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Family Cucurbitaceae
Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.

Guang dong si gua

Scientific names  Common names 
Cucumis acutangulus  Linn. Patola (Tag.) 
Cucumis lineatus  Bosc Patula-baibing (Sul.) 
Cucumis megacarpus  G.Don Saykua (Bis.) 
Cucumis operculatus  Roxb. ex Wight & Am. Bath sponge (Engl.)
Curcubita acutangula (L.) Blume Angled luffa  (Engl.)
Curcubita campanulata D.Dietr. Chinese okra (Engl.)
Curcubita umbellata J.G.Klein ex Willd. Dish cloth gourd (Engl.)
Luffa acutangula (L.) Ribbed loofah (Engl.)
Luffa acutangula f. amara (Roxb.) W.J.de Wilde & Duyfjes Ridge gourd (Engl.)
Luffa acutangula var. amara (Roxb.) C.B.Clarke Ridged luffa (Engl.)
Luffa acutangula var. forskalii (Schweinf ex. Harms) Heiser & Schill. Silky gourd (Engl.)
Luffa amara Roxb. Silk squash (Engl.)
Luffa cattu-picinna Ser. Silky gourd (Engl.)
Luffa drastica Mart. Sponge gourd (Engl.)
Luffa fluminensis M.Roem. Strainer vine (Engl.)
Luffa foertida Cav. Towel gourd (Engl.)
Luffa forskalii  Schweinf. ex Hams Vegetable gourd (Engl.)
Luffa forskalii  Beck & F.Abel  
Luffa gossa Buch.-Ham  
Luffa hermaprhodita N.B.Singh & U.C.Bhattach.  
Luffa kleinii Wight & Arn.  
Luffa plukenetiana Ser.  
Luffa tenera Royle  
Luffa umbellata (J.G.Klein ex Willd.) M.Roem.  
Momordica tubiflora  Wall.  
Trichosanthes amara Blanco  
Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Jinghey, Jhinga, Titotorai. Titojhinga.
CHINESE: Guang dong si gua, Kak kuey, Leng jiao si gua, Si gua, Yue si gua, Sin qua.
DANISH: Kantagurk
FRENCH: Courge anguleuse de Chine, Papangay, Papengaye
HINDI: Hireballi, Jhinga torooee, Jhingil torai, Kali, Torai, Turai
INDONESIA: Gambas, Hoyong, Ketola, Ketola sagi, Oyong.
JAPANESE: Shokuyou hechima
KHMER: Ronôông Chrung
LAOTIAN: Looy, Mark noy.
PORTUGESE: Bucha de purga, Lufa riscada
SINHALESE: Dara veta kola, vata kolu, veta kola, Wetakolu
SPANISH: Calabaza de Aristas
TAMIL: Peerkan kai, Pekan aki
THAI: Buap, Buap liam, Manoi liam

Gen info
• Luffa is a genus of tropical and subtropical vines in the pumpkin, squash, and gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
• Loofa (loofah, loofa), the familiar non-technical
common name, usually refers to the fruits of the species Luffa acutangula and Luffa aegyptiaca. The fruit it its young stage of development is edible; fully ripened, it is very fibrous and becomes the source of the loofah scrubbing sponge. (41)
• Luffa acutangula is commercially grown for its unripe fruits as vegetable. The fruit resembles cucumber or zucchini with ridges.
Etymology: The genus name Luffa, or loofah, derives from the Arabic name louff for Luffa cylindrica. The species epithet acutangula means "with sharp edges", referring to the prominent rides of the fruit. (51)

• Patola, a vegetable, is a coarse, annual, herbaceous vine. Leaves are subrounded-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, shallowly five-lobed, and heart-shaped at the base. Female flowers are pedicelled, occurring singly in the axils of the leaves. Male flowers are yellow, 2 centimeters long, borne in axillary racemes. Calyx lobes are lanceolate and pointed. Fruit is oblong-oblanceolate, 20 to 25 centimeters long, about 5 centimeters in diameter, green, and characterized by 10 prominent, longitudinal sharp angles. Seeds are numerous and close-packed.

