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Family Brassicaceae
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
Jie cai

Scientific names  Common names
Brassica argyi H.Lév. Mustasa (Tag.)
Brassica arvensis var. juncea (L.) Kuntze Brown mustard (Engl.)
Brassica besseriana Andrz. ex Trautv. Chinese mustard (Engl.)
Brassica cernua (Thunb.) F.B.Forbes & Hemsl. Indian mustard (Engl.)
Brassica cernua var. chirimenna Makino Leaf mustard (Engl.)
Brassica chenopodiifolia Semmem & Pau Oriental mustard (Engl.)
Brassica chinensis f. japonica (Thunb.) M.Hiroe Vegetable mustard (Engl.)
Brassica integrifolia (H.West) Rupr.  
Brassica integrifolia var. timoriana (DC.) O.E.Schulz  
Brassica japonica (Thunb.) Siebold ex. Miq.  
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.  
Brassica juncea var. aspera (Prain) O.E.Schulz  
Brassica juncea subproles aspera Prain  
Brassica juncea var. chinensis (L.) N.Busch  
Brassica juncea var. crispifolia  L.H.Bailey . . .  
Brassica lanceolata (DC.) Lange  
Brassica napiformis (Pailleux & Bois.) L.H.Bailey  
Brassica napiformis var. multisecta A.I.Baranov  
Brassica nigra var. japonica (Thunb.) O.E.Schulz  
Brassica oleracea var. taquetii H.Lév. & Vaniot  
Brassica richeri Lange  
Brassica rugosa (Roxb.) Prain  
Brassica taquetii (H.Lév. & Vaniot) H.Lév.  
Brassica urbaniana O.E.Schulz  
Brassica willdenovii Boiss.  
Crucifera juncea (L.) E.H.L.Krause  
Rhamphospermum volgense Andrz. ex Rupr.  
Raphanus junceus (L.) Crantz  
Sinabraca juncea (L.) G.H.Loos  
Sinapis cernua Thunb.  
Sinapis chinensis L.  
Sinapis cuneifolia Roxb.  
Sinapsis integrifolia H.West  
Sinapsis integrifolia var. chevalieri Porteres  
Sinapis japonica Thunb.  
Sinapis cernua Thunb.  
Sinapis juncea L.  
Sinapis juncea var. napiformis Pailleux & Bois  
Sinapis lanceolata DC.  
Sinapis oleracea C.Presl  
Sinapis patens Roxb.  
Sinapis ramosa Roxb.  
Sinapis rugosa Roxb.  
Sinapis sinensis J.F.Gmel.  
Sinapis tenella Moench  
Sinapis timoriana DC.  
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. is an accepted species. (It has 67 synonyms): KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Jatilai.
BENGALI: Sarsapa.
BHUTAN: Spong-thogs-pa.
CHINESE: Gai cai, Tian jie cai, Jie cai.
DUTCH: Junceamosterd, Sareptamosterd.
CZECH: Brukev sítinovitá, Hořčice černá sitinovitá.
FINNISH: Mustasinappi.
FRENCH: Moutarde brune, Moutarde jonciforme, Chou des Indes.
GERMAN: Brauner Senf, Indischer Senf.
HEBREW: Kruv samrani .
HINDI: Sarson.
HUNGARIAN: Indiai mustár.
ITALIAN: Senape indiana, Senape bruna.
JAPANESE: Karashina, Seiyou karashina.
KANNADA: Saasive, Sarshspa.
KHMER: Khat naa.
LAOTIAN: Kaad khièw.
MALAY: Biji sawi , Sawi, Sawi pahit.
MALAYALAM: Sarshapam.
MARATHI: Mohari.
NEPALESE: Asal raaii, Laahaa.
POLISH: Kapusta sitowata.
PORTUGUESE: Mostarda indiana.
RUSSIAN: Gorchítsa, Gorchítsa sareptskaia.
SANSKRIT: Rajika, Sarshapa.
SPANISH: Mostaza.
TAMIL: Kadugu, Katuku.
TELUGU: Sarsapamu, Sasuvulu.
THAI: Phakkat khiao, Phakkat khieo, Phakkat khieo pli.
TURKISH: Yaprak hardal.

Gen info
- Brassicaceae or the older Cruciferae is an economically important family of flowering plants known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. The family contains 373 genera and 4,060 accepted species. The largest genera are Draba (440 species), Erysimum (261), Lepidium (234), Cardamine (233), and Alyssum (207 species).
- Brassica juncea cultivars are divided into four major subgroups: integrifolia, juncea, napiformis, and tsatsai.

