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Family Moraceae
Ficus drupacea Thunb.

Zhen guo rong

Scientific names Common names
Ficus aurantiicarpa Elmer Balete (Ig.)
Ficus chrysochlamys K.Schum. & Lauterb. Basakla (Ilk.)
Ficus chrysocoma Blume Dalagit (Bis.)
Ficus citrifolia Willd. Dalakit (C. Bis.)
Ficus drupacea Thunb. Lañgaban (Mag.)
Ficus drupacea var. aurantiicarpa (Elmer) Corner Nonok (Bis., Tak.)
Ficus drupacea var. glabrata Corner Payapa (Tag.)
Ficus drupacea var. mysorensis (Roth) M.R.Almeida Puos (Itn.)
Ficus drupacea var. pedicellata Corner Puspus (Ilk.)
Ficus drupacea var. pubescens (Roem. &  Schult.) Corner Brown wooly fig (Engl.)
Ficus drupacea var. subrepanda (Wall. ex King) D.Basu Drupe fig (Engl.)
Ficus ellipsoidea F.Muell. ex Benth. Hairy fig (Engl.)
Ficus gonia Buch.-Ham. Mysore fig (Engl.)
Ficus indica L. Payapa fig (Engl.)
Ficus mysorensis Roth  
Ficus mysorensis var. dasycarpa (Miq.) M.F.Barrett  
Ficus mysorensis f. parvifolia Miq.  
Ficus mysorensis var. pubescens Roem. & Schult.  
Ficus mysorensis var. pubescens (Roth) King  
Ficus mysorensis var. subrepanda Wall. ex King  
Ficus payapa Blanco  
Ficus pilosa Reinw. ex Blume  
Ficus pilosa var. chrysocoma (Blume) King  
Ficus pubescens Roth  
Ficus rupestris Buch.-Ham.  
Ficus subrepanda (Wall. ex King) King  
Ficus vidaliana Warb.  
Urostigma bicome Miq.  
Urostigma chrysotrix Miq.  
Urostigma dasycarpum Miq.  
Urostigma mysorense (Roth) Miq.  
Urostigma pilosum (Reinw. ex Blume) Miq.  
Urostigma subcuspidatum Miq.  
Worldwide there are over 800 species of the genus Ficus (Latin: fig) and of the more than 10 species found in the Philippines, Balete is a shared common name for six of them: (1) Ficus benjamina, salisi (2) Ficus elastica, Indian rubber tree (3) Ficus indica, baleteng-baging (4) Ficus payapa, payapa (5) Ficus retusa, marabutan, and (6) Ficus stipulosa, botgo.
Ficus payapa Blanco is a synonym of Ficus drupacea Thunb.
Ficus drupacea Thunb. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Zhen guo rong.
KANNADA: Goni-mara.
MALAY: Bulu timun (Java).
MARATHI: Burali wad.
SPANISH: Higuera de Mysore.
TAMIL: Sonnai-ala, Kal-ala.
VIETNAMESE: Cây Đa lông.

Gen info
- Etymology: Ficus, in Latin, refers  to the commercial edible fig (Ficus carica). The specific epithet drupacea is  Latin, meaning  drupe-like, referring to the synconia.

Payapa is a straggler fig that starts as an epiphyte, like any strangling fig. Leaves are rigidly leathery, smooth, oblong to ovately elliptic, the smaller one oblanceolate, averaging 15 centimeters long and nearly half as wide, with blunt or rounded tip. Fruit is ellipsoid, about 2 centimeters in length, smooth and shining, hard, dull red, sessile, and subtended by2 to 3 very small ovate bracts or ebracteolate.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also native to Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Mayanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam.

-Study of leaves yielded a new megastigmane, 4'-dihydrophaseate sodium, one new benz- enediol glucoside, 1,4-di-O-β-glucopyranosyl-2-(1,1-dimethyl- propenyl)benzene, along with nine known compounds. (3)
- Study isolated seven biochemical compounds from crude extract of stem bark viz.,  β-amyrin (1), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 5-O-methyllatifolin (3), oleanolic acid (4), epifriedelanol (5), friedelin (6) and epilupeol acetate (7). (see study below) (5)

- Vulnerary.
- Studies have suggested antidiabetic,
α-glucosidase inhibitory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, wound healing, procoagulant properties.

Parts used
Roots, leaves.


- Fruit is edible; rather tasteless.
- Powdered roots applied to wounds used as vulnerary.
- Leaves of F. drupacea used to treat malaria, paragonimiasis, nasosinusitis, sinusitis, and anasarca. (3)
- In Sri Lanka, used for snake bites.
- Fiber: Bark yields fiber; makes a weak rope.