• It is an annual herbaceous climber. Foliage: Leaves pale green, simple, 5-7-angled or shallowly lobed with rough surfaces. Stems: Stem acutely five-angled with three or more hairy tendrils at each point where tendrils extend. Flowers: Flowers are pale yellow, 4-5 cm in diameter and unisexual. Male flowers are borne on stalks on unbranched elongated inflorescences, known as racemes, while female flowers are solitary and borne in the same leaf-axils as the male flowers. Flowers are fragrant, opening in the evening. Fruit: Matured fruit is dry and fibrous, splitting from a lid-like structure, known as an operculum, located at the apex of the fruit. Club-shaped and with ten prominent ribs running along its length, the fruit has a fibrous spongy skeleton network inside, containing numerous flattened seeds that are pitted and black without a narrow wing-like margin. Green in color when young, the fruit turns dry and brown when mature, together with the disappearance of its soft internal tissue. (51)

- Introduced; naturalized.
- Cultivated for its edible fruit.
- In cultivation in the Old World Tropics.

- Native to Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya. (21)

Cultivation & Yield
- Commercial cultivation required good care. NPK fertilizer is used to enhance growth. Pruning of lateral stems and leaves done for growth control or promotion of fruit or flower development.
- Landraces produced 10-15 t/ha. Good management have reported an average yield of 27 t/ha of young fruits for hybrid cultivars in the Philippines.

- Fruit contains a bitter principle, luffeine.
- Seed contains a fixed oil of glycerides of palmitic, stearic, and myristic acids.

- Study isolated seven oleanane-type triterpene saponins, acutosides A-G. Acutoside A was identified as oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside. Acutosides B, D, E, F and G have a common prosapogenin structure, acutoside A, and only differ in the structures of the ester-linked sugar moieties. (5)
- Nutrition assessment of fruits of L. acutangula var. amara (gm/100 g fruit powder) yielded high moisture 94.6%, crude fiber 42.94%, carbohydrates 3.86, fat content 0.1, and energy 18.18 Kcal/100g. Vitamin constituents per 100 gm were: vitamin A 0.0001 µg, thiamine (B1) 0.7692 mg, riboflavin (B2) 0.2061mg, niacin (B3) 3.1282 mg, and vitamin C 0.083mg. Mineral constituents (mg/100gm) yielded Cu 0.9, Fe 34.1, Mg 27.38, Mn 2.34, Ca 99.78, and Zn 9.52. (27)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of fruit yielded alkaloids, saponins, carotenoids, and terpenoids with the absence of flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. GC-MS analysis yielded six compounds: 2,3-dihydro,3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; (3β, 20R)-cholest-5-en-3-ol; n-hexadecanoic acid; 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester and citronellyl
tiglate.  (33)
- Phytochemical screening have isolated and identified about 50 compounds, such as flavonoids, anthraquinones, proteins, fatty acids, saponin triterpene, volatile compounds, among others. Nutritional evaluated of seed showed the presence of fats, proteins, and minerals. Protein and fat from the kernel were 39% and 44% of total weight, respectively. (34)
• Seed oil yielded total saturated (32.1%) and unsaturated (67.9%) fatty acids, identified as myristic (0.45%), palmitic (20.9%), stearic (10.8%), oleic (24.1%), and linoleic (43.7%) acid. (34)
- Proximate analysis of leaf extract yielded moisture content of 10.6%. crude protein 2.6%, crude fiber 4.0%, fat5.1%, and carbohydrate of 71.4%. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, phenols, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and triterpenoids. Elemental analysis of dried leaf revealed 58.6 mg/g calcium, 0.6 mg/g copper, 12.4 mg/g magnesium, 0.9 mg/g manganese, 0.6 mg/g zinc, 14.4 mg/g sodium, and 143.6 mg/g potassium. (see study below) (41)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of L. acutangula peel showed presence of flavanoids, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, phenols, quinones, terpenoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins and leucoanthocyanidines. GC-MS analysis yielded six bioactive compounds. Major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (the predominant compound), pectolinaringenin, benzofuran, 4-methyl-2-4-bis (p-hydroxyphenyl) pent-1-ene, cis-13-cctadecenoic acid and ethanone, 1 (2-hydroxyl-5-methyl phenyl). (48)
- LC-MS analysis of peel extract revealed presence of kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-O-neohesporoside, quercetin, cinnammic acid ethyl ester, caffeic acid derivatives such as 4-O-caffeyol quinic acid, 3-sinapoylquinic acid and 4,5-dihydroxyprenyl caffeate, orientin, and sinapic acid. (see study below) (50)

