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Family Salicaceae
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.

Ci li mu

Scientific names  Common names
Flacourtia afra Pic. Serm. Bitangol (Sbl.) 
Flacourtia balansae Gagnep. Bitunogo (Tag.) 
Flacourtia elliptica (Tul.) Warb. Bolong (Mang.) 
Flacourtia frondosa Clos Palutan (Ibn.)
Flacourtia gambecoloa Clos Saua-saua (Bis.)
Flacourtia heterophylla Turcz. Batoka plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia hilsenbergii C.Presl Botoko plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia hirtiuscula Oliv. Governor's plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Indian plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia indica var. innocua (Haines) H.O.Saxena & Brahmam Madagaskar plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia kirkiana H.M.Gardner Madaraskara plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia lenis Craib Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)
Flacourtia lucida Salisb. Madaraskara plum (Engl.)
Flacourtia obcordata Roxb. Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)
Flacourtia parvifolia Merr. Ramontchi (Engl.)
Flacourtia perrottetiana Clos  
Flacourtia ramontchi var. renvoizei Fosberg  
Flacourtia rotundifolia Clos  
Flacourtia rotundifolia Roxb.  
Flacourtia sapida Roxb.  
Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.  
Flacourtia sepiaria var. innocua Haines  
Flacourtia thorelii Gagnep.  
Gmelina indica Burm. f.  
Gmelina javanica Christm.  
Myroxylon dicline Blanco  
Stigmarota africana Lour.  
Stigmarota edulis Blanco  
Xylosma ellipticaTul.  
Verlangia indica Neck. ex Raf.  
Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Goewerneurspruim, Kokowiand.
BENGALI: Bincha, Binja, Bainchi, Benchi, Bewich, Boichi, Katai, Tambat.
BURMESE: Naywe, Nayuwai.
CHINESE: Ci li mu, Nuo nuo guo, Ci zi, Xi xiang le guo.
GERMAN: Batokopflaume, Echte Flacourtie, Madagaskarpflaume, Ramontchi.
HINDI: Baichi, Bilangra, Bhanber, Ghargoogar, Kakein, Kandai, Katai, Kondai, Kondari, Kukai
HUNGARIAN: Batokószilva, Madagaszkáriszilva, Maronszilva, Kormányzószilva, Ramoncsi.
JAPANESE: Indo rukamu, Ramonchii.
KANNADA: Dodda gejjalakai, Llumanika, Kaakade, Miradi, Mullu thaare.
LAOTIAN: Mak ken, Mak keng.
MALAY: Duri rukem, Ganda rukem, Kerkup kechil, Rukam sepat, Rukem mincid.
MALAYALAM: Kurumuli, Karimulli, Kattukara, Ramontchi, Vayankkaitha.
NDEBELE: Umthunduluka.
PORTUGUESE: Ameixa de Madagáscar,, Ameixa da Mauricia, Cerezo del gobernador.
SANSKRIT: Vikankata, Gopakanta, Aghori, Svadukantaka, Shruvavrikksha.
SHONA: Munhunguru.
SINHALESE: Uguressa.
SPANISH: Ciruela de Madagascar , Ciruela del gobernador, Ciruela gobernadora, Ramontchi.
SRI LANKAN: Uguressa, Ikkuressa, Karukkai, Katu-kali, Karamba.
SWAHILI: Mchongoma, Michongoma (pl.), Mgo, Mkingii, Mkingila, Mkingili, Mugovigovi, Ngovigovi.
TAMIL: Cottaikkalaa, Sottaikala, Kat ukala, Malukkarai, Kodumundi, Nattukottaikkalai.
TELUGU: Kanaregu (as F. sepiaria), Kandregu (as F. sepiaria), Pulivelaga (as F. sepiaria).
THAI: Ma kwen pa, Ta khop pa.
TIBETAN: Bi ka na ka.