• Mustasa is an erect, branched, smooth annual, 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are oblong-obovate to oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, or in some cultivated forms much larger, thin, irregularly toothed or subentire, the lower ones sometimes lobed or pinnatifid. Flowers are yellow, 6 to 8 millimeters long. Pod is ascending, linear-lanceolate, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, and somewhat contracted between the seeds. Beak is seedless.

- Introduced to the Philippines.
- Widely distributed in the settled areas, in towns and houses, planted and spontaneous.

- Now, pantropic; also occurring in some temperate regions.
- Native to North Caucasus, Tanscaucasus. (2


• Seed contains an oily substance, "the essential oil of mustard, the active principle.
• Yields a crystallizable substance, sinnigrin, analogous to sinalbin.
• Nutrient analysis of mustard seeds per 100 g yielded: (1) Principle: energy 508 Kcal, carbohydrate 28.09 g, protein 26.08 g, total fat 36.24 g, cholesterol 0, dietary fiber 12.2 g; (2) Vitamins: folates 162 µg, niacin 4.733 mg, pantothenic acid 0.810 mg, pyridoxine 0.397 mg, riboflavin 0.261 mg, thiamine 0.805 mg, vitamin A 31 IU, vitamin C 7.1 mg, vitamin E? 19.82 mg, vitamin K 5.4 µg; (3) Electrolytes: sodium13 mg, potassium 738 mg; (4) Minerals: calcium 266 mg, copper 0.645 mg, iron 9.21 mg, magnesium 370 mg, manganese 2.448 mg, selenium 208.1 µg, zinc 6.08 mg; and (5) Phytonutrients: carotene-ß, crypto-xanthin-ß, lutein-zeaxanthine 508 µg. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
• Phytochemical profiling of leaves yielded 51 compounds (chloroform), 48 (EA), 40 (methanol), 33 (PE), and 28 (n-hexane). Major compounds were benzenepropanoic acid,, 3,5-bis (11,1-dimethylethyl)-

4-hhydroxy-, methyl ester (22.98%, in methanol), n-eicosane (26.69%, in ethyl acetate), n-pentacosane (50% in chloroform) and n-tetratetracontane (42.47 and49.19% in PE and n-hexane, respectively). (27)
• Brassica juncea leaves yielded ß-sitosterol and essential fatty acids linoleic acid and α-linoleic acid. Leaves also yielded trilinolenin, lutein, and ß-carotene. (30)
• Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds. (see study below) (31)
• Ethanol and water solvents of B. juncea yielded total phenolic contents (mg GAE/g solid) of 1.4 and 17.9; total flavonoid contents (mg QE/g solid) 52.6 and 4.1; total saponin (mg QSE/g solid) 23.5 and 62.7; condensed tannin contents (mg CE/g solid) 1.4, 0.4; reducing sugar (mg GE/g solid) 0.7, 3.5, and soluble solid contents (mg/mL) 14.1, 0.3, respectively. (see study below) (34)
• In a GC-MS study for volatile compounds from B. juncea extracts, main phytochemical identified in seeds were 2-butyl isothiocyanate (32.46%), phenylethyl isothiocyanate (28.01%), α-d-galactopyranoside (25.19%), linolenic acid (16.05%), tetradecanoic (11.32%) and oleic acid (15.30%).  Major compounds in the leaves were  α-methyl-d-mannopyranoside (27.18%), 2-butyl isothiocyanate (24.24%), β-d-glucopyranoside (24.54%), furaldehyde (15.96%), 1-phenyl ethanol (23.33%), ethyl benzoate (14.50%), linolenic acid (13.99%) and oleic acid (12.75%). (40)

Pure mustard oil is pale yellow, faintly smelling of mustard with a shard and pungent taste.
• Counterirritant, emmenagogue, rubefacient.
• Considered analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, emetic, galatagogue, stimulant.

• Studies have suggested nutrient, antidiabetic, antifungal, antitumor, anthelmintic, phytoremediative, wound healing, antinociceptive, antiviral, cognitive enhancing, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antigenotic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, antidiarrheal, cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic properties.

Parts utilized
Seeds, leaves, oil.

- Leaves eaten as green leafy vegetable, fresh or pickled in brine; also used in soups and stews.
- Excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B.