- Fruit is considered demulcent, diuretic, nutritive.
- Seeds considered purgative and emetic.

- Studies suggest antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anthelmintic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, apoptosis-inducing, anti-thyroid properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, fruit, seed oil.

· Edible; cooked or fried, used in soups and sauces.
• Occasionally, stem tops with young leaves and flower buds used as leafy vegetable.
• Young fruits of cultivars, eaten raw or pickled.
• Unripe fruit is a good source of calcium, iron and phosphorus.
Fruit considered a fair source of vitamin B.
• Decoction of leaves for amenorrhea.
• Poultice of leaves for hemorrhoids.
• Juice of fresh leaves for granular conjunctivitis in children. Also used to prevent the lids from adhering at night from excessive meibomian secretion.
• Juice of leaves also used externally for sores and various animal bites.
• Pulp of fruit used internally, like calocynth, to cause vomiting and purging.
• Powdered dried fruit made into snuff for use by those afflicted with jaundice.
• Seed oil used for dermatitis.
• In Russia, roots is used as a purge.
• In Iran and Iraq infused seeds used as purgative and emetic.
• In India, roots is used for dropsy and as laxative; leaf and fruit juice used to treat jaundice.
• In Java, leaf decoction used for uremia and amenorrhea.
• In Bangladesh, pounded leaves used for hemorrhoids, splenitis, leprosy. Juice of leaves used for conjunctivitis in children.
• In West Africa, leaf extract of ridged gourd applied to sores caused by guinea worms; leaf sap used as eyewash in conjunctivitis; fruits and seeds used in herbal preparations for treatment of venereal diseases.
In Mauritius, seeds eaten to expel intestinal worms; leaf juice applied to eczema.
• Seed used as insecticidal.
• In India, seed kernel used for dysentery; juice of fruit applied locally to cure a headache. Pulverized leaves locally applied to treat splenitis, hemorrhoids, ringworm infection, and leprosy. Leaf juice instilled on eyes for treatment of granular conjunctivitis in children. Dried fruit powder used to prevent premature graying of the hair. Root of the plant used in dropsy and as laxative. (34)

Sponge/Brush: Fibrous nature of the mature fruit, devoid of pulp, dries into a matrix of stiff vascular bundles and used as a bath brush or sponge.
Pesticide: In China, has been used as a pesticide.
• Weaving: Fibers sometimes used for making hats.