Gen info
- Flacourtia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, previously placed in the now defunct family Flacourtiaceae. It contains 15 species of shrubs and small tress native to African and Asian tropics and subtropics. (34)
- Etymology: The genus name Flacourtia honors Etienne de Flacourt (1607-1660), a governor of Madagascar. The specific epithet indica refers to the east as home of the little tree of Transvaal bushveld. (34) (28)

Palutan is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 centimeters long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 millimeters in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 centimeter in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. Pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, agreeable in flavor, enclosing 6 to 10 small,
flattened seeds.

- Native to the Philippines.
- In dry thickets at low altitudes in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro.

- Also native to Aldabra, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe. (18)

- Phytochemical screening of ethanoic extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, terpenoids and steroids. (See study below) (7)
- Study of methanol extract of roots yielded flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (22)
- Study yielded a new phenolic glucoside, (rel)-2-(4',6' -dibenzoyl-beta-glucopyranosyloxy)-7-(1alpha-hydroxy-2alpha-ethoxy-6alpha-acetyloxy-3-oxocyclohex-4-enoyl)-benzyl alcohol (Flacourticin) (1) and the known, 2-(4',6'-dibenzoyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)-5-hydroxy benzyl alcohol (4'-benzoylpoliothrysoside) (2) together with the new, (2E)-heptyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), (+)-catechin (4) and sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside were isolated from Flacourtia indica. (see study below) (24)
- Fruits are rich in copper and manganese. Mineral analysis showed: (macroelement mg/100g) N 0.64 ± 0.025, P 0.13 ±0.017, K 1184.3 ±4.5, Ca 434.8 ±0.1, Mg 130 ±1/3, Na 146.3 ±1.5; (microelement mg/100g) Fe 1523 ±0.19, Zn 2.13 ±0.32, Cu 7.6 ±0.06, Mn 10.37 ±0.49. (26)
- Study isolated six compounds viz., (1) 2-(2-benzoyl-b-D- glucopyranosyloxy)-7-(1a,2a,6a-trihydroxy-3-oxocyclohex-4- enoyl)-5-hydrox -ybenzylalcohol, (2) poliothrysoside, (3) catechin-[5,6-e]-4b-(3,4- dihydro xyphenyl) dihydro-2(3H)- pyranone, (4) 2-(6-benzoyl-b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-7- (1a,2a,6a-trihydroxy-3-oxocyclo hex-4-enoyl)-5- hydroxybenzyl alcohol (5), chrysoeriol-7-O-b-D- glucopyranoside and (6) mururin A. (see study below) (29)

- Bark is astringent.
- Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.
- Studies of various plant parts have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antidyslipidemic, anticancer, antiproliferative, antiviral, antiadipogenic. diuretic, antibiofilm, cardioprotective properties. (8)

Parts utilized
Bark, root, leaves, fruits.

- Fruits are edible, eaten raw or stewed. Also dried or made into jams and jellies.
- Fruit used for making wine.

- In India, infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.
- In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.
- The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.
- Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.
- Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.
- As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother's milk.
- Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.
- In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.
- The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.
- In India, used as an antiviral.
- In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.
- In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.
- In Africa, stem barks, fruits, and leaves used for epilepsy, headache, fever, stomach-ache, diarrhea, and sleep disorders. (27)
- In Sri Lanka, young fruit taken for internal hemorrhages; ripe fruit as liver tonic. Root power with kithul juggary taken as expectorant. Decoction of roots taken for treatment of urinary calculi. Gum used in treatment of cholera. (32)
• Fodder: Grazed on by game. In India, branches and leaves lopped for cattle. (28)
• Tannin or dyestuff: Bark is used as tannin material. (28)
• Fuel: Wood used as firewood and charcoal. (28)
• Boundary / barrier: Closely planted, it forms an impenetrable hedge barrier. (28)

Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity / Aerial Parts: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes. (1)
Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage. (4)
Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica. (5)
Anti-Asthmatic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-asthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves. Results showed anti-asthmatic activity with significant antihistaminic (H1-receptor antagonist) activity, bronchodilator and mast cell stabilizing property. (8)
Diuretic / Roots: Study evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of roots. Phyto screening yielded carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, and terpenoids. Results showed significant increase in urine volume as well as Na+, K+, Cl- ion concentration in albino rats. (9)
Antimalarial / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated aerial parts for antimalarial activity. Decoction of plant material yielded three compounds: pyrocatechol, homaloside D, and poliothrysoside. The poliothrysoside exhibited strong antiplasmodial activity a good selectivity index similar to chloroquine. (10)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of F. indica for antioxidant activity. Results showed potent antioxidant activity in all models when compared to ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity was attributed to flavonoids and phenolics present in the extracts. (11)
Anti-Anxiety: Study of an alcoholic extract of leaves showed significant anti-anxiety activity using a Elevated plus maze and Hole board method. Acute oral toxicity testing revealed an LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kbw. (12)
Cardioprotective / Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of F. indica against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Results showed pretreatment with the extract can prevent heart damage by DOX-induced injury in rats, likely mediated through its antioxidant activities. (13)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Flacourtia ramontchii for analgesic activity in Swiss albino mice and Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed significant dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in both acute as well as subacute animal models. (15)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study of chloroform and methanol extract showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model, equipotent to anti-inflammatory activity of standard indomethacin. The methanol extract showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration of 1000 mg/ml. (16)
Flacourtosides A-F/ Phenolic Glycosides / Chikungunya / Dengue: In search of novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, ethyl acetate extracts of stem barks were studied in CHIKV virus-cell based assay and DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. Study yielded six new phenolic glycosides, flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D and poliothrysoside and betulinic acid 38-caffeate. Significant inhibition was observed in the DENV RNA polymerase assay with betulinic acid 3ß-caffeate. Several fractions and extracts showed significant antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, while none of the purified compounds did. (17)
Antidyslipidemic / Antioxidant / Anti-Adipogenic / Leaves: Study investigated the possible mechanism for the antidyslipidemic activity of hydromethanolic extract from F. indica leaves.
F. indica at 150 mg/kg significantly lowers the plasma level of total cholesterol (17%), triglycerides (13%), and phospholipids (16%) by increasing post-heparin lipolytic activity (19%) and lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase activity (20%) in Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The extract also showed significant in vitro antioxidant and anti-adipgenic activity. The extract was non-toxic up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw in acute oral toxicity study. Results suggest potential in preventing clinical deterioration induced by dyslipidemia along with oxidative stress. (19)
Antiproliferative / Pro-Apoptotic / Human Colon Cancer Cells / Aerial Parts: Study investigated the anticancer effects of methanolic extract of F. indica aerial parts in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. Results showed Flacourtia indica possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HCT116 cells and the effects are partly due to ROS dependent activation of caspases. (20)
Hepatoprotective / Methotrexate-Induced Hepatotoxicity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated petroleum ether extract of aerial parts for hepatoprotective effect in methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity in rat models. Results showed significant improvement in level of marker enzymes for liver function and oxidative stress, together with histopathological reversal of MTX induced necrosis. (21)
Antibacterial / Roots: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of F. indica root extract against selected human pathogenic bacteria. Results showed effective antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 50-200 mg/ml. (see constituents above) (22)
Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of F. indica in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant alterations in fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, liver glycogen, glycosylated hemoglobin and body weight in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (23)
Phenolic Glucosides / Radical Scavenging Activity: Study yielded a new phenolic glucoside, Flacourticin, together with 4 other compounds. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Compound 3 was found to be two-fold less potent, with IC50=12.01 µg/mL, compared to positive control, Rutin (IC50 of 5.83 µg/mL). (see study above) (24)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Diuretic: Study investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic activities of methanol extract of F. indica. Results showed antinociceptive activity with significant reduction of number of acetic acid induced writhing in mice, anti-inflammatory activity with significant reduction of volume of carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Extract also showed good diuretic activity with marked increased in urine volume as compared to standard furosemide. (25)
Antiepileptic: In a study that evaluated the anticonvulsant and sedative properties of plants used to treat insomnia and epilepsy in traditional African medicine, Flacourtia indica was one of the plant extracts that showed anticonvulsant properties on STR-, PIC-, and PTZ-induced convulsions. (27)