- Plaster applied to skin is a powerful irritant, rubefacient, and vesicant.
- Applied to unbroken skin, it acts as a counterirritant, producing a sensation of warmth followed by burning pain. Leaves applied externally for pleurodynia and pleuritis, neuralgia, lumbago.
- As a plaster, mustard soothes the pain in gastralgia, colic, neuralgia, lumbago. Also, applied over the epigastrium for hiccupping and vomiting. A plaster over the nape of the neck applied to relieve cerebral congestion.
- Hot-foot bath of mustard (seeds or leaves) for headaches, common cold, and fevers.
- Leaves applied to the forehead for headaches.
- Hip-bath of mustard used as emmenagogue.
- Poultice of mustard leaves or seeds used for neuralgic and rheumatic complaints.
- Pure fresh oil taken from seeds used as stimulant and external counterirritant; applied externally for sore throats, internal congestion, and chronic muscular rheumatism.
- Oil used as embrocation applied to skin in eruptions and ulcers.
- Seeds used as poultice in gout and inflammation.
- Combined oil of mustard and camphor used for muscle pains,
- As an emetic, 4-5 tsp in a cup of warm water.
- Taken internally as condiment, causes a sense of warmth in the stomach, stimulates gastric juice, sharpens the appetite and assists in digestion. In large doses, becomes a gastric irritant, and causes vomiting; as such, used as an emetic in narcotic poisoning.
- In Bhutan, aerial parts used as spasmolytic and for treatment of food poisoning, heart and blood disorders.
- In Korea, seeds used for treatment of abscesses, colds, and stomach problems. Seed oil used for skin eruptions and ulcers.
- In Nepal, seed oil rubbed for body aches.
- In Bangladesh, oil is rubbed on the throat and chest for treatment of common colds with mucus.
- In Java, used as antisyphilitic emmenagogue.
- In China, leaves in soup for bladder, inflammation and hemorrhage. Seeds used for treatment of tumors.
- In India, leaves used for diabetes. Plant used as anthelmintic, and in treatment of alopecia, epilepsy, snakebites, hiccups, and toothache.

- In Maharashtra, India, a paste of alum (white mineral salt) and Brassica seeds eaten along with banana twice daily for the treatment of jaundice.

Juncin / Antifungal Protein / Anti-Tumor: Study isolated juncin from the seeds of Japanese takana (Brassica Juncea var. integrifolia). The protein exhibited antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma and breast cancer cells. (2)
Anti-Diabetes / Benefit against Insulin Resistance / Hypoglycemic / Seeds: Study showed feeding of a fructose diet containing 10% Brassica juncea seeds significantly reduced fasting serum glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels. Results suggest that B juncea can play a role in the management of pre-diabetic state of insulin resistance. (3) Study of an aqueous extract of seed showed potent hypoglycemic effect on STZ induced diabetic male albino rats. (17)
Hypoglycemic / Antihyperglycemic Effect: Study showed the B juncea diet showed significant antihyperglycemic effect in alloxan but not in STZ rats. (4)
Anti-Diabetic Oxidative Stress: Study of four fractions from mustard leaf (B juncea) showed the ethanolic fraction showed the strongest concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the formation of advanced glycation products and free radical-mediated protein damage in an in vitro system suggesting a potential protective role against diabetes and/or its complications. (5)
Wound Healing / Leaves : Study evaluated leaf extracts for wound healing activity in excision wound model in albino rats. An aqueous extract showed 94.94% maximum percentage of healing compared to control.   (7)
Phytoremediation / Copper Contaminated Soil: Study evaluated the efficacy of copper removal from the soil by Brassica juncea and Bidens alba. The copper removal efficiency of B. juncea (L.) Czern was 11 times greater than Bidens alba DC var radiata. (8)
Phytoremediation / Municipal Solid Waste: Study showed highly promising potential for removal of Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu by phytoextraction through Brassica juncea. B. juncea is a potential species for phytoremediation of MSW through management and regulation of leaching of toxic elements into soil and ground waters. The plant growth also stimulates the microbial community, degrading contaminants in the soil or making them available to rhizosphere. (9)
