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Family Malpighiaceae
Peanut butter fruit
Bunchosia glandulifera (Jacq.) Kunth

Scientific names Common names
Bunchosia emarginata var, martinicensis Urb. & Nied. Caferana (Tag.)
Bunchosia glandulifera (Jacq.) Kunth False guarana (Engl.)
Bunchosia hypoleuca Miq. Monk's plum (Engl.)
Bunchosia martinicensis (Urb. & Nied.) Small Peanut butter fruit (Engl.)
Malphigia glandulifera Jacq. Peanut butter tree (Engl.)
Malphigia glandulosa Jacq.  
Malphigia platyphylla Sw. ex Wikstr.  
Bunchosia glandulifera (Jacq.) Kunrh is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BRAZIL: Caferana, Falso guarana.
FRENCH: Cafe bois, Cafe moka, Bunchoise de Andes.
JAPANESE: Ameishia, Arumeniaka, Bunkoshia, Piinattsu bataa furuutsu.
LITHUANIAN: Abrikosine andene.
PERUL Cansaboca, Huanuco.
PORTUGUESE: Ameixa-Do-Peru, Ameixa-Do-Para, Caferana, Cafezinho, Caramel.
RUSSIAN: Bunkhoziia abrikosavaia.
SPANISH: Ciruela, Cafe falso.

Gen info
- Bunchosia glandulifera, commonly known as peanut butter fruit, is a species of flowering plant in the acerola family, Malpighiaceae, native to Central and South America.
- The appearance of the berry is similar to coffee, and in Brazil it is called caferana or falso guarana. (5)

- Bunchosia glandulifera is an evergreen shrub or smaller tree growing up to 7-8 m high. Bark is grayish-brown, smooth to slightly rough or nodular. Leaves are simple, entire, opposite, wavy at the margins, the underside slightly hairy. Flowers are small, yellow, arranged in racemes. Fruit is a drupe, 2-2.5 cm long, orange and ripening to red, ellipsoidal, almost smooth, slightly hairy, orange to red, the pulp intensely red, stickly, slightly juicy and sweet; containing 1- or more commonly 2-seeded. Seeds are about 1-1.5 cm long, light brown, elliptical, somewhat flattened on one side, smooth and bony. (5)

- Introduced.
- Native to Columbia, Venezuela.

- Fruit pulp yields phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, flavonoids, lycopene, ß-carotene, vitamin C, and caffeine. Phenolic compounds identified were rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin. (see study below) (2)
- Bioactive compound concentration in mg/100 g of fruit pulp showed total phenolics 2.245, total flavonoids 138, total anthocyanin 15.9, ß-carotene 8.10, lycopene 16.38, vitamin C 32.95, caffeine 205.35. (see study below) (2)
- Study of fruit revealed high concentration of soluble solids and sugars in the pulp, while the seeds predominantly contained protein and ash. Elemental composition showed K, P, Ca, and Mg as the most abundant minerals in the fruit. Ingestion of 300 g of fruit provides 100% of daily requirements of some elements. Of the seventeen fatty acids in the pulp and seed, palmitic acid was the most concentrated. (6)
- Study evaluated fruits for fatty acid, proximate and mineral composition. Soluble solids and sugars were present in the pulp at high concentrations. The seeds contained predominantly protein and ash. Elemental composition showed K, P, Ca, and Mg as the most abundant minerals. Ingestion of 200 g of fruit provides 100% of recommended daily ingestion (RDI) of some elements. Of 17 fatty acids the the pulp and seed, palmitic acid was the most concentrated. (9)
- Composition and physiochemical studies of roasted caferana seeds yielded 11.36% water, 4.06% ash, 2.65% fiber, 0.82% lipids, 13.32% proteins, 67.79% carbohydrates, and 21.5% soluble solids, pH 5.93. Volatile profile analysis identified 16 compounds, with 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione imide (maleimide) as main compound in the roasted seeds. (see study below) (11)
- Study of fruit pulp and seeds yielded lauric acid, linolenic acid, docosadienoic acid, myristic acid, cerotic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, and behenic acid. The pulp showed higher concentration of fatty acids than the seed. Palmitic acid was the most prevalent. Stearic acid was also present in high concentrations, higher in the seed than the pulp. (9)(12)

- High nutritional value and possible anti-aging effects.
- Used as stimulant may be due to the concentration of caffeine in the pulp )206.35 mg/100g). (2)
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, stimulant, antidiabetic properties.