• Isolated Bioactive Phytoconstituents / An In Silico Perspective: Study isolated six compounds viz., (1) 2-(2-benzoyl-b-D- glucopyranosyloxy)-7-(1a,2a,6a-trihydroxy-3-oxocyclohex-4- enoyl)-5-hydrox -ybenzylalcohol, (2) poliothrysoside, (3) catechin-[5,6-e]-4b-(3,4- dihydro xyphenyl) dihydro-2(3H)- pyranone, (4) 2-(6-benzoyl-b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-7- (1a,2a,6a-trihydroxy-3-oxocyclo hex-4-enoyl)-5- hydroxybenzyl alcohol (5), chrysoeriol-7-O-b-D- glucopyranoside and (6) mururin. All six compounds were nontoxic and showed good ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) profiles and high drug likeness, with potential as phytopharmaceuticals and novel drug compounds. (29)
• Antixoxidant Activity / Stem Bark and Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of stem bark and leaves of Flacourtia indica for antioxidant activity. Quantification showed 15.62 and 11.53% w/w phenolics, 1.15 and 1.80% w/w of flavonoil in the methanol extract of stem bark and leaves. The ME showed effective DPPH radical scavenging activity with low IC50 of 17.5 and 21 µg/ml, respectively. The greater the phenolic content, the greater and more potent the radical scavenging effect. (30)
• Phenolic Glycosides / Antimalarial / Aerial Parts: Study identified phenolic glycosides from aerial parts of F. indica as promising antiplasmodial agents. CPG, a phenolic glycoside was found to exhibit promising antiplasmodial activity by arresting P. falcifarum growth at the trophozoite stage. The CPG showed exhibited significant antimalarial activity against P. berghei at 50 and 75 mg/kbw via chemosuppression of parasitemia and amelioration of parasite induced inflammatory and oxidative (hepatic) imbalance in experimental mice. (31)
• Anxiolytic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated Flacourtia indica powdered leaf extract for anxiolytic activity in mice using staircase and light dark exploration methods. In both methods, the alcoholic extract showed significant anxiolytic activity. Diazepam was used as standard. (32)
• Antioxidant / Modulation of Antioxidant Gene Expression / Amelioration of Renal Dysfunction / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of F. indica fruit extract against isoprenaline (ISO) induced renal damage in rats. ISO increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) in kidneys followed by decrease in antioxidant enzymes functions. The extract reduced MDA, NO, and APOP level in kidney of ISO administered rats. Fruit extract modulated genes expressions related to inflammation and oxidative stress in kidneys. The beneficial effects were attributed to phenolic antioxidants. Study suggests the fruit extract may prevent kidney dysfunction in ISO administered rats via prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation. (35)
• Antidyslipidemic Mechanism / Leaves: Study evaluated hydroalcoholic extract of F. indica leaves possible mechanism of antidyslipidemic activity. Hyperlipidemic was induced by single intraperitoneal dose of Triton WR-1339 in Charles Foster rats. Extract dose of 150 mg/kg significantly lowered plasma level of total cholesterol (17%), triglycerides (13%), and phospholipids (1%) by increasing post-heparin lipolytic activity (19%) and lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase activity (20%) in the hyperlipidemic rats. Extract also exhibited significant invitro antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activity . HPLC analysis showed presence of flavanones and flavones in the extract. Acute oral toxicity study showed the extract was non toxic up to a dose of 2000 mg/kbw. Results showed F. indica has potential in preventing clinical deterioration induced by dyslipidemmic along with oxidative stress. (36)
• Antidiabetic/ Fruits: Study evaluated the invitro antidiabetic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. indica fruits by different enzyme inhibition methods. Both extracts showed potent inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract showed highest inhibition at concentration of 100 µg/mL with IC50 of 84.02. Acarbose was used as standard drug. (37)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Antibiofilm / Leaves: Study reports on the biogenic synthesis of F. indica based silver nanoparticles using an aqueous leaf extract.  The AgNPs showed potent anti-microbial and anti-biofilm potential through test tube adherence method and congo red agar method. The AgNPS inhibited the formation of biofilm of observed bacteria, even at minimum concentration of 80 µg/ml. Results suggest the AgNPs can be used against wound associated microbes, especially bacterial coating on medical devices, to prevent antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections. (38)
• Antifungal / Antioxidant / Root: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antifungal activities of methanol root extract of F. indica in vitro against human fungal pathogens, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, NOS, RPA, and TPC. The root extract showed stronger activity against T. mentagrophytes, generating a broader zone of inhibition. Clotrimazole was used as control. The methanol root extract showed outstanding NOS and antioxidant properties in a dose-dependent manner. (39)
• Anticonvulsant / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of F. indica on pentylenetetrazome (PTZ) induced convulsions in albino mice. Anticonvulsant activity was measured by latency, jerky movements, Straub's tail, clonic convulsions, and death/recovery of animals in PTZ induced convulsions. Extract dose at 400 mg/kg prolonged the latency and onset of seizure activity compared to 100 and 200 mg/kg. (40)
• Phytochemical Screening / Leaf and Ripe Fruit: Study evaluated the qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals in aqueous, ethanol, and methanol leaf and ripe fruit extracts. Qualitative screening showed presence of saponin, tannin, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and phenols in the tested extracts. Proteins and steroids were not detectable in the aqueous and ethanol leaf and ripe fruit extracts but present in moderately high amounts (++)  and trace (+) in the methanol leaf extract. Quantitative screening showed glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins were higher and phenol lower in the ethanol leaf extract; phenols were higher in the aqueous leaf extract. Flavonoids and alkaloids were higher in the ethanol fruit extract, while tannins were higher in the aqueous fruit extract. Results suggest the leaf and ripe fruit are rich sources of secondary bioactive phytoconstituents, and ethanol is a better solvent for extraction. (41)
• Antidiarrheal / Antibacterial / Bark: Study evaluated the comparative antimicrobial activities and composition of various extracts of F. indica bark, S. madagascariensis leaf, and X. caffra leaf extracts against putative isoolates of Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Hot water and cold water extracts showed significantly greater inhibitory activities than the ethanolic extract against Shigella spp. and S. typhi (p<0.05). Study suggests the use of hot water extract method for preparation of medicinal products from the three species for management of diarrhea caused by S. typhi or Shigella spp , but not E. coli. (42)