Trypsin Inhibitors: Study isolated two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, both consisting of 28-29 amino acid residues, respectively. Both strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes. (4)
Study isolated seven oleanane-type triterpene saponins, acutosides A-G. ( see constituents above) (5)
Antioxidants :
An antioxidant-guided assay yielded eight compounds. Results showed consumption of sponge gourds can supply some antioxidant constituents to the human body. (6)
Antimicrobial / Water Disinfectant :
Study showed the some antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruits of Lc as a disinfectant of drinking water. However, the disinfection performance was less that would be required to be considered reliable. (7)
Antimicrobial / Fruit:
A fruit extract of Luffa acutangula was found to have more potent antibacterial and antifungal activity than leaf extract. Staph aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species showed higher sensitivity to the leaf and fruit extracts.
Hepatoprotective / CCl4 and Rifampicin Induced Toxicity :
Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and rifampicin- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results showed significant hepatoprotection. Results suggest the contribution of endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of membrane to its hepatoprotective property. (11)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic:
Study evaluating methanolic and aqueous fruit extracts of L. acutangula fruits showed antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity, with the methanol extract superior to the water extract.
Cardioprotective / Nephroprotective / Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity:
Study evaluated the protective effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of L. acutangula o doxorubicin induced cardio- and nephrotoxicity in mice. The protective activity was attributed to its antioxidant property with resulting membrane stabilization. (13)
Anticancer / Apoptosis / Leaf Extracts:
Study evaluated leaf extracts of Luffa acutangula and Lippia nodiflora for in vitro anticancer effect against human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). Results showed high antiproliferative activity against the cell line tested. (14)
Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer:
Study evaluated various extracts of L. acutangula for gastroprotective effect on type 2 diabetic rats. A methanolic extract produced significantly increase mucosal glycoprotein and antioxidant enzyme levels in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. The ulcer healing effect was better than glibenclamide and the water extract.
Attenuation of Oxidative Damage in Human Erythrocyte:
Study evaluated the ability of L. acutangula to attenuate t-BPH induced oxidative damage in human erythrocyte. A methanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to other extracts. Results showed the aqueous fraction of fruit possess a beneficial role in mitigating t-BPH induced oxidative stress in erythrocyte. (16)
Apoptosis Inducing Activity in Leukemia Cells:
Study showed partially purified methanolic extract, F-3, dose dependently induced apoptosis in leukemia cell line HL-60, probably mediated by an intrinsic pathway. (17)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Seed:
Study on L. acutangula Roxb. var. amara ethanolic seed extract showed potent antioxidant activity by DPPH assay, significant anti-inflammatory activity (diclofenac as standard) and significant analgesic activity.
Antiproliferative / Antiangiogenic / Fruit Extracts:
Study evaluated L. acutangula fruit for its potential as anti-cancer agent. Results showed significant antiproliferative activity on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A-549). (19)
Antioxygenic Activity on Peroxidation Models:
Ridge gourd pulp and peel powders and various fractions were evaluated for antioxygenic activity. Peel powder and its extracts showed slightly higher antioxygenic activity than gourd pulp powder and its extracts, probably because of higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. (
Study showed moderate anthelmintic activity against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Anthelmintic activity increased with concentration. (
In Vitro Cytotoxicity / Human Neuronal Glioblastoma and Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines:
In vitro studies evaluated the cytotoxic potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of L. acutangula against human neuronal glioblastoma cells and human lung cancer cells. Results showed significant concentration dependent decrease of cell viability in both MTT and SRB assay. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the aqueous extract showed more potent cytotoxicity than the ethanolic extract. (
Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of various extracts of Luffa acutangula fruit and its derived fractions. Phytochemical screening yielded phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all fractions except the n-hexane fraction. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by the n-hexane fraction. and the highest total phenolics/flavonoids contents were seen with the ethyl acetate extract. Results suggest the fruit as a potential rich source of natural antioxidant for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. (
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial:
Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Luffa acutangula. Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (25)
• Zinc Nanoparticles:
Study reports on the green synthesis of zinc nanoparticles using a leaf extract of Luffa acutangula. (40)
• Manganese Peroxidase / Fruit Juice:
Study evaluated the enzymatic properties of the manganese peroxidase present in L. acutangula fruit juice. Results report the second manganese peroxidase reported from a plant source. The enzymatic properties are similar to the manganese peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca stem juice and other fungal manganese peroxidases. (26)
• Immunomodulatory / Free Radical Scavenging / Pericarp:
Bioactive ethanolic extracts of pericarp showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity by various assays. Immunomodulatory activity was evidenced by increased phagocytic index (0.028 ± 0.002) and increased % neutrophil adhesion (24.63 ± 0.87%). Isolated phenolic acid constituents i.e., gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid could be responsible for the potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. (28)
• Abortifacient:
Study evaluated the abortifacient effect of L. acutangula in 11 pregnant Wistar rats. Results showed ingestion of L. acutangula during pregnancy may inhibit normal development in exposed rat pups as suggested by reduced fetal weight and occurrence of a single cleft palate.
• Antihyperglycemic / Antinociceptive / Fruits:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract of L. acutangula fruits for antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potentials in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant and dose-dependent reduction of blood sugar concentrations. In an acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice, the extract significant dose-dependent reduction in number of abdominal constrictions. (30)
• CNS Depressant Activity / Fruits:
