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Family Moraceae
Morus alba Linn.
Sang chih

Scientific names Common names 
Morus alba Linn.  Amingit (Ig.) 
Morus alba var. arabica Bureau . . . . Amoras (Ilk.)
Morus alba var. vungeana Bureau Mora (Ibn.)
Morus alpina Raf.  Moral (Span.)
Morus arabica (Bureau) Koidz.  Moras (Tag.)
Morus atropurpurea Roxb.  Moraya (Ibn.)
Morus bullata Balb. ex Loudon  Morera (Span.)
Morus byzantina Sieber ex Steud.  Tanud (Iv.)
Morus chinensis Lodd. ex Loudon  Tanyud (Iv.)
Morus colombassa Dippel  Black-fruited mulberry (Engl.)
Morus constantinopolitana Poir.  Common mulberry (Engl.)
Morus cucullata Bonaf.  Mulberry bush (Engl.)
Morus dulcis Royle  Mulberry tree (Engl.)
Morus fastigiata Dippel  Silkworm mulberry (Engl.)
Morus furcata Steud.  Silkworm tree (Engl.)
Morus guzziola Steud.  White mulberry (Engl.)
Morus heterophylla Loudon   
Morus hispanica Loudon   
Morus intermedia  Perr.  
Morus italica Poir.  
Morus kaki  Lavallée  
Morus levasseurei Lavallée  
Morus lhou  (Ser.) Koidz.  
Morus lucida Loudon  
Morus macrophylla Moretti  
Morus mariettii Steud.  
Morus membranacea Steud.  
Morus morettiana Lodd. ex Loudon   
Morus morettii Audib. ex Bureau   
Morus multicaulis Perr.  
Morus multicaulis var. cucullata Ser.  
Morus multicaulis var. planifolia Ser.  
Morus nana Audib. ex Loisel.  
Morus nervosa Loudon  
Morus nigriformis (Bureau) Koidz.  
Morus patavia Audib. ex Dippel  
Morus patavina Spach  
Morus pumila Balb.  
Morus romana Lodd. ex Spach  
Morus serotina Mart. ex Bureau  
Morus sinensis G.Don  
Morus subalba Steud.  
Morus tatarica L.  
Morus tokwa (Bureau) K.Koch  
Morus tortuosa Audib. ex Moretti  
Morus venassainii Steud.  
Morus venosa (Delile) Spach  
Moras is a common name shared by Morus alb (morera) and Andropogon zizainoides (moras).
Morus alba L. is an accepted species. (It has 100 synonyms): KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: El ttuut, Tuth.
BULGARIAN: Chernitsia biala.
CHINESE: Bai sang, Sang shu, Jia sang, Nu sang, Hu sang, Sang Chih.
DANISH: Morbær (fruit), Morbær (plant).
DUTCH: Moerbei (fruit), Moerbezie (plant).
FRENCH: Mûre de murier (fruit), Mûrier (plant) , Mûrier blanc.
GERMAN: Maulbeere (fruit), Maulbeerbaum (plant), Weiße Maulbeere.
GREEK: Aspri moria, Aspromuria.
HINDI: Shahtut, Tut.
ITALIAN: Gelso bianco, Gelso comune, Mora di gelso (fruit), Moral blanco, Morera blanco, Morus, Moro (fruit), Moro bianco, Moro da carta.
JAPANESE: Guwa, Kara guwa, Ma guwa, Kara yama guwa.
KOREAN: Ppong, Ppong na mu.
MALAY: Bebesaran (Indonesia), Bebesaran lampung (Indonesia, Java), Murbei (Indonesia),
POLISH: Morwa biala.
PORTUGUESE: Amora da amoreira (fruit), Amoreira (plant), Amoreira branca.
RUSSIAN: Shelkovitsa belaia, Tut belyi.
SPANISH: Mora (fruit), Mora blanca, Mora de árbol, Moral, Morera (plant), Morera blanca.
SWAHILI: Mforsadi, Mfurusadi.
SWEDISH: Vitt mullbär.
TAMIL: Kambli chedi, Mussuketi, Musukette.
THAI: Mon.
VIETNAMESE: D[aa]u, D[awf]m tang, Dâu-tàm, T[awf]m tang.

Gen info
- Mulberry belongs to family of Moraceae and genus Torus usually cultivated to feed silkworm for the manufacture of silk. The two most popular species of mulberry are Morus alba (white mulberry) and Morus indica (Indian mulberry). (68)
- There are about 68 species of the genus Morus, and the majority occur in Asia. In China, there are over 1000 varieties under cultivation.
- Morus alba is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants, first described in Divine Husbandman's Materia Medica, the earliest known Chinese pharmacopoeia.
- The genus name Morus is Latin mora, meaning "delay", likely referring to the sluggish growth of its buds.
- The red mulberry, also known as American mulberry, is native to the eastern USA. The black mulberry is native to Asia, grown in Europe for its fruits since before the Roman era. (93)
- Mulberry is usually associated with sericulture, the production of silk and the rearing of silkworms (Bombyx mori). (85)
- Nowadays, silk production is dominated by China and India.

Amoras is moderate-sized monoecious tree, 3 to 6 meters high, with reddish or yellowish brown, smooth bark, marked with long horizontal lenticels. Leaves are ovate, 5 to 20 centimeters long, 2.5 to 8 centimeters wide, with tapering pointed tips, and 3-nerved, heart-shaped base, sharply-toothed margins, sometimes deeply 3-lobed, of hairy texture when young, rough when mature. Flowers are unisexual, the female flowers numerous and crowded in short spikes. Fruiting spikes are axillary, peduncled, dark purple or nearly black when ripe, fleshy, and 1.5 to 3 centimeters long.

- Probably of ancient introduction.
- Widely distributed in cultivation.
- Naturalized in Batan Island and Cagayan Province.

- Native of tropical Asia.
- Now found in all warm countries.

• Tannins; phytosterols; sulfur; essential oils; saponins.
• Mulberroside F Isolated from the leaves of Morus alba.

• Fruit yields fat, 30%; and urease; also, sugar, pectin, citrates, malates, etc.
• Roots have yielded sterols, flavones, flavanone, stilbene, benzophenone and coumarin derivatives.
• Juice of root yields tannin; the stem yields ash (1.35%), and succinic acid.

• Leaves yield calcium malate, calcium carbonate, invert sugar 4%, pentosane, tannin, carotin, ash (10%), vitamin C and choline.
• Study of leaves yielded two novel prenylflavanes and a glycoside, together with six known compounds, isoquercitrin, astragalin, scopolin, skimmin, roseoside II, and benzyl D-glucopyranoside. (26)
• Ethanolic extract of leaves yielded coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, and triterpenes. (see study below) (62)
Study for mineral contents (mg/100g) in dried (D) and fresh (F) leaves yielded iron (19.00-35-72 D, 4.70-1036 F), zinc (0.72-3.65 D, 0.22-1.12 F), and calcium (786.66-2226.66 D, 380-786 F). (64)
• Leaves yielded antioxidant components such as rutin, isoquercetrin, astralgin and quercetin-3-  (6malonyl) glucoside. (64)
• Study for polyphenolic compounds yielded 1-caffeoylquinnic acid, caffeic acid, 5-caffeoylquinnic acid, 4-caffeoylquinnic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-7-D-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-(6-malonyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6-malonyl)glucoside. Study showed total phenolic acids of 3148.966 and total flavonols of 5846.30 mg/100g. (64)
• Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, sterols, triterpenes, fats and oils, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids. (see study below) (70)
• Study of chemical composition yielded: lipid 1.10%, linoleic acid 57.26%, palmitic acid 22.42%, oleic acid 10.49%, protein 10.15-13.33%, P 247 mg/100g, K 1668 mg/100g, ca 152 mg/100g, Mg 106 mg/100g, Fe 4.2 mg/100g, Na 60 mg/100g,, Mn 3.8 mg/100g, Zn 2.8 mg/100g, Cu 0.5 mg/100g, Se 0.005 mg/1000 g, Vitamin C 22.4 mg/100 mL. (94)

· Considered analgesic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antirheumatic, diuretic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic, purgative, restorative, sedative and tonic.