Parts used


- Fruit is edible.
- In Brazil, the fruit pulp is consumed in its natural state or as juice. Seeds are roasted and ground, and consumed in a similar manner. (2)
- A blog reports the seed or pit to be poisonous. However, no studies have suggested toxicity related to seeds.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines
- Elsewhere, reportedly eaten for its stimulant effects.
- Fruit pulp believed to provide longevity, stamina, and mental clarity. (2)

Antioxidant / Fruit Pulp:
The fruit is a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential. Fruit pulp yields phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, flavonoids, lycopene, ß-carotene, vitamin C, and caffeine. Fruit pulp showed antioxidant activity by ABTS, FRAP, DPPH. High antioxidant activity was attributed to high levels of bioactive compounds. (see constituents above) (2)
Source of Bioactive Compounds / Antioxidant Potential: The pulp contains phenolic compounds rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin. Lycopene concentration was 16.39 mg/100 g fruit and ß-carotene was 7.10 mg/100 g. Pulp was rich in caffeine (206.35 mg/100 g). Antioxidant activity by FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays, expressed per 100 g of fruit showed 19285.21 µM FeSO4, 8928.57 µM Trolox, and EC50 0.27 g DPPH, respectively. The high values can be attributed to high levels of ß-carotene, lycopene, phenolics, and vitamin C. Carotenoids are responsible for many biologic activities, among which lycopene stands out in the prevention of prostate cancer and cardiovascular diseases. (2)
Stimulant Effect / Caffeine Content / Pulp: The species is used as a stimulant, which may be due to the concentration of caffeine in the pulp (206.35 mg/100g), higher than that found in the pulp of guarana (Paullinia cupara- 22 mg/100g), but lower than in "guarana"powder, marketed at 1,418 mg/100g. (2)
Sequential Extract of Caffeine / Seeds: Study evaluated the composition of caferana seed extracts by 3-steps sequential extraction using ScCO2, ethanol, and water. High yield of 62.4% was achieved. Highest caffeine concentration was obtained. Higher monounsaturated fatty acids content was obtained with supercritical CO2. Enhanced antioxidant activity was attributed to higher phenolic contents. (3)
Antioxidant Capacity by Voltammetric Method: Study showed B. glandulifera contains high contents of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant capacity by ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH increased in the order of seed < pulp < bark < leaf < root extract. Phenolic compounds content were 302 ± 10, 327 ± 11, 1008 ± 71, 4003 ± 13 and 7502 ± 30 mg gallic acid/100 g extract, respectively. (4)
Antioxidant Activity at Different Ripening Stages / Fruit: Study evaluated the changes in bioactive antioxidant compounds in the pulp and seeds during different stages of ripening. The fruits were analyzed for caffeine, carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at four different stages of ripening. An increase in bioactive compounds were observed from the second maturation stage to the ripened fruit, with the ripened fruit showing the highest bioactive compound content. Phenolic content and carotenoid levels were highest in the pulp. Carotenoid content showed a positive correlation with antioxidant activity. Colorimetric studies showed a high correlation between levels of carotenoids and color change during the ripening stages. (7)
Drying Kinetics / Effect on Bioactive Compounds / Pulp: Study reports on the drying kinetics of B. glandulifera, pulp, as well as changes in its phenolic compounds, carotenoid content, and antioxidant activity. The drying curves exhibited a period of fast decline and an exponential trend in all of them. The concentration of phenolic compounds and carotenoids decreased during the first minutes of drying. Bioactive compounds were most sensitive to high temperatures, while antioxidant activity was mainly affected by the drying time. (8)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Bunchosia glandulifera in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Acute toxicity testing showed the extract to be safe at dose of 2000 mg/kbw. Doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o. were used. Glimepiride (2mg/kg) and insulin (0.25 IU/ml) were used as standard drugs invivo and invitro, respectively. Results showed reduction in blood glucose level and increased liver and muscle glycogen in STZ-induced rats. Increased glucose uptake and glycogen content in vitro suggested significant antidiabetic activity. In silico study showed highest binding affinity of quercetin and rutin to the target protein AKT1, compounds to which antidiabetic activity was attributed. (10)
Food Ingredient and Nutritional Potential of Seed Powder: The seeds are traditionally roasted, grounded, and consumed as powder. Study evaluated the proximal composition and volatile profile of roasted caferana seeds. Caferana is rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and contains key compounds that may enhance mental health. Study suggests roasted caferana seed powder may have potential as natural ingredient of food formulations or as alternative source of nutritional compounds. (see constituents above) (11)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Ethanolic extract of B. glandulifera leaves showed antibacterial efficacy against Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion. (12) (13)