Study of ethanol extracts of L. acutangula var. amara fruits exhibited dose-dependent CNS depressant activity. (31)
• Removal of Acid Yellow / Seed Hull:
Study reports on the removal of acid yellow 24 (AY24) dye from aqueous solution using the low cost activated carbon of L. acutangula seed hull. Results showed L. acutangula seed hull is a potential adsorbent for the removal of AY24 through a chemical adsorption process rather than phytosorption. The high adsorption capacity suggests an alternative to commercially activated carbon for the removal of various anionic dyes. (32)
• Antiproliferative / Apoptogenic Compound / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated five major fractions for anti-proliferative activity against non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI--H460). Fraction L/FII (1,8 dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene 9,10-dione) exhibited apoptogenic activity confirmed by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. (35)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity / Fruits: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of fruits and its fractions for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced toxicity in rats. An ethyl acetate fraction at 100 mg/kg showed maximum hepatoprotective activity on basis of enzyme parameters. (38)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Bronchodilator / Antimicrobial / Seeds: Study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of seeds, and their anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, and antimicrobial activities. Study isolated compounds Cu-1, Cu-2, Cu-3, and Cu-4. Extracts yielded sugar, protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and glycosides. Cu-1 showed moderate and Cu-3 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema method. Cu-2 and Cu-4 showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against S. aureus and C. albicans. Cu-4 showed significant bronchodilator activity. (39)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the phytochemical constituents , antimicrobial resistances and mineral contents of leaf extracts. The highest zone of inhibition for the alcoholic extracts of LA leaves was against Streptococcus pyogenes (20.0 ± 0.35 mm), followed by Candida albicans 18.0 ± 0.65 mm. Lowest combined MIC and MBC of 70 and 80 mg/ml was against Streptococcus pneumonia and S. pyogenes. (see constituents above) (41)
• Antitumor against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Cells: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts and anticancer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Luffa acutangula in Swiss albino mice against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites cells.  Methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited  antioxidant activity in in-vitro models. Using doses of 200 and 400 mg/lkbw orally, both ethanol and aqueous extracts showed significant decrease (p<0.0001) in tumor volume and weight. Results showed potent dose dependent anticancer activity comparable to that of cisplatin. The aqueous extract at both doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg showed potent anticancer activity.  (43)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Anticancer / Leaves: Study reports on the green biosynthesis of Luffa acutangula silver nanoparticles of flavonoid O-glycosides (FOGs) in the anisotropic form isolated from aqueous leaves extract. FOGs are provent antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, and medicinal agents. Flavonoids present in the leaves viz., cosmosioside and cynaroside are FOG2 orginated from O-glycosidic linkages. The AgNPs showed significant activities against bacteria and cancer cell lines. Study suggests the AgNPs have potential for treatment of various types of cancers and boosting the immune system functions. (44)
• Antiproliferative Activity of Anthraquinone Derivative / Cytotoxic and Apoptosis Inducing: Study evaluated the in-vitro antiproliferative activity of 1,8-dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (DHMA) isolated from Luffa acutangula against human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). The DHMA inhibited the cell viability of NCI-H460 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 about 50 µg/ml. It significantly reduced cell viability correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with ROS generation. DHMA significant increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein such as p53, p21, Bax, and caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of NF-kB in MCI-H460 cell line. Results suggest DHMA induces apoptosis in NCI-H460 via a p53-dependent pathway. Study suggests DHMA has therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. (45)
• Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitory: Study analyzed the phenolics content of the most potent carbonic anhydrase-inhibiting fraction from an extract of L. acutangula using UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis. The ethyl acetate fraction of the aqueous ethanol extract showed highest carbonic anhydrase inhibition activity. Enzyme kinetics showed a mixed mode of inhibition. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of the EA fraction revealed a number of phenolic acids, hydroxycoumarins, flavones, flavanones, and flavonoids. The correlation of total phenolic content with carbonic anhydrase inhibition suggested potential therapeutic benefits against carbonic anhydrase-related disorders. (46)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Antifungal / Pericarp: Study evaluated the biological activities of pericarp of L. acutangula using petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanolic extracts for comparative study. Methanolic extract showed highest phenolic (45.0 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid content (4.5 mg rutin/g extract). Methanol extract also showed most potent antioxidant activity using DPPH, NO, and H2O2 scavenging assays compared to other extracts and solvents. Antimicrobial activity was studied against strains of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and culture of Candida albicans. All three pericarp extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity. (47)
• Titanium Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reported on the synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using L. acutangula leaf extract. The TiO2NPs were highly toxic against bacterial strains of B. subtilis, E. coli, E. faecalis, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and fungal strains of A. flavus, A. niger, R. oryzae, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Results suggest potential for the TiO2NPs as a novel type of antimicrobial material for treatment of microbial infections. (49)
• Antithyroid Potential / Peel: Study evaluated the potential activity of Luffa acutangula peel extract in T4-induced hyperthyroid female mice with pre-standardized dose of L-thyroxin (L-T4 at 0.5 mg/k/day) for 12 days. Administration of test peel extract at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 15 days decreased the levels of serum thyroid hormones, glucose, and tissue LPO (lipid peroxidation) suggesting antithyroid, antihyperglycemic, and antiperoxidative potential.
The antithyroid and anti-hyperglycemic actions of the test plant extract could be due to antioxidative properties of the extract phytochemicals. (see constituents above) (50)