Roots: Sweet tasting, cooling, sedating, diuretic, tonic and astringent remedy in nervous disorders.
· Twigs: bitter tasting, antirheumatic, good nervine.
· Leaves: Sweet-tasting, diaphoretic, refrigerant, antipyretic.
· Fruits are sweet-acidic tasting, neither warming nor cooling, liver-kidney tonic, blood-stimulating.

· N-butanol and water soluble fractions of mulberry roots showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive effects in experimental animals. (28)
· Fruits yields major anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. (88)

Parts utilized
· Leaves, fruits, twigs, stems, roots, wood cut in cubes.
· Leaves: Harvest in November to January; sun-dry.
· Twigs: Harvest the green, soft twigs, air-dry a little, cut into pieces and sun-dry.
· Fruits: Harvest the reddish fruit (not yet fully ripe), remove peduncles and sun-dry.
· Roots: Collect from August to September, steam cure, then sun-dry.

- Young leaves eaten as vegetable, particularly by nursing mothers.
- Mulberry fruit can be used for making jam, jelly, pulp, fruit drink, cake, tea, fruit powder, wine. (88)
- In China, the fruit is made into jam.
- In Japan, leaves as used as tea and powder juice. (64)
- In India, a popular flatbread, paratha, is made from a mixture of lyophilized white mulberry leaves and wheat flour. (64)
· For headaches, cough, and fever associated with influenza: Mix 6 to 12 gms of morera leaf preparation with Chrysanthemum and Mentha in 5:3:1 proportions. Boil to a concentrated decoction and drink.
· For persons who lacrimate when their faces are exposed to the wind: use 6 to 12 gms of leaf preparation with an equal volume of Sesame preparation, grind to a powder and drink with warm water.
· Constipation in the elderly: 6 to 15 gms dried fruit preparation, boil to a concentrated decoction and drink.
· Backache: 9-15 gms twig preparation, boil to a concentrated decoction and drink.
· Eyestrain causing reddening and pain in the eyes: get leaf preparation, steam in water, and expose eyes to the smoke which emanates from the preparation.
· Fever arising from lung complications, cough, and hemoptysis; also skin edema: use 9-15 gms of bark in decoction.
· Rheumatic arthritis, lumbago, leg pains: use 9-15 gm Morus twig material.
· Fever, cold and coughing: use 6 to 9 gms leafy drug in decoction.
· In Brazil, used for fever, lowering of cholesterol and blood pressure, and liver protection.
· Juice of fresh bark used for epilepsy in children and in dribbling of the saliva.
· Milky sap of the tree is used for aphthous stomatitis in infants, and in incised wounds caused by snake, centipede, and spider bites.
· Decoction of leaves used for sweating feet, dropsy, and intestinal disorders.
· Bruised leaves used for wounds and insect bites, and also to promote hair growth.
· Twigs considered prophylactic for all forms of cold; also, diuretic and pectoral.
· Lye made of ashes of mulberry wood used as stimulant and escharotic in scaly skin diseases and unhealthy granulations.
· Fruits have been used for diabetes.
· In Cambodia, leaves used in treatment of conjunctivitis. (63)
· In China, used in traditional medicine since 659 AD. Root bark, stem, fruits, and leaves used as constituents in medicinal preparations. (64)
• Paper Making: Bark used in early China for making paper.
• Wood: In the Indian subcontinent, wood is used for handicrafts, cabinet work and sporting equipment like hockey sticks and tennis rackets. (85)
• Silkworm Food: Leaves used for silkworms feeding.
• Forage / Animal feed: Mulberry's attractive biomass, palatability, and high nutritive value for ruminant and monogastric animals have raised increasing interest for animal feeding. Silk producers traditionally feed mulberry surpluses from silkworm feeding to farm animals and herbivorous carp in fish ponds. In many countries, mulberry foliage is part of the traditional mixed diet of domestic ruminants. (85)
• Cosmetic: Extract of roots for skin whitening (Japan); used in the manufacture of hair care and hair-growth/tonic products. (See study below)
• Natural food colorant: Fruit is rich in anthocyanins and has potential for industrial source of natural color for use in the food industry. It yields cyanin, that contributes to the red or purple color. (88)

