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Family Elaeocarpaceae
Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume

Scientific names Common names
Cordia dubiosa Blume            Malangau (Tagalog)
Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume            Manobo (Tagalog)
Elaeocarpus grossus Wall.            Indian olive (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus lobbianus Turcz.            Rugged oil fruit (Engl.)
Elaeocarpus pseudosepicanus O.C.Schmidt             
Elaeocarpus ramosii R.Knuth             
Elaeocarpus rigidus Ridl.             
Elaeocarpus floribundus is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Jalpai, Jalphai, Jolphai.
BENGALI: Belphoi.
BORNEO: Empedu, Empeduk, Emperdok, Irat, Kungkurad, Perdu.
HINDI: Jalpai.
INDONESIA: Hahauwan (Sundanese), Kemesu (Javanese).
LAOS: Ma moun, Moun.
MALAYSIA: Medang biawak, Medang teja, Medang telur.
NEPALI: Koving.
THAILAND: Muat doi, Man som, Kalon.
VIETNAM: C[oo]m tr[aa]u.

Gen info
- Elaeocarpus is a genus of nearly 500 species of flowering plants in the family Elaeocarpaceae. They are trees or shrubs with simple leaves, flowers with four or five petals, and, usually, a blue fruit. (5)
- The genus Elaeocarpus was first formally described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum.
- Etymology: The genus name Elaeocarpus derives from Greek, meaning "olive-fruited".
Specific epithet floribundus derives from Latin, meaning "with many flowers".

• Trees 15-25 m tall with buttresses; crown ovoid or oblong; bark gray-brown, vertically fissured. Leaves simple, alternate, spiral; petioles ca. 3-5 cm long, thickened at both ends, geniculate, glabrous, occasionally with a pair of gland at apex; lamina ca. 5-17 x 2-8 cm, broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate, cuneate or rounded at base, bluntly acuminate at apex, coarsely repand-serrate, subcoriaceous, glabrous, glandular-punctate beneath, pustulate when dry, bright red before falling; secondary nerves 5-7 pairs. Inflorescences in axillary racemes ca. 10-15 cm long, flower-buds ellipsoid, sericeous; flowers ca. 7 mm across, white; pedicels ca. 8-10 mm long, puberulous or glabrescent; sepals ca. 5-7 mm long, lanceolate, thickened and tomentose along margins; petals ca. 5-7 mm long, white, obtriangular, laciniate, ciliate along margins; stamens 25-30; filaments ca. 1 mm long, slender, minutely puberulous; anthers ca. 2 mm long, oblong, puberulous, bearded; disc silky villous; ovary 3-loculed, silky villous. Drupes ca. 2.5-4 cm long, light green, oblong-pyriform, rounded at both end, fleshy; pyrenes ca. 1.5-2 cm, spindle shaped, vertically 3-grooved, rugulose. (3)

• An evergreen tree up to 50 m tall; leaves often crowded at apices of pubescent, glabrescent twigs, oblong, elliptical to obovate, (3-)8-17(-22) cm x (2-)3-7(-9) cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate, margin serrate, petiole 2-4 cm long, stipules early caducous; raceme below the leaves, 7-14(-20) cm long, many-flowered, pedicel 4-8 mm long; sepals lanceolate or narrowly triangular, 4 mm x 2 mm, petals obovate-oblong, 5 mm x 2 mm, gradually dilated from a broad base, with a more or less abruptly widened apical portion, white, stamens 30-40, filaments about 0.5 mm long, anthers 1-2 mm long, ovary shortly hairy, 3-celled, usually 2 ovules per cell; drupe ellipsoid, 3-3.5 cm x 1.5-2 cm, often with yellow dots, stone almost smooth, slightly grooved. (PROSEA) (1)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, East Himalaya, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.

- Nutrient analysis of mature fruit per 100 gm: Energy 115 kcal, carbohydrate 6,26 gm, protein 0.84 gm, total fat 10.68 gm, dietary fiber 3.2 gm, vitamin C 0.9 mg, vitamin E 1.65 mg, sodium 735 mg, potassium 8 mg, calcium 88 mg, magnesium 4 mg, phosphorus 3 mg, iron 3.31 mg, zinc 0.22 mg, with small amounts of beta-carotene. (3)
- Study of leaves isolated and characterized 15 compounds (1-15), along with three compounds (16-18) obtained as mixtures. Hexane extract of leaves yielded four fatty acids, three diterpenoids, one tritrpene alcohol, two fatty alcohols, three phaeophytins, one phytosterol, one sesquiterpene, and three hydrocarbons. (4)
- LC-MS analysis of Aspergillus niger fraction yielded bioactive compounds including tensyuic acid, hexylitaconic acid, chlorogenic acid, nigragillin, TMC-256C, asnipyrone B, asperenone, fumaric acid and fusarubin, all with reported pharmacologic activities. (see study below) (9)
- Bioassay-guided fractionation of hydroethanolic extract of leaves isolated five known compounds: myricitrin (1), α-tocopherol (2), eustifoline B (3), 3-n-nonadecanoyl-ß-sitosterol (4), and hexadecanoic acid (5). (see study below) (10)

- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiarthritic, α-amylase inhibitory, antidiabetic, MAO inhibitory, bioherbicidal, sunscreen properties.