- Cultivated.
- Common market vegetable.
- Seeds and sponges in the cybermarket.

Updated April 2024 /
March 2019 / November 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Luffa acutangula var. amara / Dinesh Valke / CC By-SA 2.0 Generic / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Luffa acutangula var. amara / Dinesh Valke / CC By-SA 2.0 / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Allozymic, Morphological, and Phenological Diversity in Cultivated Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae) from China, Laos, and Nepal, and Allozyme Divergence between L. acutangula and L. aegyptiaca
Economic Botany 59(2):154-165. 2005 /doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2005)059[0154:AMAPDI]2.0.CO;2
Study of Nutritive Value and Medicinal Uses of Cultivated Luffa acutangula

Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. / M O Soladoye and A A Adebisi / Protabase Record Display
Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: Purification, properties, and amino acid sequences / Umesh Haldar et al / Journal of Protein Chemistry • Volume 15, Number 2 / February, 1996 •
DOI 10.1007/BF01887398

Studies on the constituents of Luffa acutangula Roxb. I. Structures of acutosides A--G, oleanane-type triterpene saponins isolated from the herb
/ Nagao T, Tanaka R, Iwase Y, Hanazono H, Okabe H / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1991 Mar;39(3):599-606
Antioxidant Constituents in the Fruits of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem / Qizhen Du et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54 (12), pp 4186–4190 / DOI: 10.1021/jf0604790
Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts / Ameer Shaheed et al / Environmental Technology, Volume 30, Issue 13 December 2009 , pages 1435 - 1440 / DOI: 10.1080/09593330903193485
Sorting Luffa names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA (L) ROXB VAR AMARA ON SOME DEUTEROMYCETES FUNGI / Dandge V. S, . Rothe S.P* and A. S. Pethe / International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 1, January-February 2012
Hepatoprotective activity of Luffa acutangula against CCl4 and rifampicin induced liver toxicity in rats: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation / Vishal B Jdhav et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 48, August 2010, pp 822-829.
Ameliorative effect of Luffa acutangula Roxb on doxorubicin induced cardiac and nephrotoxicity in mice / Vishal Jadhav et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2013; 51(2): pp 149-156 / eISSN: 0975-1009 / pISSN: 0019-5189