- Wildcrafted.

Updated September 2023 / August 2018 / July 2016

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Flacourtia indica - Fruit and leaves / J M Garg / CC BY 3.0 / click on link or image to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Governor's Plum, Tambat, batoka plum, Madagascar plum, Mauritius plum, Rhodesia plum or athrun Flacourtia indica in Hyderabad, India. / Archivo:Flacourtia indica in Hyderabad W IMG 5601.jpg / J M Garg / 7.2.09 / click on photo to see source image / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Leaves and fruits / Governor's Plum, Flacourtia indica / Copyright © National Trust of Australia / click on photo to see source image / National Trust
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Flacourtia indica fruit / Copyright © FREEPIK / Non-commercial use / click on photo or link to see source image / FREEPIK

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Protective effects of Flacourtia indica aerial parts extracts against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxiciy in rats / Marina Nazneen MD et al / JTUSCI 2: 1-6 (2009)
ETHNOBOTANICAL APPLICATION OF SABAH MEDICINAL PLANTS / Guntavid, Ethno-botanic Garden, Sabah Museum, 1998.
FLACOURTIA INDICA / Indigenous multipurpose trees of Tanzania: uses and economic benefits for people / FAO Corporate Document Repository
Aqueous Extract of Flacourtia indica Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat / Gnanaprakask K, Madhusudhana Chetty C et al / International Journal of Biological and Life Sciences 6:1 2010
Antimalarial compounds from the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica (Flacourtiaceae) / Ali Mohamed Kaou . Valerie Mahiou-Leddet et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 130, Issue 2, 20 July 2010, Pages 272-274 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.04.045
Sorting Flacourtia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.-A Phytopharmacological: Review / Gopi Chand Kota*, Karthikeyan M, Kannan M and Rajasekar / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 3(1), Jan-Mar 2012
Anti-Asthmatic Potential of Flacourtia indica Merr / Satyanand Tyagi, Mahendra Singh, Dashrath Singh, Indu Yadav, Sunil Singh, Mohd Hashim Mansoori / African Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 01/2011; 3:201-204.
Diuretic activity of the roots of Flacourtia indica / Ancy P , Padmaja V*, Radha K, and Hisham A / Hygeia. J. D. Med.vol.5 (1), April 2013
Antimalarial compounds from the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica (Flacourtiaceae). / Kaou AM, Mahiou-Leddet V, Canlet C, Debrauwer L, Hutter S, Laget M, Faure R, Azas N, Ollivier E. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):272-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.04.045. Epub 2010 May 8.
In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extract of Flacourtia indica Merr
/ S.N. Tyagi, Rakshit, Ajeet singh, Raghvendra, Anamika Saxena and B.D. Patel / American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 5 (3): 201-206, 2010
STUDY OF ANTI-ANXIETY ACTIVITY OF FLACOURTIA INDICA LINN BY ELEVATED PLUS MAZE AND HOLE BOARD (HEAD DIPPING) METHODS / Gnanasekar. N., Dr. C. Uma Maheswara Reddy, Dr. N. Narayanan / Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Protective effects of Flacourtia indica on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats / S Palani, M Jayakumar, S Karthi and S Raja / Toxocological & Environmental Chemistry, Vol 94, No 5, May 2012, 1014-1025.
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of life, China
T / Shailendra Gurav*, Vijay Gulkari, Nandkishore Duragkar, Satish Sakharwade, Prakash Itankar, Arun Patil / Pharmacologyonline 2: 20-31 (2007)
Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves / Sulbha Lalsare, Prabhakar Kumar Verma, Mamta Khatak, Sudhir Ranjan, Suresh Rajurakar, Shailendra S.Gurav / Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., April-June 2011, 3(2): pp 308-313