Anti-dopaminergic / Leaves: Study of methanolic extract of M. alba leaves for anti-dopaminergic effect showed significant dose-dependent potentiation of haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy. Study showed MAME possesses antidopaminergic activity and suggests antipsychotic potential. (1)
Antidiabetic / Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of Morus alba leaf extract in an animal model. Results showed positive effects in diabetes-induced Wistar rats, restoring the diminished beta cell numbers. (2)
Anti-allergic: Inhibitory Effects of Morus alba on Compound 48/80-Induced Anaphylactic Reactions and Anti-Chicken Gamma Globulin IgE- Mediated Mast Cell Activation: Study showed mast cell effects and suggests a potential for HEMA as a therapeutic tool for allergic diseases. (4)
Mulberroside F / Skin whitening: Mulberroside F Isolated from the Leaves of Morus alba Inhibits Melanin Biosynthesis: Study isolated Mulberroside which showed inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin formation suggests a potential for use as a skin whitening agent. (5)
Anti-melanoma / Antioxidant: Quantitative Analysis of Rutin, a Flavonoid Compound in the Leaves of m Morus alba: Rutin showed to be an inhibitory of melanoma growth, anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant suggesting a potential for dietary supplements or cosmetic applications.
Hypoglycemic: Flavonoid rich fraction of an alcohol root bark extract of Egyptian Morus alba was studied for hypoglycemic activity in stretozotocin-diabetic rats. Study revealed the extract may protect pancreatic beta cells from degeneration and diminish lipid peroxidation. (6)
Skeletal Muscle AMPK Activity Stimulation: Study showed Morus alba leaf water extract stimulates skeletal muscle AMPK activity acutely without changing the intracellular energy status.(7)
Antidepressant: Study of aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea on mouse behavior showed the extract possesses an antidepressant without an anxiolytic effect. At high doses, a sedative effect was noted with alterations of other functions, i.e., muscle strength, maze activity and pain response.
Anti-Ulcerogenic: Study of MA ethanol extracts on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in animals indicates that MA exhibits significant antiulcerogenic activity in rats with marked reduction of gastric mucosal damage, reduction of edema and submucosal leukocyte infiltration. (9)
Anti-Dyskinesia: Study results suggest a protective effect of Morus alba extract against haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress. (10)
Anti-Hypertensive: In a study of 50 medicinal plant extracts, Morus alba was one of four that showed strong ACE inhibitory activity, with decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (11)
Hypotriglyceridemia: Results showed the aqueous extract of leaves of M. alba decreased the plasma level of triglycerides. (12)
Post-Traumatic Nerve Recovery: Results showed the potential of M. alba extract to enhance functional recovery after crush injury with significant improvement of both sensory and motor functions. Study suggests M. alba may serve as functional food for post-traumatic nerve recovery and suggests further studies to identify the active ingredient/s and mechanisms. (13)
Ob-X / Obesity-Regulating / Hypolipidemic: Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs – Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, Artemisia iwayomogi was studied and shown to regulate body weight, adipose tissue mass, lipid metabolism, in part, through changes in the expression of hepatic PPARalpha target genes. (14)
Antioxidant / Natural Colorant: Results showed the anthocyanin pigment in the berry is a natural, edible colorant with excellent antioxidant properties and health benefits that seem applicable to both health food and medicine. (15)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4 Hepatotoxicity: Study showed the hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 800 mg/k exhibited a significant liver protective ability by lowering the levels of AST and ALT, decreasing sleeping time, with less pronounced destruction of liver architecture, absence of fibrosis and inflammation as compared with the carbon tetrachloride group. (16) Study showed the Morus alba and Calendula officinalis extracts possess highly promising hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. (17)
Anti-Stress : Study showed attenuation of chronic restraint stress (RS)-induced perturbations (cognitive dysfunction, altered behavioral parameters, etc.) were attenuated by an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Morus alba. Study results suggest that in addition to classically established pharmacologic activities, the plant has immense potential as anti-stress agent. (18)
Immunomodulatory: Study showed Morus alba increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented mortality induced by bovine Pasturella multocida in mice. It showed an increase in phagocytic index, a protection against cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia and increased neutrophil adhesion. Results conclude MA increases both humoral and cell mediated immunity. (19)
Antidepressant: Study showed the aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea possesses an antidepressant effect without an anxiolytic-like effect. At higher doses, the extract might show a sedative effect and alteration of other functions. (20)
Leaves as Protein Source: Study of effect of mulberry leaves in diet for pigs on digestibility indices and N balance showed that in rice-based diets, it is possible to use mulberry leaves as the main protein source. (21)
Flavonoids / Antiasthmatic Effect: Study showed Morus alba flavonoids antagonize acetylcholine on the contraction of bronchial lung, extending the latent period of asthma, reducing eosinophilic invasion. (22)
Anti-Cataract Activity / Antioxidative / Antidiabetic / Antihypercholesterolemic: Study showed an ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on retinal neurotransmitters, retinal neuronal cells and anti-cataract activity which may be attributed to the flavonoid content with potential anti-oxidative activity, hypoglycemic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects. (25)
Antioxidant / Leaves: Study showed Morus alba leaves have more antioxidant activity than Rosmarinus officinalis. The methanol extract of leaves showed inhibition of lipid peroxidation of lipid in egg-yolk. Results indicate the leaves are a good source of natural antioxidants. (27)
Suppressive Response of Confections Containing Leaf Extracts on Blood Sugar and Insulin: Study showed the effective ration of ELM to sucrose, which suppressed postprandial blood glucose and insulin, was 1 to 10. The digestion of sucrose and starch was inhibited by the ELM, with an additional benefit of a prebiotic effect. Results suggest a potential contribution to diet therapy management for type-2 diabetes mellitus. (29)
Histopathologic Effect on Diabetic Pancreas of Rats: According to histological and biochemical results, animals treated with mulberry leaf extract showed reduction of blood glucose levels by regeneration of ß cells. (30)
Radioprotective: Study showed mulberry fruit powder given to gamma-irradiated rats offered protection against gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Study suggests a potential as a radio-protective agent. (31)
Antischistosomal / Hepatoprotective: Study investigated the antischistosomal and hepatoprotective activity of Morus alba leaf extract. Results concluded mulberry could ameliorate preexisting liver damage and oxidative stress conditions due to schistosomiasis. (32)
Nephroprotective / Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the renal protective effects of M. alba related to its free radical scavenging properties. Results showed the ethanol extract prevented alterations in serum creatinine, BUN, and serum uric acid levels. There was a decrease in creatinine clearance and urinary volume. Histopathological exam and urinary enzymes excretion suggest a protective effect. Co-administration of M. alba with gentamicin prevented renal functioning alterations reported with gentamicin use alone. (34)
Antiproliferative / Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line: Study showed water, 50% aqueous MeOH, and 100% MeOH extracts of mulberry leaves exhibited a highly significant inhibitory effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation via suppression of activity of NF-κB gene expression and modulation of biochemical markers. (35)
Comparative Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives. Stem bark showed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by root bark, fruits, and leaves. Results indicated a high correlation and regression (P<0.001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts. (36)
Herb-Drug Interaction / Cyclosporine: Study showed mulberry significantly reduced the bioavailability of CSP (cyclosporine) through activation of functions of P-gp and CYP3A. Cyclosporine is a potent immunosuppressant widely used in transplant patients. (37)
Leaves as Protein Source: Study evaluated the effect of inclusion of mulberry leaves in diets for pigs on digestibility indices and N balance. Results suggest that in rice based diets, mulberry leaves could be a main protein source. Dry leaves were associated with slightly lower digestibility compared to fresh leaves. (38) Study evaluated Morus alba leaf meal (MLM) for nutritive value as feed ingredient for chicken diet. Results showed the MLM contained a high content of crude protein (29.8%), along with Ca (2.73%) and neutral detergent fiber (35.77%). Results suggest the incorporation of MLM into chickens' diet could provide a good source of protein despite its high fiber content. (51)
Pancreatic Effect / Leaf Extract: Study examined the histopathological effects of M. alba leaf extracts on the pancreas of diabetic rats. According to histological and biochemical results, study concludes the extract may reduce blood glucose levels by regeneration of ß cells. (39)
Phytoremediation / Cadmium and Nickel: Study investigated heavy metal uptake (Cd, Cr, and Ni) from soil by different organs of Populus alba and Morus alba. Results showed P. alba and M. alb were suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Ni from contaminated soil. (40)
Cytoprotective Against Hyperglycemia: Study investigated the protective effects of alcoholic extract of Morus alba leaves on fetus fibroblast cells under hyperglycemic conditions. Results showed MA leaves has cytoprotective effects against hyperglycemia. (41)