Luffa acutangula and Lippia nodiflora leaf extract induces growth inhibitory effect through induction of apoptosis on human lung cancer cell line / Biomedicine and Preventive Nutrition, Volume 2, No 4, pp 287-293 (octobre 2012) / Doi : 10.1016/j.bionut.2012.03.002
Protective effect of Luffa acutangula extracts on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: Role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins and antioxidants / B. P. Pimple, P. V. Kadam, M. J. Patil / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2012)610-615 / DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60126-6
The Protective role of Luffa acutangula fruit Methanolic Fraction against t-BHP Induced Oxidative damage in Human Erythrocytes / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 14 January, 2011, Vol 5, No. 1
) / B. Purushotham Reddy*, A. Raghuram Reddy, B. Srinivas Reddy , S Venkata Mohan, P.N Sarma / IJPRD/2010/PUB/ARTI/VOV-2/ISSUE-10/DEC/015
Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Potential of Luffa acutangula Roxb. Var. amara / Naresh Singh Gill, Rashmi Arora and Shiv Ranjan Kumar / Research Journal of Phytochemistry 5(4): 201-208, 2011 / DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2011.201.208
Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of partially purified Luffa acutangula fruit extracts on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A-549) / Boreddy Purushotham Reddy, R Kannaiah Goud, S Venkata Mohan and P N Sarma / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 2009; 3(4): pp 396-404 / pISSN: 0973-8916 / eISSN: 2230-7303 /
In Vitro Antioxygenic Activity of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula) Pulp, Peel and Their Extracts on Peroxidation Models / Ananthan Padmashree, Gopal Kumar Sharma, Anil Dutt Semwal, Amarinder Singh Bawa / AJPS, Vol.3 No.10, October 2012 / DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.310171
Luffa acutangula / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
In-vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity of Luffa acutangula, Luffa aegyptiaca and Momordica cochinchinensis / Md. Mosiqur Rahman*, Ashik Ahmed, Saibal Saha Sunny, Md. Samiul Huq Atanu, Abdullah Faruque and Md. Sohel Rana / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4(2): 267-277, 2014
In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Luffa acutangula on Human Neuronal Glioblastoma and Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines / Nipun Dashora*, L.S. Chauhan, Neeraj Kumar / Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy (SAJP), 2014; 3(5): 401-405
Antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb fruit / Venty Suryanti*, Soerya Dewi Marliyana and Tika Wulandari / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(1):220-226
Green synthesis and physico-chemical study of silver nanoparticles extracted from a natural source Luffa acutangula / Taruna, Jyotsna Kausha, Jasdev Bhatti, Pankaj Kumar / Journal of Molecular Liquids
, Vol 224, Part A, Dec 2016, Pp 991-998. / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2016.10.065
Manganese Peroxidase from Luffa acutangula Fruit Juice / N Rai, M Yadav, H S Yadav / DOI: 10.2174/2212711904666170117143442
NutritionalAssessmentofFruitsofLuffa acutangula var. amara / Jadhav Santosh Jaysingrao, Chavan Niranjana Sunil / International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol 3, Issue 10, October 2014
Evaluation of the abortifacient effect of Luffa acutangula Roxb. in rats. / Poisoning by plants, mycotoxins, and related toxins: Chapter 41 (Page no: 270)
Antihyperglycemic and Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Luffa acutangula Fruits / Azibunnaher Juma, Mst. Rabeya Pervin, Md. Shamim Al Azad, Md. Rashedul Islam, Sk. Mizanur Rahman, Md. Zahirul Kabir, Inin Taznin, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, Mohammed Rahmatullah / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, December 2013; 7(5): pp 435-441
CNS Depressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Luffa acutangula var. acutangula var. amara C.B.Clarke Fruits in Mice / A V Misar, A S Updahye and A M Mujumdar / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jul-Aug 2004
Removal of Acid Yellow by Agricultural Waste / Porselvi E., Krishnamoorthy P.* / J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 5 (2) (2014) 408-415
Chemical Constituents of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb Fruit /  and  / IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol 193, Conference 1
