptapeptides / Antiproliferative / Melanoma Cells / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclic heptapeptides, integerrimides A and B, from the latex of Jatropha integerrima. Both peptides significantly inhibited neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell culture. They also partially inhibited proliferation of human IPC-298 melanoma cells as well as migration of human Capan II pancreatic carcinoma cells. (7)
• Enantiomeric Neolignans and Sesquineolignans / Inhibition of NO Production: Study of trunk of JI isolated two pairs of new sesquineolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignans A and B (1a/1b and 2a/2b), one pair of new neolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignan D (4a/4b), and two new neolignans, (+)-jatrointelignan C (3a), and (+)-schisphenlignan I (5a) together with seven known analogues. Compounds 5a, 6a, and 4b exhibited pronounced inhibition on NO production. (8)
• Antimicrobial / Roots: In a study of successive extracts of roots of three jatropha species viz. J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, and J. integerrima for antibacterial activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. luteus, E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans, all the extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 mg/ml extract. (9)
• Catalase Activity / Monitoring of Environmental Pollution: Study assessed the activity of detoxifying peroxide enzymes as indicators of local air pollution. Results showed that catalase activity is more effective in stress conditions in J. integerrima and C. surattensis and could be a way to estimate atmospheric pollution in tropical countries. (10)
• Anthocyanins / Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the anthocyanin content, antioxidant and toxicity activity of four red flowers (Bougainvillea glabra, Jatropha integerrima, Melastoma malabathricum and Mussaenda philippica) by DPPH and Brine Shrimp Lethality method. Jatropha integerrima showed the strongest antioxidant activity (11.67 ppm), the richest anthocyanin content (15.83 mg CGE/100 g DW) and was not toxic. Results suggest a potential pigment source for food and natural product applications. (13)
Antimicrobial / Essential Oil / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the chemical composition of essential oils of leaves and seeds by GC and GC-MS. The oils showed weak antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (15)
• Natural Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitors / Trunks: Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a potential target for cancer chemotherapy with redox balance and antioxidant functions. Study to J. integerrima trunks yielded nine new diterpenoids, jatrointelones A-I (1-9), along with seven lathyranes (1-7) and two jatropholanes (8 and 9), together with 12 known analogues (10-21). Compounds 1,3,6,7 and 15-21 showed stronger activity than positive control curcumin (IC50=25.0 µM). Compounds 17 and 19 showed highest activity with IC50 of 9.4 and 6.8 µM, respectively. (16)
• Cytotoxicity / Cycloheptapeptide / Latex: Study of ethyl acetate extract of latex isolated a new cycloheptapeptide, integerride C, which exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against tumor kB cells with IC50 1.7µM.(20)
• Larvicidal / Antifeedant / Leaves: Study evaluated the larvicidal and antifeedant activities of ethyl acetate crude extracts of Jatropha integerrima leaves against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Maximum antifeedant activity was74.33% and 70.11% at 5% concentration and maximum larvicidal activity of chloroform extracts of 76.84% and 73.12% at 5% concentration against S. litura and H. armigera, respectively. Results indicate J. integerrima has potential as alternative botanical pesticide against S. litura and H. armigera. (22)
• Wound Healing / Roots: Invention reports on the use of J. integerrima root extracts for wound healing, using an ointment formulation of methanolic and/or aqueous extracts of roots. The ointments containing the extracts were evaluated for wound healing activity using three in vivo models viz. excision model in mice, incision model in rats and excision model in diabetic rats. Results showed the J. integerrima root extracts, particularly methanol and aqueous extracts have significant wound healing property as evidenced by significant reduction of epithelization and elevation of hydroxyproline content. (23)
- Ornamental cultivation.