α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect / Antidiabetic:
Study of leaves yielded a new megastigmane, 4'-dihydrophaseate sodium, one new benz- enediol glucoside, 1,4-di-O-β-glucopyranosyl-2-(1,1-dimethyl- propenyl)benzene, along with nine known compounds. Compound 6 showed the strongest

-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results suggest F. drupacea is a possible source of oleanolic acid, which may be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (3)
Antifungal / Antibacterial / Anticancer / Stem Bark:
Study of crude extracts of stem barks yielded seven compounds viz.,  β-amyrin (1), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 5-O-methyllatifolin (3), oleanolic acid (4), epifriedelanol (5), friedelin (6) and epilupeol acetate (7). Compounds 3 and 7 exhibited highest antifungal and antibacterial activities against screened microorganisms. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed the highest antiproliferative activities against most cancer cells viz. HeLa, MCF-7, Jurkat, HT-29 and T24. (5)
Drupin / Acceleration of Wound Healing / Latex:
Plant latex proteases (PLPs) are an integral part in herbal wound care as it interferes with different phases of the wound healing process. The effect of PLPs with fibrinolytic activity on wound healing was investigated using a mouse excision wound model. Among 29 latices from Ficus genus tested, Ficus drupacea exhibited potent fibrinolytic activity. Cysteine protease responsible for fibrinolysis was purified from F. drupacea latex, which was named drupin. and was tested for wound healing efficacy. Accelerated wound healing was mediated by downregulation of MMP-9 without altering MMP-8 expression. Study highlights the interference of drupin in wound healing by increased arginase 1 activity and collagen synthesis, and cell proliferation and migration.
4. (6)
Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of leaves of F. drupacea, using oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defences on a model of equine erythrocytes and plasma after incubation in vitro. Results showed reduced lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified protein. Treatment resulted in reduced erythrocyte TBARS level of 21.9% (p=0.017).  Incubation of equine plasma with leaf extract increased antioxidant defences, increase activity of SOD and GPx.
Drupin / Procoagulant / Reduced Bleeding / Leaves: Activated platelets create a thrombogenic environment and amplify the coagulation process. Plant latex has been used by healers to stop bleeding from minor injuries and to enhance wound healing activity. Drupin, a thrombin-like cysteine protease responsible for platelet aggregation was purified from F. drupacea latex. Drupin exhibits pro-coagulant activity and reduces bleeding time in mice tail. It induces platelet aggregation. Study confirmed that drupin-induced platelet aggregation was mediated by both PAR1 and PAR4, synergistically. Drupin reduces bleeding time by exerting pro-coagulant activity and induces platelet aggregation by activating the intracellular signaling cascade. (8)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D. / StuartXchange

Updated January 2023 / July 2018 / May 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Ficus drupacea / © Greg Calvert / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Figweb
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / File:Ficus pumila Blanco1.203-cropped.jpg / Francisco Manuel Blanco / Flora de Filipinas / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo--Ficus mysorensis / Siddharth Mallya /  CC by SA 4.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ficus payapa Blanco / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Chemical Constituents of Ficus drupacea Leaves and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities / Phan Van Kiem et al / Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, Vol. 34, No. 1 / DOI: 10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.1.263
Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Local Tissue Damage Induced by Snake Venoms: An Overview from Traditional Use to Pharmacological Evidence / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2017 / doi:  10.1155/2017/5748256
Antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer activities of Ficus drupacea L. stem bark extract and biologically active isolated compounds / Kowiyou Yessoufou, Hosam O Elansary, Eman A Mahmoud, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak / Industrial Crops & Products, 2015; 74: pp 752-758
Drupin, a cysteine protease from Ficus drupacea latex accelerates excision wound healing in mice / Vaddarahally N Manjuprasanna, Gotravalli V Rudresha et al /  International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2020; Vol 165, Part A: pp 691-700 / DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.215
In vitro Antioxidant Response of the Equine Blood Treated by Leaf Extract of Ficus drupacea Thunb. / Halyna Tkachenko, Lyudmyla Buyun et al / Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality, 2022; 6(2) / ISSN: 2585-8246
Drupin, a thrombin-like protease prompts platelet activation and aggregation through protease-activated receptors / Vaddarahally N Manjuprasanna, Amog P Urs, Gotravalli V Rudresha et al /  Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 2021; 122(8): pp 870=881 / DOI: 10.1002/jcb.29917

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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