Therapeutic Potential of Luffa acutangula: A Review on Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicological Aspects / Parshuram Nivrutti Shendge and Sateesh Belemkar / Front Pharmacol., 2018; 9 / doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01177 / PMCID: PMC6232903 / PMID: 30459601
Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of bioactive compound from aerial parts of Luffa acutangula against lung cancer cell line NCI-H460. / Vanajothi R, Srinivasa P / J Recept Signal Transduct Res., 2015; 35(4): pp 295-302 / DOI: 10.3109/10799893.2014.977451.
Luffa acutangula / PROTA / Pl@ngUse
IN VIVO AND EX VIVO EVALUATION OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA FRUIT EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS FOR HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY IN WISTAR RATS / Shanti Bhushan Mishra and Alok Mukerjee / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2017
Phytochemical Screening and Anti inflammatory, Bronchodilator and Antimicrobial activities of the Seeds of Luffa cylindrica. / P Muthumani, R Meera, Subin Mary, Jeenamathew, P Devi, B Kameswari, B Eswara priya / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences , Oct-Dec 2010; 1(4): pp 11-22
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC NANOPARTICAL FROM LUFFA ACUTANGULA / Kavitha Chandramohan, R. Valli, B. Mageswari / International Journal of Scientific Research, 2017; 6(11)
Antimicrobial and Physicochemical Evaluation of Luffa acutangular Leaf Extracts
/ Alagbe Seyi Valerie, Ibi Anna, Toge Christal, Amuzie Uzo Felicia, Ftepti Benson Jelani, Raji Bamanga / Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017; 2(6): pp 80-85 / doi: 10.11648/j.bmb.20170206.13
Luffa / Wikipedia
In vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-tumor activity of Luffa acutangula against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) cells bearing mice. / N Dashora, L S Chauhan / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 7(6): pp 940-945 / pISSN: 0975-7384 / CABI Rec No: 20153271907
Green Biosynthesis, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anticancer Activities of Silver Nanoparticles of Luffa acutangula Leaf Extract / Devi Nallappan, Agustine Nengsih Fauzi, Balam Satheesh Krishna, Nik Soriani Yaacob, Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao et al / Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking for Drug Discovery, Volume 2021; Article ID 5125681 / DOI: 10.1155/2021/5125681
An anthraquinone derivative from Luffa acutangula induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 through p53-dependent pathway / Ramar Vanajothi, Pappu Srinivasan / Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction,  2016; 36(3): pp 292-302 / DOI: 10.3109/10799893.2015.1108335
UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of a carbonic anhydrase-inhibiting extract and fractions of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb (ridge gourd) / Joydeb Chanda, Pulok K Mukherjee, Rajarshi Biswas, Sayan Biswas, Amrendra Kumar Tiwari, Ashish Pargaonkar / Phytochemical Analysis, 2019; 30(2): pp 148-155 /
DOI: 10.1002/pca.2800
Comparative Evaluation of multiple extracts of Pericarp of Luffa acutangula (L.) for its significant Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity / Kadu Shubhangi, Attarde Daksha, Kulkarni Deepak, Shelke Santosh, Arsul Vilas / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 021; 14(4): pp 1847-1853 / pISSN: 0974-3618 / eISSN: 0974-360X / DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00327
Phytochemical profiling of Luffa acutangula peel extract using GCMS Study / Ananthalakshmi R, Rajarathinam S R Xavier, Sadiq A Mohamed, Poongothai A / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology,  2019; 12(12): pp 6071-6074 / DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.01054.0 / pISSN: 0974-3618 / eISSN: 0974-360X
Green synthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Luffa acutangula leaf extract / Devipriya Anbumani, Kayal Vizhi Dhandapani, Ranganathan Babujanarthnam et al / Journal of King Saud University Science, 2022; 34(3): 101896 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jksus.2022.101896
Evaluation of antithyroid potential of Luffa acutangula peel extract and its chemical constituents as identified by HR-LC/MS / Lata Sunhre, Anand Kar, Sunanda Panda / J Food Sci Technol, 2020; 57(8): pp 2819-2827 / DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04313-9
Luffa acutangula / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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