- Cultivated.

Updated May 2024
June 2021

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Bunchosia glandulifera (Jacq.) Kunth / Plants of the Word Online
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bunchosia glandulifera / Sara de Fraga Silva, Daiane Einhardt Blank, Carlos Roberto Peixoto, Jane de Jesus da Silveria and Neusa Fernandes de Moura / International Journal of Food Properties, 2016; 19(2): pp 467-473 / DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2015.1033547
Sequential high-pressure extraction of caffeine and bioactive compounds from caferana seeds (Bunchosia glandulifera) / Sara Fraga, Klicia Araujo Sampaio / The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Nov 2020; Vol 165: 104958 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2020.104958
Voltammetric determination of total antioxidant capacity of Bunchosia glandulifera tree extracts / Carlos Roberto de Menezes Peixoto, Neusa Fernandex de Moura et al / Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Aug 2017; Vol 799: pp 519-524 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.07.003
Bunchosia glandulifera / Wikipedia

Proximate Composition, Nutrient Material, and Fatty Acid of the Bunchosia glandulifera Fruit / Daiane Einhardt Blank, Sara Fraga, Neusa Fernandes de Moura et al / Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2017; 5(8): pp 575-578 / DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-8-7
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Bunchosia glandulifera Fruit at Different Ripening Stages / Daiane Einhardt Blank, Danize Justen, Sara Fraga, Carlos Roberto Peixoto, Neusa Fernandes de Maura / Food and Nutrition Sciences, Oct 2018; 9(10) / DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.910083
Drying kinetics and bioactive compounds of Bunchosia glandulifera / Daiane Einhardt Blank et al / Journal of Food Process Engineering, June 2018; 41(4): e12676
Proximate Composition, Nutrient Mineral and Fatty Acid of the Bunchosia glandulifera Fruit
/ Daiane Einhardt Blank, Sara Fraga, Mariana Bellaver, Carla Eliete / Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2017; 5(8): pp 575-578 / DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-8-7
Antidiabetic potential of Bunchosia glandulifera (Jacq.) Kunth leaf extract in diabetic rats: In vivo, in vitro and in silico analysis / B S Eshan, Ankith Shetty, Nidhi Shetgaonkar, Zeena Fernandes / Annals of Phytomedicine, 2023; 12(2): pp 555-561 / pISSN: 2278-9839 / DOI: 10.54085/ap.2023.12.2.65 / eISSN: 2393-9885
/ S Fraga, D Goncalves, K A Sampaio / Proceedings of 14 SLACA - Latin American Symposium on Food Science / ISSN: 2447-2840
A Review on Traditional uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Potential of Family Malpighiaceae / Haidy A Abbas, Soad H Tadros, Sayed A El-Toumy, Ahmed M Salama, Rania A El-Gedaily / Egyptian Journal of Chemistry, 2022; 65(11): pp 235-274 / DOI: 10.21608/EJCHEM.2022.119510.5372

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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