Anthelmintic / Leaves / Bark: Study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of Morus alba against adult earthworms and albendazole as standard. Results showed anthelmintic activity inversely proportional to the time of paralysis and death of worms. All test doses showed dose dependent activity. (42) Study evaluated various extracts of M. alba bark for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma in measures of time of paralysis and time of death. Results showed dose dependent activity; the hydroalcoholic extract showed more activity than others. Piperazine hydrate was used as reference standard. (84)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of M. alba leaves. Ethanol and distilled water extracts showed antioxidant activity, while ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity against test organisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans. (see constituents above) (43)
Morusin / Anticonvulsant / Modulation of GABA Receptor: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of Morusin, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from M alba. Results suggest anticonvulsant activity of Morusin with a mechanism probably related to the restoration of GABA level. (44)
Protective Testicular Effects against MSG Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated the possible protective effects of herbal antioxidants (Morus alba) on tissue damages related to MSG (monosodium glutamate) cytotoxicity in adult Wistar rats. Decreased spermatogenic indices together with histomorphological changes in the seminiferous tubules were noted in the MSG treated group. Results suggest MA extract can have positive effects in reduction of testicular tissue alterations related to MSG tissue toxicity. (45)
Effect on Enzymatic Activities in STZ Induced Diabetes: Study evaluated the effect of M. alba on lipid peroxidation and hepatic glucose regulating enzymes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant increase in activities of hexokinase, G6PD and lactate dehydrogenase in Morus alba treated rats, along with reduction glutathione s transferase and glucose 6 phosphatase activities. Results suggest MA reduce hyperglycemia by controlling oxidative stress, increasing glycogen levels and preventing anaerobic glycolysis and improving hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. (46)
Flavonoids / Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study evaluated the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of M. alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed the flavonoid fraction could prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidneys. Concurrent used of the flavonoid fraction of MA with CP can protect the kidneys from CP-nephrotoxicity. (47)
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Pesticidal: Study evaluated the antibacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activity of M. alba seed oil extract. E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most susceptible bacterial species to the crude extract, and Aspergillus niger and S. cerevisiae were the most susceptible of the tested fungal species. Crude and seed oil extract also showed significant pesticidal activities against Sitophilus granaries. (48)
Anti-Amnesic Activity / Learning and Memory Benefits / Serotonergic Pathway: Study evaluated the anti-amnesic potential of EA soluble fraction of methanolic extract of M. alba. The effect on learning and memory was evaluated using ORT (object recognition test), EPM (elevated plus maze test) and WMT (water maze test). The result of the in-vitro study showed the extract significant improved learning and memory through its anti-serotonergic mechanism and presents a potential treatment for dementia and other cognitive disorders. (49)
Antimutagenic / Leaves: Study of leaf extracts of Morus alba and Morus nigra showed decreased mutability level induced with chemical mutagens, gamma rays and ageing in plants (Vicia faba, Arabidopsis thaliana) and animal (rat) cells. The demonstrated gene protection properties increases its potential for use in the food industry, providing antimutagenic protection to increase nutritional value of food products. (see below 79) (50)
Comparative Amino Acid Composition / Leaves: Study evaluated the amino acid composition of black mulberry leaves (M. nigra L.), white mulberry (M. alba) and red mulberry (M. rubra). All three yielded 15 amino acids which were dominated by glutamic acid, glycine, methionine and tyrosine. The highest content was found in white mulberry leaves extract. (51)
Acetylcholine Esterase Inhibitors / Leaves: Study evaluated M. alba leaf extract for acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity using modified Ellmann's method. Results showed concentration dependent acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity. The extract yielded major compounds viz., vanillic acid, myricetin, luteolin and kaempferol. Of the four compounds, myricetin, luteolin and kaempferol showed AE inhibitory activity. The acetylcholine inhibitory activity of these compounds present potential use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (52)
Phytoremediation: Study concludes mulberry tree can be successfully used for phytoremediation of highly contaminated soils. Rapid growth, ease of breeding, great foliage and a deep root system make it suitable for phytoremediation. (53)
Whitening and Antierythemic Effect: Study evaluated a formulated w/o emulsion of ethanolic extract of mulberry fruits with its vehicle as control on skin melanin, skin erythema and skin moisture content. Results showed the cream containing 4% concentrated extract of mulberry can be used for skin whitening by decreasing skin melanin content. The decrease in erythema further suggests non-irritating quality and safety. (54)
Moralbosteroid / Anxiolytic: Study evaluated the anxiolytic activity of Moralbosteroid, a steroidal glycoside isolated from Morus alba. The study was carried out on elevated plus maze, light and dark model, and open field test. Results concluded that Moralbosteroid has therapeutic potential for managing anxiety. (55)
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study of water extract of Morus alba leaves showed potent in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 28.11 µg/ml. (56)
Anthocyanins / Anti-Diabetic / Fruits: Mulberry plant contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. Study evaluated the ANC composition of fruits and the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Results demonstrated ANCs extracted from MA were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. (57)
Leaf Tea Effect in Type 2 Diabetes / Hypolipidemic: Study investigated the anti-diabetic effects of low and high doses of white mulberry leaf in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Study results showed brewed white mulberry tea leaf has hypolipidemic rather than antidiabetic effects. (58)
Confections with Leaf Extractives / Effect on Blood Glucose: ELM (extractives from leaves of Morus alba)-containing confections at ratio of sucrose to ELM of 1:10 effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, creating a probiotic effect. (59)
Mulberrofuran G / Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Activity: Study isolated mulberrofuran G and isomulberrofuran G, a pair of isomeric Diels-Alder type adducts, from the root bark of MA. Mulberrofurran G showed moderate activity inhibiting hepatitis B virus DNA replication with IC50 of 3.99 µM. (60)
• Pharmacological Effects / Root Bark / Comparison with "Sohakuhi": Study evaluated n-butanol and water soluble fractions of root bark of mulberry tree for pharmacological effects and compared the clinical effects with Chinese medicine "Sohakuh." In animal models, both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive properties. There appeared to be a correlation with clinical applications of mulberry root in Chinese medicine literature.   (28)
• Oxyresveratrol / Anti-Inflammatory / Inhibition of Leukocyte Migration: Study evaluated evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of M. alba via leukocyte migration. Oxyresveratrol was isolated as an active component. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK-ERK signaling cascade. (61)
• Antimicrobial / Toxicity Study / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Morus alba leaves for toxicity to Artemia salina, oral toxicity to mice, and antimicrobial activity.
The extract showed not toxicity in mice since no animal death was detected at 2000 mg/kbw dose. However, the extract promoted biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations at the same dose. At 300 mg/kg, while there was no toxicity or irreversible cellular damage, .there was alteration in proportion of leukocyte types. The extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against test pathogens. (62)
• Antidiabetic / Effect on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Concentration / Leaves / Clinical Trial: A double-blind, randomized, repeat-measure, phase 2 crossover design evaluated the glycaemic and insulinemic response to test (Reducose/mulberry extract) and reference products. The mulberry leaf extract significantly reduced plasma glucose increase after maltodextrin ingestion, along with significant suppression of total insulin rise. Results suggest a potential for T2DM prevention and regulation of dysglycemia. (65)
• Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory / Root Bark: In vitro study evaluated a mulberry root bark extract for anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. The extract showed anti-inflammatory effect by blocking NO production via suppression of iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Anticancer activity was evidenced by dose-dependent induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. (66)
• Dietary Supplementation with Leaf Extracts / Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with mulberry leaf extracts on trace element status (Fe, Zn, and Cu) in relation to diabetes management and antioxidant indices in high-fat diet fed/STZ diabetic rats. Results showed an acetone-water extract decreased hepatic and renal Fe stores, while an ethanol-water extract increased hepatic Cu levels in diabetic rats. Results confirmed significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential of both mulberry leaf extracts in diabetic rats. (67)
• 28-Day Repeated Dose Toxicity Study: Study evaluated a 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in rats according to OECD guidelines. Doses of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kbw/d were administered via gavage . No treatment-related mortality of adverse effects were observed, and no target organs were identified. (69)