Anti-Hyperglycemic / Antinociceptive: Study of a methanol extract of leaves showed significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in acetic-acid induced gastric pain writhing model in mice. In oral glucose tolerance tests, the extract also demonstrated significant and dose-dependent glucose lowering activity. (10)
Anthelmintic / Seeds: Comparative study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of seeds of B. juncea and flowers of B. oleracea against Pheretima posthuma, using Albendazole as standard. Results confirmed the anthelmintic activity of both plants, with Brassica juncea showing more efficient activity. (11)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium: Study evaluated the Cd phytoremediation ability of Indian mustard. The plant showed high CD tolerance of up to 400 mg K, but there was a general trend of decline in root and shoot length, tissue biomass, leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed the suitability of B. juncea for removing Cd from the soil. (13)
Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of PE and ethanolic extracts of B. juncea against carrageenan induced paw edema. Acute toxicity study up to 2 gm/kg p.o. did not show mortality or behavioral changes. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, with the ethanolic extract showing better activity than the petroleum ether extract. (14)
Antioxidant / Anti-Cancer / Seeds and Sprouts: Study evaluated extracts of Brassica juncea for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and in vitro cytotoxicity activity against rat cancer cell line and three different human cell lines. Results showed effective scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and induction of cancer cell death by apoptosis. Seed extracts were more effective than sprout extracts. (16)
Hepatoprotective / Anti-Cancer / Seeds and Sprouts: Study evaluated the effects of Brassica juncea leaf extracts on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Among extracts tested, ethanolic and pet ether extracts showed maximum inhibition of necrosis and reduction of liver enzyme parameters with a significant p<0.0001. (18)
Genoprotective / Mercury-Induced Genotoxicity / Seeds: Study evaluated the antigenotoxic effects of various concentrations of B. juncea chloroform seed extracts on mercury-induced genotoxic effects in root cells of Allium cepa. Results showed antigenotoxic potential in a dose dependent manner. (19)
Antinociceptive / Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Study evaluated the effect of B. juncea on peripheral neuropathic pain in diabetic rats. Results showed decreased pain threshold and also significant decrease in diabetic induced hyperglycemia. Results suggest a therapeutic option for treatment of hyperalgesia associated with diabetic neuropathy. (
Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant activity of methanol extract of B. juncea leaves in alloxan induced diabetic and non-diabetic rodents. Antidepressant and motor functioning depressing effects were observed. Compensations of monoaminergic deficits by the extracts in diabetic animals could be involved in the observed behavioral effects. (
Mustard Allergy / Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Challenge: A double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated 30 patients presenting with positive prick tests to ground mustard seeds/ About 23% of sensitized subjects were allergic to routine dose of mustard. Positive prick tests and the presence of specific IgE were not predictive. Single-blind (SB) or double-blind (DB) placebo controlled food challenge (PCFC) trials is required before recommending avoidance diets. (22)
Antibacterial in Different Food Model Systems: Aqueous extracts of B. officinalis and B juncea showed various degrees of inhibitory activity especially towards staphylococci and enterobacteria; B. juncea showed higher inhibitory activity than B. officinalis. (24
• Toxicity / Seeds: Study investigated the possible toxicity of mustard seeds on brain and kidney tissue in albino wistar rats. Ethanol extract of mustard seeds were orally administered for two weeks at doses of 2000 mg/kg and 4000 mg/kg body weight. Results showed histological effects and altered histoarchitecture of the brain and kidney of tests groups. Results suggest prolonged ingestion of the extract is toxic to tissues at the concentrations investigated. It was inferred that these doses could also be toxic in humans. (25)

• Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study investigated a methanolic extract of seeds for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema in a rat model. At a dose of 1000 mg/kbw, the extract showed significant activity showing 65.98% reduction in paw volume comparable (p<0.05) to that by standard drug indomethacin. (26)
• Antihyperlipidemia / Seeds: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic potential of B. juncea seeds in cholesterol-fed rabbits. B. juncea seeds consumption showed lipid lowering effect with potential cardioprotection and benefit against atherogenesis. (28)
• Cognitive Benefits: Study evaluated the potential of methanol extract of leaves for treatment of cognitive disorders associated with diabetes or central cognitive dysfunctions in alloxan diabetic or scopolamine-challenged rats using elevated plus-maze and active- and passive avoidance tests. All treatments of BJ dose-dependently decreased the elevated level of AChE, and significantly increased the SOD and CAT levels in brain homogenates of scopolamine-challenged and diabetic rats. (29)
• Anticonvulsant / Toxicity Study / Seeds: Study investigated the anticonvulsant activity of seed extract of Brassica juncea against PTZ-induced seizures in mice. The extract significantly delayed the latency of convulsion (p<0.05) induced by PTZ and reduced the frequency of convulsions with 100% protection at 500 mg/kg p.o. against death. Acute oral toxicity study showed safety and no toxicity up to 5000 mg/kbw. (see constituents above) (31)