Flacourtosides A–F, Phenolic Glycosides Isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi / Mélanie Bourjot, Pieter Leyssen, Cécilia Eydoux, Jean-Claude Guillemot, Bruno Canard, Philippe Rasoanaivo , Françoise Guéritte, and Marc Litaudon * / J. Nat. Prod., 2012, 75 (4), pp 752–758 / DOI: 10.1021/np300059n
Flacourtia indica / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
A mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation of efficacy of Flacourtia indica in management of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. / Singh SV, Shrivastava A, Jyotshna, Chaturvedi U, Singh SC, Shanker K, Saxena JK, Bhatia G, Pal A. / J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Mar;27(2):121-9 / doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0017.
Methanol extract of Flacourtia indica aerial parts induces apoptosis via generation of ROS and activation of caspases in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. / Park KW, Kundu J, Chae IG, Bachar SC, Bae JW, Chun KS. / Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(17): pp 7291-7296 / DOI: 10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.17.7291
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FLACOURTIA INDICA (BURM.F) MERR. IN METHOTREXATE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY / JOYAMMA VARKEY, JAYA THOMAS / PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011; 2(2-3) / pISSN: 0976-3090 / eISSN: 2231-0541
Antibacterial potential and phytochemical analysis of Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. root extract against human pathogens / Eramma N and Devaraja Gayathri * / IAJPR. 2013; 3(5): 3832-3846
Antidiabetic effects of Flacourtia indica Merr in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / Virendra Singh, Mahendar Singh, Smita Shukla, M.L. Kori / Global Journal of Pharmacology 5 (3): 147-152, 2011
Phenolic Glucosides from Flacourtia indica / Swati Madan, Steve T Pannakal, Seru Ganapaty, Yatendra Kumar / Natural product communications 4(3):381-4, April 2009
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic activity of methanol extract of Flacourtia indica / Juthika Kundu, Monika Roy, Sitesh Chandra Bachar, Kyung-Soo Chun,* and Joydeb Kumar Kundu* / Arch. Bas. App. Med. 1 (2013) 45 - 51
MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOME WILD EDIBLE FRUITS FROM KOLHAPUR DISTRICT / Valvi, S.R. and Rathod, V.S* / International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vol 2, Issue 1, Jan-Mar 2011
Antiepileptic Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine to Treat Epilepsy / E. Ngo Bum et al.* / Clinical and Genitic Aspects of Epilepsy
Flacourtia indica / WorldAgroForestry
Characterization of isolated bioactive phytoconstituents from Flacourtia indica as potential phytopharmaceuticals - An in silico perspective / Suhail Mohammed Hussain, Mohammed Sadath Hussain, Arbaaz Ahmed L and Nahida Arif /
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2016; 5(6): --pp 323-331
Phytochemical Analysis and Free-Radical Scavenging Activity of Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. / Madan Swati, Singh Gyanendra Nath, Kumar Yatendra, Kohli Kanchan, Singh Raman Mohan, Om Prakash / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research / DOI: 10.18579/jpcrkc/2009/8/2/79760
A phenolic glycoside from Flacourtia indica induces heme mediated oxidative stress in Plasmodium falciparum and attenuates malaria pathogenesis in mice. / Singh SV, Manhas A, Singh SP, Mishra S, Tiwari N, Kumar P, Shaker K et al / International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 21 Apr 2017; 30: pp 1-9 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.04.010 / (PMID:28545664)
Flacourtia indica / Asia-Medicinal Plants
ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF FLACOURTIA INDICA USING STAIR CASE AND LIGHT DARK EXPLORATION METHODS IN MICE / N. Gnanasekar, C. Uma Maheswara Reddy, N. Narayanan, C. Chamundeeswari, T.K. Gopal / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jan-Mar 2014; 7(1)