• Antimicrobial / Periodontal Pathogens / Sol-Gel: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel with chlorhexidine sol-gel against periodontal pathogens A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivitis, and T. forsythia. Both Morus alba and chlorhexidine sol-gel exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. (see constituents above) (70)
• Antioxidant / Polyphenol and Flavonoid Contents / Leaves: Radical scavenging activity of Morus alba leaf extract showed an SC50 between 584 and 139 µg/ml. Total polyphenol contents of the leaf extract varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. Study yielded three flavonol compounds: rutin, isoquercitrin, and astralgin, varying from 0.68-12.7, 0.69-9.86,and 0.05-3.55 mg/g, respectively. Study suggests the sum of the three flavonol compounds or isoquercitrin alone is a good marker for the quality control of mulberry leaves. (71)
• Possible Herb-Drug Interaction / Safety Evaluation: Study evaluated a standardized extract of Morus alba for herb-drug interaction potential through inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and recombinant human CYP450 forms. Plant extract and its phytoconstituent showed significantly higher IC50 value than controls. Interaction potential with pooled CYP450 were significantly lesser (p<0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001) than known CYP450 inhibitors. Results suggest negligible herb-drug interactions and safety for use in diabetes management. (72)
• Effect on Ovulation / Potential Treatment for Female Infertility / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of M. alba fruit extract on ovarian function of nonpregnant and pregnant rats. There was dose dependent increase in FSH and LH, estrogen and progesterone productions. Results suggest the fruit extract can be used to induced superovulation to cause multiple pregnancies. Study suggests a potential for use in the treatment of female infertility. (73)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Morus alba in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. At 600 mg/kg dose, M. alba significantly reduced blood glucose levels compared to control (P,0.01), but statistically insignificant (p<0.05) compared to standard drug Metformin. (74)
• Toxicity and Genotoxicity Study / Fruits: Study evaluated the subchronic oral toxicity and genotoxicity of M. alba fruits in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed no deaths or adverse effects with no significant toxic effects in parameters of organ weight, biochemical markers, hematology and urine analysis. The no-observed-adverse-effect for 90-day repeated oral toxicity study in rats was greater than 1000 mg/kg. Results also showed no genotoxicity potential. (75)
• Blood Pressure Lowering Effect / Ca++ Channel Blockade Pathway: Study sought to provide scientific basis for the use of M. alba in hypertension. The crude extract induced a dose-dependent fall in arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. In isolated guinea-pig atria the extract caused inhibition of atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, similar to a verapamil effect. Results suggest the blood pressure lowering effect of M. alba occurred via Ca++ channel blockade pathway. (76)
• Histopathological Pancreatic Effects / Leaves: Study evaluated the histopathologic effects of Morus alba leaf extract on pancreas of diabetic rats. From histological and biochemical studies, results suggest the extract may reduce blood glucose levels by regeneration of ß cells. (77)
• Anti-Inflammatory / LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells / Stem Bark: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of mulberry stem extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. The MSE demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production via suppression of both iNOS mRNA and protein. It also inhibited expression of COX-2 mRNA in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. (78)
• Antimutagenicity / Cigarette Smoke Condensates / Leaves: Study evaluated extracts and fractions of mulberry leaves for potential to inhibit the mutagenic effect of cigarette smoke condensates. Among the solvent fractions, the diethyl ether fraction showed inhibitory activity against the mutagenicity of CSCs (cigarette smoke condensates) in a dose-dependent manner, inhibiting mutagenesis by about 97.1% at a concentration of 1mg/plate. (see above 50) (79)
• Chemotherapeutic Through Immune Response / Fruits: Study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba fruit extract. The FFE stimulated the production of cytokines, NO, and TNF-
α and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. Results suggest an indirect anti-cancer activity through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. Study suggests a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory chemotherapy agent. (80)
• Flavonol Glycoside / Q3MG / Antiatherogenic and Antioxidative: Study in LDL receptor-deficient mice evaluated the effects of dietary consumption of leaves and its major flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) (Q3MG). Results showed mulberry leaves attenuated the atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLR-/-mice through enhancement of LDL resistance to oxidative modification. The antioxidative and antiatherogenic protective effects were attributed mainly to Q3MG, the quantitative major flavonol glycoside in the leaves. (81)
• Antidiabetic / Effect of Leaf Extract on Sucrose Load: Study evaluated the effect of co-ingestion of mulberry leaf extract with 75 g sucrose on blood glucose response, breath hydrogen response, and sucrose absorption in type 2 diabetic patients. Results showed significant reductions in blood glucose increases for the initial 120 minutes. The mulberry-induced reduction in blood glucose was attributed to mulberry's inhibition of intestinal sucrase. The increase H2 suggests the supplement induced sucrose malabsorption. (82)
• Antiosteoporotic Effect / Combined Extract of M. alba and Polygonum odoratum / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of combined extract of M. alba and P. odoratum leaves in ovariectomized rats. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. Elevation of serum Ca, AP, and osteocalcin was observed. The antiosteoporotic effect was attributed to increased growth formation together with suppression of bone resorption. (83)
• Nootropic Activity: Study evaluated the nootropic activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Morus alba using conditioned response in rat and estimation of acetyl cholinesterase activity by Ellman's method in rats. Results showed nootropic activity as evidenced by reversal of scopolamine induced amnesia. Nootropic activity was further evidenced by enhancement of cognitive function by acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. (86)
• Anti-Fatigue Activity / y-Aminobutyric Acid / Leaves: Study isolated  γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from mulberry leaves.
Study evaluated male NIH mice for anti-fatigue activity with 4 weeks of oral administration of mulberry leaf-derived GABA using load-swimming time. Results suggested anti-fatigue activity with improvement in endurance capacity by both low- and medium-dose GABA. (87)
• Anthocyanins / Pigment Potential: Fruit is rich in anthocyanins. Major anthocyanins are cyanidin-6-glycoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. In 31 Chinese cultivars, the total anthocyanin content ranged from 148 to 2725 mg per liter of fruit juice. The pigments have potential for industrial source of dietary modulators, natural food colorant, and fabric tannin agent. (88)
• Potential for Type 2 Diabetes / Leaves / Review: Review evaluated the medicinal potential of M. alba leaves on the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of 253 studies, 29 were included. Extracts of M. alba leaves at the phytochemical level improve glucose uptake. Chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin in leaves have hypoglycemic properties and an ameliorating effect on diabetic nephropathy. Pharmacologic effects include glucose absorption, insulin secretion production, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and obesity control. (90)
• Bioactive Compounds / Functional Food Ingredient Potential / Review: M. alba leaves and fruit have a high content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins, macronutrients, vitamins, and volatile aromatic compounds. Its bioactive compounds can acts as flavorants, food fortificants, antioxidants, preservatives, and antibacterial. M. alba possesses beneficial biological properties and is suitable for inclusion as functional food ingredient. However, the exploitation of M. alba's functionality and properties are scarcely explored in the industrial field. (91)
• Immunomodulatory / Immune Enhancement Potential / Fruit / Review: Review summarizes and discusses the immunity enhancing effects and pharmaceutical efficacy of M. alba extracts. Ethanol and methanol extracts have yielded large amounts of phenols and flavonoids, which possess immunosuppression, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, and cardiac beneficial properties. Fruit extracts have yielded a polysaccharide and alkaloid related to increased macrophage activity. Water extracts have been shown to be effective in pathogen defense and tumor suppression by enhancing macrophage activity. Review stressed its bioactivity in relation to its immunity enhancement activity. (92)
• 28-Day Toxicological Study / Review: The most predominant iminosugar in M. alba is the piperidine alkaloid 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a D-glucose analogue with an amine group replacing the oxygen on the pyranose ring. Naturally occurring DNJH in M. alba in leaves is relatively low, approximately 1.4 to 3.5 mg/g DNJ. Reducose® is a commercial water-soluble extract of M. alba leaves standardized to 5% DNJ, an iminosugar with α-glucosidase inhibition properties. Study evaluated the safety of Reducose in Wistar rats at rose of 0, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg/kbw. No treatment-related mortality or adverse effects were observed. the no-observed-adverse-effect level was determined to be 4,000 mg/kbw. (93)
• Effect on HbA1c / Leaves / Clinical Trial: A randomized controlled trial of 80 patients with
T2DM were divided into two groups: control on hypoglycemic medications and experiment given 500 mg of M. alba leaf tablet 2x daily for 90 days. The Hb1c of patients in the control group was 8.92 and 8.91% at baseline and final, respectively, while the experimental group was 9.13% and 8.59% at final, respectively. Results suggest a significant effect in lowering high blood sugar levels. (95)