• Antiviral / Toxicity Study / Seeds: Study evaluated the phytochemical properties, safety, and antiviral activities of three herbs (Brassica juncea, Forsythia suspensa, and Inula britannica) used in traditional Korean medicine. The ethanol extract of B. juncea showed a 3 Log TCID50/25µL virus titration reduction and the water extract showed a selectivity index of 13.668 against infected H1N1 virus A/NWS/33. It did not show hemolysis activities and hepatotoxicity (<20%). Results suggest B. juncea may show antiviral effects against H1N1 in a host, and may also show decreased disadvantages compared to other antiviral agents.  (see constituents above) (34)
• Anxiolytic / Leaves: Study evaluated 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day doses of methanolic leaf extracts for anxiolytic effect in non-diabetic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats using three behavioral tests i.e. elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests. Quantitatively, the efficacy of the highest test dose was less than those observed after lower doses. (35)
Antidiarrheal / Powdered Whole Plant: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal potential of ethanol extract of defatted powder of whole plant against castor oil-induced diarrhea, magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea, and charcoal passage test in albino rats. At higher dose of 400 mg/kg, the extract showed significant reduction in number of feces in castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrhea, and significant reduction in distance traveled in charcoal passage test.  (36)
Anticandidal / Hepatoprotective / Seeds: Study evaluated the invitro and invivo anticandidal effect of hydroethanolic seed extract of B. juncea. The extract exhibited significant invivo and invitro anticandidal effects through alleviation of hepatotoxicity cause by infection either by significant decrease of liver enzymes and LPO or enhancing hepatic GSH content, along with confirmatory histopathological exam. GC-MS extract analysis revealed 17 components, with eremanthin as dominant component (55%), considered a potent antioxidant. Results showed the seed extract exhibited inhibitory effect against hepatotoxicity caused by candidiasis. (37)
Anticancer / In Vitro against Colon and Lung Cancers / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract of mustard leaf (MLE) on growth, angiogenic, and metastatic potentials of HCT116 colorectal carcinoma and H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma in vitro. Treatment of HCT116 and H1299 cells with MLE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner (range of 175-700 µg/ml, bu 39-86%) and anchorage-independent colonization (at 700 µg/ml, by 56-86%). Induction of apoptosis was observed. Treatment with MLE markedly suppressed the secretion of key pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VECGF) by 92% and basic fibroblast growth factor by 73-94%. The MLE also inhibited critical events during metastasis, such as invasion (18-33% in HCT116 and H1299), migration (45-82% in H1299), and adhesion (17-45% in HCT116 and H1299). Results suggest invitro anticancer activities against colon and lung cancers. (38)
Effect on Diabetic-Induced Cataract / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of B. juncea leaf extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in Wistar rats using daily oral doses of 250 and 500 mg/kbw for 8 weeks. Results showed reversal of changes associated with hyperglycemia, delayed cataract progression and maturation with the two doses, with the higher 500 mg/kg dose showing increased protection. Results suggest potential against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative and osmotic stress and subsequent development of diabetic cataract. (39)
Antimicrobial Synergistic Effects on Salmonella Membrane Permeability and Apoptosis: Study showed the synergistic effects of three herbs i.e. Brassica juncea, Forsythia suspensa, Inula britannica against avian pathogenic Salmonella induced by membrane damage and apoptosis. (41)
Wound Healing / Burns / Seeds: Study evaluated the effects of B. juncea seed extracts and Shorea robusta roots on healing of second-degree burns in rats. Silver sulfadiazine was used as standard. The ethanolic extract of B. juncea seeds showed potent healing capabilities compared to S. robusta roots (p<0.001). Tensile strength was similar to silver sulfadiazine ointment. Results suggest a potential low-cost, easily available herbal medication for treatment of burn injuries. (42)
Anti-Rheumatoid Arthritis / Leaves: Study evaluated the efficacy of B. juncea leaves for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using in vivo and in silico systems. IL2RA, IL18, and VEGFA were found to be potential RA target and BJ compounds showed great binding efficacy towards the target from molecular docking study. To confirm anti-arthritic activity, the extract was tested in CFA-induced arthritic  Wistar rats. Results showed retrieval of altered hematological parameters and substantial recovery from inflammation and degeneration of rat hind paw. (43)
Effect on Obesity and Lipid Profiles / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of B. juncea leaf extract on fat deposition and lipid profiles in high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFC)-induced obese rats. Supplementation of HFC with 3% or 5% BLE inhibited body fat accumulation, improved lipid profiles, and modulated-lipogenesis- and cholesterol metabolism-related gene and protein expression. (44)
Cardiotoxic and Hepatotoxic Effects / Seeds: Study evaluated the effect of methanol extract of B. juncea seeds on heart and liver of adult albino Wistar rats. Graded doses of extract were given via oral gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Results showed significant increase in AST and ALT. Histopathologic exam revealed changes consistent with toxic injury in the heart and liver tissues of extract treated rats. Results suggest subacute administration of methanol seed extract can cause candiotoxic and hepatotoxic effects in rats. (45)
Skin Whitening / Anti-Wrinkle Effects / Antioxidant / Leaves and Seeds: Study evaluated the biological activity of leaf and seed extracts as cosmetic ingredients. Leaf and seed extracts showed 65.26% and 83.17% DPPH radical scavenging effect, respectively. Highest inhibition activities of tyrosinase were 22.33% and 36.58%, respectively, while inhibition activities for elastase were 33.45% and 40.21%. Results confirmed the leaf and seed extracts have excellent antioxidant effect, and inhibition effect on activities of tyrosinase and elastase suggest high utility value as cosmetic ingredients. (46)
Anti-Influenza Virus A/H1N1 / Antiviral Food Supplement Potential: Study evaluated a subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as nonfat milk supplement for use as "antiviral" food. At maximum nontoxic concentrations, the SWE had higher antiviral activity compared to n-hexane, ethanol, and hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of SWE to culture medium showed 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity). Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28 mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Study suggests potential as food supplement in protection from influenza viral infection. (47)
Oil and Cake / Potential for Food and Feed Purposes: The meal or cake left after oil extraction from mustard seeds is rich in minerals, vitamins, and high-quality proteins. However, it has been considered inferior in quality because of very high amounts of undesirable long-chain fatty acids, erucic acid in oil and deleterious glucosinolates (GLSs) in seed meal. High intake of erucic acid has been associat3d with cardiac injury in cattle and rodents, while GLSs can cause goitrogenic effects. A statutory limit of <2% erucic acid in oil and <30 µmoles/g GLSs in meal as been set in many countries, which is being implemented for mustard. In India, the development of canola or '00' quality of B. juncea varieties has been fairly successful and can be considered excellent for food and feed purposes. (48)
Oil and Cake / Potential for Food and Feed Purposes: Study evaluated the protective/therapeutic effect of mustard in its normal form or nanoparticles against TAA-induced acute liver failure in experimental animal models. The antioxidant content of phenolic acids, flavonoids in the ethanolic extract substantially decreased levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and rehabilitated the histopathological alterations, notably increased levels of GSH, SOD, and significantly reduced MDA, markedly down-regulated the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum and tissue. DNA genotoxicity was significantly reversed. Results suggest mustard has both protective and therapeutic effects against TAA in both its forms. (49)

