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Family Burseraceae
Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J.Lam

Scientific names Common names
Canarium articulatum Engl. ex Koord.          Kaminging-lakihan (Tagalog)
Canarium caudatifolium Merr.          Kembayau (General)
Canarium crassifolium Merr.          Lunai (Lanao)
Canarium cuspidatum Merr.          Palaspas (Bikol)
Canarium gilvescens Miq.          Pili-hanai (Bisaya)
Canarium kadondon A.W.Benn            
Canarium minahassae Koord.           
Canarium montanum Korth.           
Canarium reticulatum Ridl.           
Canarium rostriferum Miq.           
Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H.J.Lam           
Dacryodes rostrata f. cuspidata (Blume) H.J.Lam           
Dacryodes rostrata f. pallida H.J.Lam           
Dacryodes rostrata f. pubescens H.J.Lam           
Dacryodes rostrata f. samarensis H.J.Lam           
Dracontomelon cuspidatum Blume           
Hemisantiria rostrata H.J.Lam           
Santiria montana Blume           
Santiria rostrata Blume           
Santiria samarensis Merr.            
Dacryodes rostrata is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Ungit, Kebayan ajer, Kebayan burong.
INDONESIAN: Asem begomdang (Sumatra), Rengas burung (Bangka), Kembajau (Kalimantan), Kembayan bekuwak, Kembayan tikus (Sumatra).
MALAYSIAN: Kedondong kerut, Mansipot (Peninsular), Kelamok maruk (Sarawak), Kamubang (Sabah), Salong banggi (Malay, Sabah).
VIETNAMESE: Tram xuyen, Xuyen moc.

Gen info
- Dacryodes is a genus of about 60 species of trees in the family Burseraceae.
- Etymology: The genus name Dacryodes derives from Greek dakruon meaning "tear(drop)', referring to how the resin droplets form on the bark surface. Specific epithet rostrata derives from Latin meaning "beaked", referring to the narrow-tipped leaves.

Dacryodes rostrata is a tree, up to 45 m tall and trunk 1 m in diameter, sometimes buttressed. Leaves 2-10-jugate. Infructescences stout; fruit an ovoid to oblongoid drupe, 2-4 cm × 1-2 cm, yellow to purple, containing 1 seed. (2)

• An evergreen tree up to 40 m tall with 1 m of trunk diameter and low buttresses. Leaves are alternate, pinnate, 2-10 jugate; leaflets ovate-oblong, papery with asymmetrical base, leaf apex elongated and widening at the tip; leaf rachis is swollen at junction with leaf stalk and hairy, petiole with or without resinous ducts.  Panicles are axillary, often combined into a terminal inflorescence. Flowers three to numerous, small, 3 mm across, yellowish-white, calyx copular and shortly dentate. Male flowers have six stamens, connate to periphery of disk; female flowers have six staminodes, three-loculed ovary with sessile three-lobed stigma. Fruit is ovoid to oblong, fleshy drupe, 2-4 cm x 1-2 cm, yellow-brown unripe to purplish-black when ripens, containing one hard seed in the centre. (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Borneo, Malaya, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)

- Mainly in primary forests, seldom in swamps, up to 600 m altitude.

- Kembayau seeds and pulp were rich in fat, while peels had highest ash content. Potassium was the most prevalent mineral in peels at 380-72-1112.00 mg/100 g. Fruits yielded total flavonoid content of 1012.74-28,022.28 mg rutin equivalent/100 g, higher than total phenolic and total monomeric anthocyanin content. Seeds exhibited higher flavonoid and phenolic contents compared to peels and pulp. (see study below) (5)
- Liquid chromatography-mass spectra (LC-MS) of seed extracts yielded  gallic acid, ellagic acid,, catechin, epicatechin, and apigenin. (6)
- Phenolic compounds found in seeds include gallic acid, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, apigenin 7-(4"-Z-p-coumarylglucoside), 1-caffeoyl-4-deoxyquinic acid, (±)-catechin, syringic acid, ellagic acid, and   (-)-epicatchin 3-O-gallate. (6)

- Studies have suggested antioxidant, anticancer, nutrient properties.

Parts used
Peels, seeds.

- Fruit and seeds are edible. Fruit pulp is preserved in salt and fried as an appetizer with rice and porridge. Fleshy seed cotyledons are also edible. (3)
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- Wood: Used for planks and paddy-pounders.

- Resin: Used for making torches.

Anticancer / T47D Breast Cancer Cell Line / Antioxidant / Peels:
Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of water and ethanol extract of D. rostrata peel against T-47D breast cancer cell lines.  Antioxidant testing by DPPH assay showed the water and ethanol extract had antioxidant activity with IC50s of 121.7 ppm and 59.27 ppm, respectively. MTT assay showed moderate cytotoxic effect on T-47D cells with IC50 of 322.55 ppm and 143.02 ppm, respectively. Results suggest potential as a chemopreventive to prevent and inhibit cancer cell growth. (4)
Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties / Seeds, Peels, Pulp: Antioxidant testing showed seeds with higher activity by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (51.39-74.59 mmol TE/100g), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (530.05-556.98 mmol Fe2+/100g) and by DPPH radical scavenging activity (92.18-92.19%) compared to peels and pulp. Study suggests the fruit has potential as source of energy and minerals for human consumption, and seeds as antioxidants. (see constituents above) (5)

- Wild-crafted.
- Occasionally cultivated as a fruit tree.

August 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Dacryodes rostrata Inflorescence / Deby Arifiani / CC BY-NC-ND / click on image or link to go to source page / image modified / Useful Topical Plants
IMAGE SOURCE: Kembayau - Dacryodes rostrata forma cuspidata / fruits / © Ongzi's Secret Garden / Noncommercial use / click on image or link to go to source page / image modified / Ongzi's Secret Garden
IMAGE SOURCE: Dacryodes rostrata leaf / © Reubn C J Lim / Noncommercial use / click on image or link to go to source page / image modified / flickr

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Dacryodes rostrata / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Dacryodes rostrata (PROSESA) / PCM Jansen, J Jukema, LPA Oyen, TG van Lingen / Pl@ntUse
Dacryodes rostrata / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Studies on the Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potentials of the Peel Extract of Dacryodes rostrata / Rahma Micho Widyanto, Lulu Safira, Nur Faadiyah Sofian, Syifa Aulia Mardhiyati et al / BIO Web of Conferences, 2021; 41: 07005 / DOI: 10.1051/bioconf/20214107005
Nutritional constituents and antioxidant properties of indigenous kembayau (Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) H. J. Lam) fruits / Kin Weng Kong, Lye Yee Chew, K Nagendra Prasad, Cheng Yuon Lau, Amin Ismail, Jian Sun, Bahareh Hosseinpoursarmadi /  Food Research International, 2011; 44(7): pp 2332-2338 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.10.039
Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities from Dacryodes rostrata Fruits / LH Tee, RN Ramanan, BT Tey, ES Chan, A Azrina, I Amin, Yang Bao, CY Lau, KN Prasad / Medicinal Chemistry, 2015; 5(1) /
DOI: n10.4172/2161-0444.1000238

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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