- Wild-crafted. 
- Cultivated.

Updated November 2023 / June 2018 / February 2017 / October 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves / Yadav, Adhikrao et al / Indian Journ of Pharmacology • Sept 1, 2008
Evaluation of hypoglycemic effect of Morus alba in an animal model / Jamshid Mohammadi, Prakash R Naik / Indian Journ of Pharmacology • Vol 20. Issue 1. pg 15-18, 2008 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.40483
Quali-quantitative Analyses of Flavonoids of Morus nigra L. and Morus alba L. (Moraceae) Fruits / J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May / 14;56(9):3377-80. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
Inhibitory Effects of Morus alba on Compound 48/80-Induced Anaphylactic Reactions and Anti-Chicken Gamma Globulin IgE- Mediated Mast Cell Activation

Mulberroside F Isolated from the Leaves of Morus alba Inhibits Melanin Biosynthesis
/ Sang Hee LEE, Sang Yoon CHOI, Hocheol KIM, Jae Sung HWANG, Byeong Gon LEE, Jian Jun GAO, and Sun Yeou KIM* / Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25(8) 1045—1048 (2002)
Hypoglycemic effect of Egyptian Morus alba root bark extract: Effect on diabetes and lipid peroxidation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Abdel Nasser B Singab et al / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.03.013
Morus alba leaf extract stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase in isolated rat skeletal muscle / Xiao Ma et al / Journal of ethnopharmacolog • 2009, vol. 122, no1, pp. 54-59 /

Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model / Jintana Sattayasal et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 22 Issue 4, Pages 487 - 492 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2346
Evaluation of the anti-ulcer activities of Morus alba extracts in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats / Mahmood Ameen Abdulla et al / Biomedical Research 2009; 20 (1): 35-39
Protective effect of Morus alba leaves on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress / V S Nade et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • January 2010, Vol. 48, No. 1, Pages 17-22 / DOI 10.3109/13880200903029357/
Effects of Medicinal plant extracts on Blood pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats / Tae-Shik Hahm et al / FASEB /
Hypotriglyceridemic effect of Morus alba L., Moraceae, leaves in hyperlipidemic rats
/ Ana Lucia B Zeni, Mauren Dall'Molin / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.20 no.1 Curitiba Jan./Mar. 201 / doi: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010000100025
Morus alba Enhanced Functional Recovery After Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury / Supaporn Mucimapura, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn et al / American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 (3): 294-300, 2010
Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice / Jinmi Lee, Kyungsil Chae et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 115, Issue 2, 17 January 2008, Pages 263-270 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.09.029
In vitro antioxidant activity of berry (Morus alba var.nigra) / E Nikkhah, M Khayami, N Heidari / International Journal of Plant Production 3 (4), October 2009
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA L. IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE- INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE / Heibatollah Kalantari, Nasrin Aghel and Maryam Bayati / Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1 January 2009
The Protective Effect Of Morus Alba And Calendula Officinalis Plant Extracts On Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Hepatotoxicity In Isolated Rat Hepatocytes / Manal Sh. Hussein, Osama S El-Tawil et al / Journal of American Science 2010;6( 10)
Anti-stress effect of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Morus alba in chronic restraint stress / Nade VS, Yadav AV / Pharm Biol. 2010 Sep;48(9):1038-46.

IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MORUS ALBA LINN. (MULBERRY) LEAVES / Shendige Eswara, Rao Bharani, Mohammed Asad et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.1, January 2010, pp.63-68
Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model / Jintana Sattayasai, Sirporn Tiamkao et al / Phytotherapy Researchm Vol 22, Issue 4, pages 487–492, April 2008 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2346
Mulberry (Morus alba) leaves as protein source for young pigs fed rice-based diets: Digestibility studies / Chiv Phiny, T R Preston and J Ly / Livestock Research for Rural Development 15 (1) 2003
Experimental Study on the role of flavonoids and asthma Morus alba L. / Wei Yuanyuan, Xu Feng, Chen Xiaowei, Chen Xia, Guo-Gang Zhang /
Sorting Morus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
Morus alba / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats / H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa / Int J Biol Sci 2011; 7(6):715-728./ doi:10.7150/ijbs.7.715
Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Morus alba L. / Doi K, Kojima T, Makino M, Kimura Y, Fujimoto Y. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Feb;49(2):151-3.
The study of antioxidant potential of Morus alba L. leaves extract / P. Sadighara, A. Barin / Journal of Herbal Drugs (JHD), Vol 1, No 3, 2010.
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ROOT BARK OF MULBERRY TREE (Morus alba L.) / Yoshikazu YAMATAKE, Madoka SHII3ATA* and Masahiro NAGAI / Japan J Pharmacol. 26, 461-469, 1976
Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects / Mariko Nakamura, Sadako Nakamura and Tsuneyuki Oku / Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6:29 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-29
The histopathologic effects of Morus alba leaf extract on the pancreas of diabetic rats
/ Jamshid MOHAMMADI, Prakash R. NAIK / http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-12-36-2/biy-36-2-9-1008-51.pdf
The Antioxidant Role of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruits in Ameliorating the Oxidative Stress Induced in γ-Irradiated Male Rats / Hamzaa RG, El Shahat AN, Mekawey / Biochem Anal Biochem 1:122. / doi: 10.4172/2161-1009.1000122
Antischistosomal and Hepatoprotective Activity of Morus alba Leaves Extract / Omar S.O. Amer, Mohamed A. Dkhil3,* and Saleh Al-Quraishy / Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 45(2), pp. 387-393, 2013
Morus alba / Synonyms / The Plant List
Nephro-protective potential of Morus alba, a prospective experimental study on animal models / Naveed Ullah*, Mir Azam Khan, Salimullah Khan, Habib Ahmad, Afzal Haq Asid & Taous Khan / Pharmaceutical Biology / DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1052149
The antiproliferative effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) plant on hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 / Shadia A. Fathy, Abdel Nasser B. Singab, Sara A. Agwa, Dalia M. Abd El Hamid, Fatma A. Zahra, Sawsan M. Abd El Moneim / Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 14, Issue 4, October 2013, Pages 375–382
A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) / Muhammad Ali Khan, Aziz Abdur Rahman, Shafiqul Islam, Proma Khandokhar, Shahnaj Parvin, Md Badrul Islam, Mosharrof Hossain, Mamunur Rashid, Golam Sadik et al / BMC Research Notes
December 2013, 6:24
Potential Risk of Mulberry-Drug Interaction: Modulation on P-glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A
Pei-Wen Hsu, Chi-Sheng Shia, Shiuan-Pey Lin, Pei-Dawn Lee Chao, Shin-Hun Juang* and Yu-Chi Hou *
Mulberry (Morus alba) leaves as protein source for young pigs fed rice-based diets: Digestibility studies / Chiv Phiny, T R Preston and J Ly / Livestock Research for Rural Development 15 (1) 2003
The histopathologic effects of Morus alba leaf extract on the pancreas of diabetic rats
/ Jamshid MOHAMMADI, Prakash R. NAIK / Turk J Biol 36 (2012) 211-216 / doi:10.3906/biy-1008-51
Phytoremediation Potential of Populus Alba and Morus alba for Cadmium, Chromuim and Nickel Absorption from Polluted Soil / Rafati, M.*, Khorasani, N., Moattar, F., Shirvany, A., Moraghebi, F. and Hosseinzadeh, S. / Int. J. Environ. Res., 5(4):961-970, Autumn 2011
The Cytoprotective Effects of Morus Alba Leaves in Cultured Fetus Fibroblast Cells against Hyperglycemia
/ Mohammadreza Shams-Ardekani, Abbas Barin, Naiema Vakili-Saatloo , Parisa Sadighara / ZJRMS. 2013; 15(11): pp 52-54
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities with GC/MS Analysis of the Morus alba L. Leaves / Asiye Aslı Emniyet, Emre Avcı, Burcin Ozcelik,*, Gulcin Alp Avcı and Dursun Ali Kose / Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering, 2014, (1) 1 37-41 / DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000006
Anticonvulsant activity of Morusin isolated from Morus alba : Modulation of GABA receptor
/ Gaurav Gupta , Kamal Dua, Imran Kazmi, Firoz Anwar / Biomedicine and Aging Pathology, Volume 4, No 1, pages 29-32; 2014 / DOI: 10.1016/j.biomag.2013.10.005
Protective Effects of Morus Alba (M.alba) Extract on the Alteration of Testicular Tissue and Spermatogenesis in Adult Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate / Davoud Kianifard / Med-Science. 2015; 4(1): 1959-65 / doi: 10.5455/medscience.2014.03.8191
Effect of Morus Alba Linn extract on Enzymatic Activities in Diabetic Rats / Soha M. Hamdy / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2012; 8(1): pp 10-16
Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin- induced nephrotoxicity in rat / M. Nematbakhsh, V. Hajhashemi*, A. Ghannadi, A. Talebi and M. Nikahd / Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, May 2013; 8(2): pp 71-77
Targeting Serotonergic Pathway for Anti-amnesic Activity by Morus alba L./ V. S. Nade*, L. A. Kawale / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2015; 7(1): 27-32
Antimutagenic Activities Extracts from Leaves of the Morus alba, Morus nigra and Their Mixtures / R. A. Agabeyli / International Journal of Biology Vol. 4, No. 2; April 2012
Nutrient Digestibility of Mulberry Leaves (Morus Alba) / Riyadh A. Al-Kirshi, Abdrazak Alimon, Idrus Zulkifli, Sheikhlar Atefeh, Mohamed Wan Zahari, Michel Ivan / Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2013; 12(2)
Identification of acetylcholine esterase inhibitors from Morus alba L. leaves / Sulochana Priya* / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2012, 2 (3):440-444
MORUS ALBA / Ts. Nikolova / Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 21 (No 4) 2015, 747-750
Whitening and Antierythemic effect of a cream containing Morus alba extract / Naveed Akhtar, Jehad Hisham, Haji M. Shoaib Khan, Barkat Ali Khan*, TariqMahmood and Tariq Saeed / Hygeia.J.D.Med.vol.4 (1), April 2012 – Sept.2012
Anxiolytic activity of Moralbosteroid, a steroidal glycoside isolated from Morus alba / Gaurav Gupta, Imran Kazmi, Firoz Anwar / Phytopharmacology 2013, 4(2), 347-353
Alpha Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Morus Alba / Shivanna Yogisha* and Koteshwara Anandarao Raveesha / Pharmacologyonline 1: 404-409 (2009)
Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats / Ariya Sarikaphuti, Thamthiwat Nararatwanchai, Teruto Hashiguchi, Takashi Ito, Sita Thaworanunta, Kiyoshi Kikuchi, Yoko Oyama, Ikuro Maruyama / Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, Vol 6, Issue 3, September 2013 / / DOI: 10.3892/etm.2013.1203
Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects / Mariko Nakamura, Sadako Nakamura and Tsuneyuki Oku* / Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6:29 / doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-29
Mulberrofuran G and Isomulberrofuran G from Morus alba L.: Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity and Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation / Chang-An Geng, Yun-Bao Ma, Xue-Mei Zhang, Shu-Ying Yao, Duo-Qing Xue, Rong-Ping Zhang, and Ji-Jun Chen* / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012, 60 (33), pp 8197–8202 / DOI: 10.1021/jf302639b
Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling / Yi-Ching Chen, Yin-Jing Tien, Chun-Houh Chen, Francesca N Beltran, Evangeline C Amor, Ran-Juh Wang, Den-Jen Wu, Clément Mettling, Yea-Lih Lin and Wen-Chin Yang / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) 201313:45 / DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-45
Evaluation of Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of an Ethanolic Extract from Leaves of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) / Alisson Macário de Oliveira, Matheus da Silva Mesquita, Gabriela Cavalcante da Silva, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima, Paloma Lys de Medeiros, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Ivone Antônia de Souza, and Thiago Henrique Napoleão / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/513978