- Wild-crafted.
- Commercial cultivation.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated April 2024 / October 2017 / January 2017

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Brassica juncea / Flower / © BT Wursten / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / Flora of Mozambique
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Chinese mustard / Biodiversity Heritage Library / Public domain -commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source / EOL
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Brassica juncea or mustard greens / Miftachul Huda / Click on image or link to go to source / Vecteezy

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Brassica Juncea / Brown Mustard: Plants For A Future /
Isolation and Characterization of Juncin, an Antifungal Protein from Seeds of Japanese Takana (Brassica juncea Var. integrifolia) / Xiujuan Ye and Tzi Bun Ng / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (10), pp 4366–4371
DOI: 10.1021/jf8035337
Brassica juncea (Rai) significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance in rats fed fructose-enriched diet / S P Yadav et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 93, Issue 1, July 2004, Pages 113-116 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.034
Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Brassica juncea diet and their effect on hepatic glycogen content and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism / Jagdish Kumari Grover et al / Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry • Volume 241, Numbers 1-2 / December, 2002 / DOI 10.1023/A:1020814709118
Protective Effects of Mustard Leaf (Brassica juncea) against Diabetic Oxidative Stress / Yokozawa T et al / Nutri Sci Vitaminol • VOL.49;NO.2;PAGE.87-93(2003)
Sorting Brassica names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Comparison of different extracts leaf of Brassica juncea Linn on wound healing activity / Rajat Malan, Anu Walia, Vipin Saini, Sumeet Gupta* / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 1 (2):33-40
Phytoremediation of Copper Contaminated Soil by Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata / Naiyanan Ariyakanon* and Banchagan Winaipanich / J. Sci. Res. Chula. Univ., Vol. 31, No. 1 (2006) 49
PHYTOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL OF BRASSICA JUNCEA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLIDWASTE - A CASE STUDY / Srinivas Namuduri, Suresh Kolli Kumar, Nrusimhatharra Srksbl, V. Balaram and T. Shivaji Rao / Fourth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
A Study on Antinociceptive and Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Methanol Extract of Brassica Juncea (L.) Czern. Leaves in Mice / Mohammed ttullah, Taslima Ferdousi Shefa, Labiba Hasan, Md. Tozammal Hossain, Salman Ahmed, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Rasadul Islam, Shahnaz Rahman, Majeedul H. Chowdhury / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(3): 221-225, 2010
In-vitro comparative study of anthelmintic activity of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea / Lavanya, Bhaduri; S., Ramya Krishna P.; Nagarjuna, S.; Reddy, Y. Padmanabha / Journal of Pharmacy Research; Sept 2011, Vol. 4 Issue 9, p 2907.
Brassica juncea / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
A Study on Cadmium Phytoremediation Potential of Indian Mustard, Brassica juncea. / Goswami S, Das S. / Int J Phytoremediation. 2015;17(1-6):583-8. doi: 10.1080/15226514.2014.935289.
Comparative Study of Anti-Inflammatory activity of Petroleum Ether and Ethanolic extracts of Brassica Juncea
/ K.Lakshmi Sindhoor*, Siva Kumar.Gurram, S.Nagarjuna, Y. Padmanabha Reddy / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.4, No.3, pp 1172-1176, July-Sept 2012
Mustard seeds nutrition facts / Nutrition and You
Antioxidant and in vitro Anti-cancer Activities of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. seeds and sprouts / Priyanka Bassan, Sonia Sharma, Saroj Arora and Adarsh Pal Vig* / International Journal of Pharma Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 5 (2013): 343-349
Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat /
T Thirumalai, S Viviyan Therasa, EK Elumalai, and E David* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011 Aug; 1(4): 323–325. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60052-X
Hepatoprotective effects from the leaf extracts of Brassica juncea in CCl4 induced rat model / Anu Walia, Rajat Malan, Satish Saini, Vipin Saini, Sumeet Gupta* / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (4): 274-285
Genoprotective potential of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. against mercury-induced genotoxicity in Allium cepa L. / Sonia SHARMA, Avinash NAGPAL, Adarsh Pal VIG / Turk J Biol 36 (2012) 622-629 / doi:10.3906/biy-1110-18
Antinociceptive effect of Brassica juncea on peripheral neuropathy induced by diabetes in rat / Ali Gomar, Abdolkarim Hosseini *, Naser Mirazi , Mojtaba Gomar / Arak Medical University Journal
Anti-depressant-like effects of Brassica juncea L. leaves in diabetic rodents / Ajit Kumar Thakur, Shyam Sunder Chatterhee and Vikas Kumar / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 32, June 2014, pp 613-622
Prospective study of mustard allergy: first study with double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge trials (24 cases) / M. Morisset, D.A. Moneret-Vautrin, F. Maadi, S. Frémont, L. Guénard, A. Croizier, G. Kanny / Allergy 2003: 58: 295–299
Bioactive alkaloids from medicinal plants of Bhutan / Phurpa Wangchuk / Thesis 2004 / University of Wollongong
Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used For Jaundice from Konkan Region, Maharashtra, India. / M.R.Meshram / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Volume 3 Issue 12, December 2014, PP.39-41
Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Brassica juncea (Mustard Seed) on the Brain and Kidney Tissues of Albino Wistar Rats / Imeobong Joseph Inyang Aniekan-Augusta Okon Eyo,Tomilola Margaret Olajide Abel Essien / Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2014; 4(22): pp 75-82 / pISSN: 2224-3208 / eISSN: 2225-093X / CABI Rec No: 20143404918