Flacourtia / Wikipedia
Flacourtia indica fruit extract modulated antioxidant gene expression, prevented oxidative stress and ameliorated kidney dysfunction in isoprenaline administered rats / Saiima Selim, Noushin Akter, Shariful Islam Nayan, Faizul Islam Chowdhury, Md Ashraful Alam et al / Biochem Biophys Rep., 2021; 26: 101012 / DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2021.101012
A mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation of efficacy of Flacourtia indica in management of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats / Shiv Vardan Singh, Atul Shrivastava. Jyotshna Upma Chaturvedi, Gitika Bhatia, Anirban Pal et al / J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol., 2016; 27(2): pp 121-129 /  DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2015-0017
Anti-diabetic potential of fruit extracts of Flacourtia indica (Burm. F.) Merr-An in-vitro study / Sudhina Makuttan, Jennifer Fernandes, Ambily PG / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2022; 13(4): pp 491-496 / DOI: 10.56042/ijnpr.v13i4.48344
Flacourtia indica based biogenic nanoparticles: development, characterization, and bioactivity against wound associated pathogens / Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Babar Taj, Muhammad Ramzan, Hafiz M N Iqbal et al / Materials Research Express, 2020; 7(1): 015026 / DOI: 10.1088/2053-1591/ab6123
In vitro antioxidant and antifungal activity of methanol root extract of Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. against selected fungal species / N Eramma, Devaraja Gayathri / BIOMEDICINE, 2021; 41(3) /
DOI: 10.51248/V41I3.1218
Evaluation of Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activity of Flacourtia indica on Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) Induced Convulsions in Mice / C Ayyanna, B Narmada, G Suresh, D Munaf, B Radha, K Bhavani, M Anitha / RJPT: Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology,  2020; 13(4) / pISSN: 0974-3618 / eISSN: 0974-360X / DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00318.2
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS, ETHANOL AND METHANOL EXTRACTS OF FLACOURTIA INDICA LEAF AND RIPE FRUIT / Alexander Idoko, Ufedo-Enyo G Emmanuel, Orji Ifeoma Catherine / Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2022; 7(5) / DOI: 10.22270/ujpr.v7i5.836
Aqueous extracts of Flacourtia indica, Swartzia madagascariensis and Ximenia caffra are strong antibacterial agents against Shigella spp., Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli O157 / Constance Chingwaru, Tanja Bagar, Walter Chingwaru / South African Journal of Botany, 2020; Vol 128: pp 119-127 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2019.10.022


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