Ficus virens is a tree growing up to 35 m tall, deciduous, epiphytic in young stages, a spreading crown, with a few aerial roots, which thicken after they make contact with the ground. Bark is greenish-green, smooth. Bole is up to 70 cm diameter. Leaves are coriaceous, glabrous, oblong-ovate, entire or undulate, 8-19 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, acuminate, base acute, truncate or subcordate, lateral nerves 8-12 pairs; petiole articulate, glandular at the apex below. Receptacles unisexual, paired, axillary, shortly peduncled, globose, whitish with red dots. Figs are sessile or up to 0.1 cm to 0.6 cm. Species is very variable in various characteristics, as in position of the figs from axillary to ramiflorous, the shape of the lamina, the length of the petiole, and the formation of clear terminal resting buds. Flowers are three types: male, a long-styled female, and a short-styled female flower, called the gall flower; all three contained within the structure of the "fruit." Fruits are globose, 12-15 mm in diameter. (13) (3)
= Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China,
East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam, Western Australia. (1)
- Study of leaves isolated six flavonoids: quercetin (1), quercetin-3-O-α quercetin-3-O-ß-D-arabinopyranoside (2), quercetin-3O-α-D-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-α-Darabinopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranoside (5), and vogelin J (6). (see study below) (4)
- Qualitative phytochemical screening of stem bark in water, acetone, petroleum ether and ethyl alcohol yielded the presence of saponin, alkaloids, tannin, sterols, and carbohydrate.
- Considered a "strangle tree" because the seeds can germinate on older trees and grow to strangle and eventually kill the host tree. (20)
Studies have suggest antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, tyrosinase inhibitory, hypolipidemic, phytoremediative properties.
- Fruits are edible.
Young shoots, young leaves and leaf buds are eaten, raw or cooked. Sometimes used in preparing curries. (12) In Thai cuisine, leaves known as phak lueat. (20)
- Young leaves traditionally consumed by local people in Xishuangbanna. (18)
In Pakistan, leaves used for the treatment of diabetes. (9)
- In India, bark decoction used for gargling and washing ulcers. Also used in the treatment of leucorrhea.
(14) In Uttar Pradesh, used for treatment of diabetes. (16)
- Stem bark extracts used as astringent and antiseptic; used for inflammatory swellings, boils, and wound healing. (13)
- Leaves for internal hemorrhage, erysipelas, and wound healing. Stem bark used in dysentery and menorrhagia
- Ritual: In India, the tree is considered sacred as per Vayu Purana. (14)
- Agroforestry: Planted as a shade tree with its wide canopy,
- Latex: Used for caulking boats and waterproofing. (19)
- Wood: Wood is gray and moderately hard. Used for fuel or making charcoal. Used for light construction, tool making. (19)
- Fodder: Used as animal feed.
• Antiviral / Antioxidant / Flavonoids / Leaves: Study of leaves isolated six flavonoids: quercetin (1), quercetin-3-O-α quercetin-3-O-ß-D-arabinopyranoside (2), quercetin-3O-α-D-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-α-Darabinopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranoside (5), and vogelin J (6). The viral inhibitory effects of the isolated flavonoids on Coxsackie B B4 (CVB4) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were investigated. Flavonoids 1,3, and 6 exhibited mild anti-CVB4 inhibitory effects, while 2 and 3 exhibited mild inhibitory activities against HAV. (4)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Bark: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Ficus virens bark using Carrageenan-induced inflammation in Swiss albino mice. Sub-plantar injection of carrageenan caused a time-dependent paw edema. Treatment showed anti-inflammatory effect with dose-dependent inhibition of paw swelling. (5) Study of a methanolic extract of bark showed invitro anti-inflammatory effect using RBC membrane stabilization effect in heat induced hemolysis method and egg albumin protein inhibition. Effect might be attributable to alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins present in the extract. (13)
• Tyrosinase Inhibitors / Condensed Tannins / : Study of leaves, fruit, and stem bark isolated condensed tannins. Study for antityrosinase activities showed the condensed tannins were potent tyrosinase inhibitors. Concentrations for the leaves, fruits, and stem bark condensed tannins leading to 50% enzyme activity were 131.67, 99.89, 106.22 µg/ml on monophenolase activity, and 128.42, 43.07, and 74.27 µg/ml on diphenolase activity. The condensed tannins showed reversible and mixed type inhibitors. The condensed tannins could reduce the enzyme product of o-quinones into colourless compounds. Study findings can contribute to the development and design of antityrosinase agents. (6)
• Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor / Bark: Study of methanolic extract of F. virens bark sought to isolated bioactive compounds and evaluated them for antioxidant, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory and hypolipidemic activity. Study reported on the discovery of n-octadecanyl--O-α-D-glucopyranosyl(6'-->1")-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (F18) as a novel HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The inhibitor exhibited high free radical scavenging activity and marked HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity with IC50 84 ±2.8 ng/ml. The extract significantly ameliorated the altered levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins including hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity in Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The effect was comparable to standard drug atorvastatin. (7)
• Effect on Oxidative Stress, Cigarette Smoke and Hyperlipidemia: Study evaluated the role of F. virens and its bioactive compound on cigarette smoke, induced oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. Extract treatment at higher dose and F19 (n-octadecanyl--O-α-D-glucopyranosyl(6'-->1")-O-α-D-glucopyranoside) compound to CS-exposed rats effectively blocked the increase in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels (p<0.001) and significantly inhibited the lipid peroxidation process, thus preventing membrane damage, LDL oxidation, and, subsequently, atherosclerosis. (8)
• Proanthocyanidins Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer / Amelioration of 5-FU Induced Intestinal Mucositis / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the proanthocyanidins cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells and anti-mucositis activities. Cytotoxic effects were highest with the stem barks. SPAs induced apoptosis in both cell lines, which were accompanied with an increase in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, production of ROS, Bax to Bcl-2 protein expression ratio, and activated caspase-3. There was also amelioration of symptoms of intestinal; mucositis in rats. Results suggest potential as therapeutic agent for breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced mucositis. (10)
• No Phytotoxic Effect / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the protective role and phytotoxic effect of methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical analysis yielded carotenoids, flavonoids, phenols, with absence of alkaloids. Pretreatment with extract prevented lipid peroxidation and showed significant increase in antioxidant activity. Phytotoxic study showed no change in biochemical and hematological indices nor change in gross or histopathological status at dose of 1000 mg/kg. (11)
• Phytoremediation / Pb and Cd / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the growth physiological changes and absorption and accumulation characteristics of Pb and Cd of Ficus virens and L. lucidum under different Pb and Cd concentration by pot experiment. Results showed plant height and ground diameter were inhibited, biomass and total chlorophyll decreased and MDA content increased. Results showed F. virens is more tolerant to Pb and Cd combined stress and has potential for phytoremediation of Pb and Cd combined contaminated soil. (15)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Antibiotic Synergism / Leaves: Study reports on the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Ficus virens. The synthesized AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative human bacterial pathogens. The AgNPs also synergistically enhanced (2.-2-57.09%) the antibacterial activity of the antibiotic streptomycin. (17)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Young leaves of seven ficus species including F. virens var sublanceolata are traditionally consumed by people in Xishuangbanna. A study of 90% ethanolic extracts screened young leaves for potential antioxidant capacity using ABTS, DPPH, ferric reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties. Extracts from F. virens and F. auriculata showed higher antioxidant activity in all systems than other species. These two are promising sources of natural dietary antioxidants. The antioxidant activity was attributed to total phenolic and flavonoid contents. (18)