Phytochemical Profiling of the Leaves of Brassica juncea L. using GC-MS / Sharman A, Kumar V, Kanwar M K, Thukral A K, and Bhardwaj R / International Food Research Journal, 2017; (24(2): pp 547-551 / pISSN: 1985-4668 / eISSN: 2231-7546 / CABI Rec No: 20173275041
Beneficial effects of Brassica juncea on cognitive functions in rats / Ajit Kumar Thakur, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee*, and Vikas Kumar / Pharm Biol, 2013; 51(10): Pp 1304–1310 / DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2013.789917
Sterols, triglycerides and essential fatty acid constituents of Brassica oleracea varieties, Brassica juncea and Raphanus sativus / ConsolacionY.Ragasa ,Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Oscar B. Torres, Nicole Samantha Y. Sevilla, Kim Valerie M. Uy , Ma. Carmen S. Tan , Marissa G. Noel and Chien-Chang Shen / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 5(12):1237-1243
Preliminary Phytochemical, Acute Oral Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Activity of the Seed Extract of Brassica juncea / Nguyen Le Bao Duy* and Dao Thi Diem Trang / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Vol 14, Issue 1
Brassicaceae / Wikipedia
Brassica juncea / Wikipedia
Investigation of Brassica junceaForsythia suspensa, and Inula britannica: phytochemical properties, antiviral effects, and safety / Won-Young Bae, Hyeong-Yeop Kim, Kyoung-Sook Choi, Hyun-Dong Paik et al /  BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019; 19(253) / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2670-x
Anxiolytic-like activity of leaf extract of traditionally used Indian-Mustard (Brassica juncea) in diabetic rats / Ajit Kumar Thakur, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee, Vikas Kumar / CELLMED, 2013; 3(1): pp 7.1-7.7 /
pISSN: 3022-6805 / eISSN: 3022-6791
Evaluation of Antidiarrheal properties of ethanol extract of Brassica juncea in experimental animals / Aslam P Muhammad, Rawal Pinkey, C Ramesh, G Chaitra / Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics, 2021; 11(S2) / ISSN: 2250-1177 / DOI: 10.22270/jddt.v11i2-s.4615
Anticandidal efficacy of Brassica juncea seeds extract: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies / Hend M Tag, Eman A Attia, Ibtihal H Badawi / Advances in Traditional Medicine, 2020; Vol 21: pp 97-110 /
DOI: 10.1007/s13596-020-00440-y
Anti-cancer activities of Brassica juncea leaves in vitro / Youngeun Kwak, Jungiae Lee, Jihyeung Ju / EXCLI Journal, 2016; 15: pp 699-710 / DOI: 10.17179/excli2016-586
EFFECT OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA) LEAF EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC CATARACT IN WISTAR RATS / Vijay Kumar Valavala, Rajani Kanth Vangipurapu, Venkata Ramana Banam, Uma Maheswara Reddy Pulukurthi, Naga Raju Turlapati / Journal of Food Biochemistry, 2011; 35(1): pp 109-124 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00369.x
GC–MS detection and determination of major volatile compounds in Brassica juncea L. leaves and seeds / Anubhuti Sharma, P K Rai, Surendra Prasad / Microchemical Journal, 2018; Vol 138: pp 488-493 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2018.01.015
Antimicrobial effects of three herbs (Brassica juncea, Forsythia suspensa, and Inula britannica) on membrane permeability and apoptosis in Salmonella / W Y Bae, H Y Kim, H S Yu, K H Chang, Y H Hong, N K Lee, H D Paik / Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2021; 130(2): pp 394-404 / DOI:10.1111/jam.14800
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BURN WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF BRASSICA JUNCEA SEED AND SHOREA ROBUSTA ROOTS ON WISTAR RATS / Sanjay Kumar, Hayat M Mukthar, Prof Ranjit Singh / Journal of Tianjin University of Science and Technology, 2021; 54(8) / eISSN: 0493-2137 / DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/PTQFW
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. leaves alleviate adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats via modulating the finest disease targets - IL2RA, IL18 and VEGFA  / Dinesh Kumar Lakshmanan, Selvakumar Murugesan, Sasikala Rajendran, Guna Ravichandran, Abbirami Elangovan, Karthik Raju et al / Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 2022; 40(18): pp 8155-8168 / DOI:10.1080/07391102.2021.1907226
The effects of Brassica juncea L. leaf extract on obesity and lipid profiles of rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet / Jae-Joon Lee, Hyun A Kim, Joomin Lee / Nutr Res Pract., 2018; 12(4): pp 298-306 /
DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2018.12.4.298 / PMID: 30090167
Effects of Methanolic Extract of Brassica juncea Seeds on Biochemical Parameters and Histological Integrity of the Heart and Liver of Albino Rats / Nkiruka C Azubuike, Chukwugozie N Okuwosa, Usoamaka C Maduakor, Adeniyi Akande et al /  Int J Morphol., 2019; 37(1): pp 237-240
Antioxidant Activity, Whitening and Anti-wrinkle Effects of Leaf and Seed Extracts of Brassica juncea L. Czern. / Jeong-Eun Lee, Ae-Jung Kim / Asian J Beauty Cosmetol, 2020; 18(3): pp 282-295 / eISSN: 2466-2054 / pISSN: 2466-2046 / DOI: 10.20402/ajbc.2020.0038
Short communication: Antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk / N K Lee, J H Lee, S M Lim, K A Lee, Y B Kim, P S Chang, H D Paik / Journal of Dairy Science, 2014; 97(9): pp 5383-5386
Chemical Composition of Oil and Cake of Brassica juncea: Implications on Human and Animal Health / Sanjula Sharma, Manju Bala, Gurpreet Kaur, Saad Tayyab, Shevin Rizal Feroz / The Brassica juncea Genome: pp 29-55
Brassica juncea L. (Mustard) Extract Silver NanoParticles and Knocking off Oxidative Stress, ProInflammatory Cytokine and Reverse DNA Genotoxicity / Sohair Aly Hassan, Ali Mohammad El Hagrassi, Olfat Hammam, Abdelmohsen M Soliman, Essam Ezzeldin, Wessam Magdi Aziz / Biomolecules, 2020; 10(12): 1650 / DOI: 10.3390/biom10121650

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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