MEDICINAL VALUE OF [Morus alba] MULBERRY PLANT / Shailesh Soni, Khushi Ram Sahu, S Dewagan, Smt. Yogita Soni, Sanjeev Katre / International Research Journal, Nov 09-Jan 09; Vol 2, Issue 5
PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF MORUS ALBA LINN. EXTRACTS – A REVIEW / Shail Bala Sanghi* and Sabira Mushtaq / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Vol 6, Issue-4, October-December 2017
Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study / Mark Lown, Richard Fuller, Helen Lightowler, Ann Fraser, Andrew Gallagher, Beth Stuart, Cristopher Byrne, and George Lewith / PLoS One 2017; 12(2): e0172239. / doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172239
Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark / Hyun Ji Eo, Jae Ho Park, Gwang Hun Park, Man Hyo Lee, Jeong Rak Lee, Jin Suk Koo and Jin Boo Jeong / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2014)14:200 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-200
The Effects of Supplementary Mulberry Leaf (Morus alba) Extracts on the Trace Element Status (Fe, Zn and Cu) in Relation to Diabetes Management and Antioxidant Indices in Diabetic Rats / Ewelina Król, Magdalena Jezka-Skowron, Zbigniew Krejpcio, Ewa Flaczyk / Biological Trace Elements Research, Nov 2016; Vol 174, Issue 1: oo 158-165
History and active pharmacokinetic principles of mulberry: a review / SaurabhBajpai, A.Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, M. Muthukumaran, and K.Nagalakshmamma / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy (July2012) Vol 2, Issue 4 , pp 13-16
A 28-Day Repeated Dose Toxicological Study of an Aqueous Extract of Morus Alba L. / Tennile K Marx, Robert Glavits, John R Endres, Philip A Palmer, Amy E Clewell, Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Ilone Pasics / International Journal of Toxicology (2016); Vol 35, Issue 6: pp 683-691 / https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581816670597
Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Morus alba sol-gel against periodontal pathogens
/ Shilpa Gunjal, Anil V Ankola, Udaykumar Bolmal, Kirankumar Hullatti / Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry (2015); Vol 13, Issue 3: pp 331-336 / DOI: 10.4103/2319-5932.165299
Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions / DONG‑SEON KIM, YOUNG MIN KANG, WEN YI JIN, YOON‑YOUNG SUNG, GOYA CHOI and HO KYOUNG KIM / BIOMEDICAL REPORTS 2: 675-680 / DOI: 10.3892/br.2014.294
Possible herb-drug interaction of Morus alba L.- a potential anti-diabetic plant from Indian Traditional medicine / Amit Kar, Pulok K Mukherjee*, Sankarshan Saha, Shiv Bahadur, SK Milan Ahmmed & Subrata Pandit / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, October 2015; Vol. 14(4): pp. 626-631
The Effectiveness of Super Ovulation and Multiple Pregnancies in Sprague Dawley Rat using Morus alba Linn. Fruit / Heshu Sulaiman Rahman*, Karwan Sidiq Muhammad, Faraidoun Abdul Sattar, Rasedee Abdullah, Hemn Hassan Othman, Swee Keong Yeap, Max Stanley Chartrand6 and Kawa Muhamad Amin / International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 2018, 7(1): 17-26
Comparative study of hypoglycaemic activity of morus alba with oral hypoglycaemic drug (metformin) in alloxan induced diabetic rats / Naveen Kumar Madalageri, Lavanya Nagaraj / International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Vol 5, No 6 (2016) / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20164056
Nonclinical Safety Assessment of Morus alba L. Fruits: Study of 90‐D Toxicity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Genotoxicity in Salmonella / Bo Yoon Chang, Seon Beom Kim, Mi Kyeong Lee, Hyun Park, Sung Yeon Kim / Journal of Food Science, May 2016; Vol 81, Issue 5 / https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13285
Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of Morus alba is Mediated Through Ca++ Antagonist Pathway / Munasib Khan, Arif-ullah Khan, Najeeb-ur-Rehman and Anwarul-Hassan Gilani / International Journal of Pharmacology (2014); Vol 10, Issue 4: pp 225-230
The histopathologic effects of Morus alba leaf extract on the pancreas of diabetic rats / Jamshid MOHAMMADI, Prakash R. NAIK / Turk J Biol, 36 (2012): pp 211-216 / doi:10.3906/biy-1008-51
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Morus alba L. Stem Extract in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.
/ Nattaporn Soonthornsit, Chetsadaporn Pitaksutheepong, Warinkarn Hemstapat, Pongsak Utaisincharoen, and Tasana Pitaksuteepong / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) / doi:  10.1155/2017/3928956
Antimutagenic Effect of Mulberry Leaf Extract / Bum Hyuk Lim, Chang Gyun Park, Hyun Ki Cho, Heung Bin Lim / Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science Vol.25 No.4 pp.201-208  /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2017.25.4.201
Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4 / Bo Yoon Chang, Seon Beom Kim, Mi Kyeong Lee, Hyun Park and Sung Yeon Kim* / Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24139-24158 / doi:10.3390/ijms161024139
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves and Their Major Flavonol Quercetin 3-(6-Malonylglucoside) Attenuate Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice  / Byambaa Enkhmaa, Kuninori Shiwaku, Takuya Katsube, Keiko Kitajima, Erdembileg Anuurad, Masayuki Yamasaki, Yosuke Yamane /
The Journal of Nutrition
, Vol 135, Issue 4, 1 April 2005, pp 729–734 / https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/135.4.729
Influence of Mulberry Leaf Extract on the Blood Glucose and Breath Hydrogen Response to Ingestion of 75 g Sucrose by Type 2 Diabetic and Control Subjects / Mitchell Mudra BA, Nacide Ercan-Fang MD, Kitao Zhong MD, Julie Furne BS, and Michael Levitt MD / Diabetes Care, 2007 May; 30(5): 1272-1274 / https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-2120
Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum / Sudarat Sungkamanee, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Supaporn Muchimapura, and Wipawee Thukham-mee / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Vol 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/579305
An in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Morus alba bark / Kshitij Agarwal*, Harmeet Singh / MIT International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, August 2016; Vol. 2, No. 2: pp. 35–37
World distribution and utilization of mulberry and its potential for animal feeding / Manuel D. Sánchez / FAO
Appraisal of Nootropic Activity of Morus Alba Extracts / Dr. Somayeh Afsah Vakili & Syed Fayazuddin / Global Journal of Medical Research: Pharma, Drug Discovery, Toxicology & Medicine, 2017; Volume 17, Issue 3
Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves / Hengwen Chen, Xuanhui He, Yan Liu, Jun Li, Qingyong He, Culying Zhang, Benjun Wei, Ye Zhang and Jie Wang / Scientific Reports (2016); Vol 6, 18933 / doi: 10.1038/srep18933 (2016)
APPROACHES TO INDUSTRIAL EXPLOITATION OF MULBERRY (Mulberry sp.) FRUITS / Brij Kishore Singhal*, Mohammad Ashraf Khan, Anil Dhar, Farooq Mohammad Baqual and Bharat Bushan Bindroo / Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 2010; Vol 18(1): pp 83-99
Morus alba L. / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Medicinal properties of Morus alba for the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review
/ Jorge Guillermo Morales Ramos, Ambrocio Teodoro Esteves Pairazaman, Emma Caldas Herrera et al / F1000Res., 2021; Vol 10: 1022 / PMID: 34912543 / DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.55573.1
Morus alba L. Plant: Bioactive Compounds and Potential as a Functional Food Ingredient  / Centhyea Chen,  Umi Hartina Mohamad Razali, Fiffy Hanishdah Saikim, Azniza Mahyudin, Nor Qhairul Izzreen Mohd Noor /  Foods, 2021; 10(3) / DOI: 10.3390/foods 10030689
Pharmacological Activities for Morus alba L., Focusing on the Immunostimulatory Property from the Fruit Aqueous Extract  / Bo-Yoon Chang, Bong-Seong Koo, Sung-Yeon Kim / Foods, 2021; 10(8): 1966 /
DOI: 10.3390/foods10081966
A 28-Day Repeated Dose Toxicological Study of an Aqueous Extract of Morus Alba L. / Tennille K Marx, Robert Glavits, Ilona Pasics et al / International Journal of Toxicology, 2016; 35(6) /
DOI: 10.1177/1091581816670597
The Properties And Nutritional Uses Of Mulberry (Morus Alba): A Review / Kendre Damini Bajirao, Jadhav Pallavi / International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT) / ISSN: 2320-2882
Effect of Morus alba (white mulberry) leaf on HbA1c of patients with type II diabetes mellitus  / Zoha Sohail, Nighat Bhatty, Saima Naz, Amna Iram, Saghir Ahmad Jafri / Mal J Nutr, 2020; 26(1): pp 77-84 /
DOI: 10.31246/mjn-2019-0055


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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