Parts used
Leaves, stem bark, fruits.


- Fruits are edible. Eaten raw, cooked, pickled or chutneyed.
- In Sumatra, infusion of bark and leaves used as mouthwash for inflamed gums.
- In Malaysia, poultice of bark and leaves used for ulcers; extract drunk as tonic.
- Leaves used for rheumatism. Fruits used for dysentery and diarrhea.
- Used for diabetes and hypertension.
- Used as anthelmintic.
- Oil: Seeds used to extract vegetable oil in Myin Ka village, Myanmar.

Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cells / Phenolic Contents / Antioxidant / Leaves and Stem Bark:
Study of methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark isolated triterpenoids friedelin, epifriedelanol and ß-sitosterol. Leaves total phenolic content was higher, 503.08 mg GAE/g DW compared to stem bark with 161.5 GAE/g DW. Stem bark showed strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 7.36 µg/mL. In MTT cytotoxicity assay, chloroform extract of leaves showed significant activity with IC50 of 25.6 µg/ml against CEM-SS (human T4 lymphoblastoid) cancer cells, while  friedelin and epifriedelanol were active against the two cancer cells (CEM-SS) and human cervical (HeLa) cells with IC50s ranging from 3.54 to 11.45 µg/ml. (6)
Antimicrobial / Fruits: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic crude extract and fractions of fruits by broth dilution method. Crude extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, while ethyl acetate fraction showed most activity among the fractions.  Purification of bioactive fraction yielded seven compounds. Dibutyl succinate (1) exhibited highest growth inhibitory activity with MICs ofd 60, 80, 90 µg/mL against S. dysenteriae, C. albicand, and B. subtilis, respectively. (7)
Antibacterial Against Food-Borne Bacteria / Fruits: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of olive seed and mesocarp-epicarp for antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria i.e., Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Enterococcu sp. and Corynebacterium sp. by agar-well diffusion method and MIC values by agar dilution method. The extracts showed concentration dependent antibacterial against with inhibition zone diameter of 6-28 mm for ethanolic extracts and 7-23 mm for aqueous extracts. MICs ranged from 9.375-12.5 mg/ml for seed extracts and 1.8875-3.125 mg/ml for mesocarp-epicarp extracts. Results suggest potential for preparation of non-antibiotic antibacterial agents and for food storage. (8)
Endophytic Fungi / Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Antiarthritic: Study evaluated the invitro anti-inflammatory and invivo antinociceptive and antiarthritic activities of compounds produced by endophytic fungi from different parts of E. floribundus. Five endophytic fungi were isolated viz. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum. The Aspergillus niger fraction showed greatest activity against enzymes of inflammatory process viz. CO(X1/COX2 and 5-LOX. In vivo antinociceptive assay showed significant dose dependent (p<0.001) reduction of pain. In CFA-induced poly-arthritic test, there was significant (p<0.001) reduction of paw volume. (see constituents above) (9)
Antimicrobial / α-Amylase Inhibitory / Leaves: Bioassay-guided fractionation of hydroethanolic extract of leaves isolated five known compounds: myricitrin (1), α-tocopherol (2), eustifoline B (3), 3-n-nonadecanoyl-ß-sitosterol (4), and hexadecanoic acid (5). Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with MICs of 200, 100, and100 µg/ml respectively, while compouunds 3 and 4 were moderately active against Bacillus subtilis with MICs of 200 µg/ml Myricitrin exhibited highest α-amylase inhibition in vitro with IC50 of 2.32 µg/ml. (10)
Antibacterial Against MRSA Infection / Fruits: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of E. floribundus fruits aqueous extracts against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates by agar well diffusion method. The MRSA isolates were sensitive to aqueous extract of olive mesocarp-epicarp with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 11.67 to 15.33 mm. Seed extract showed no anti-MRSA activity. Antibacterial capacity of isolates ranged from 733.33 to 800 AU/mL. Results suggest potential as a source of plant-based non-antibiotic biotherapeutic agent for treatment of MRSA infections. (11)
Phytotoxicity / Bioherbicide Potential: Study sought to identify allelopathic compounds from aqueous methanolic extracts of E. floribundus that can suppress the growth of test species (cress and barnyard grass) in a dose- and species-dependent way. Three most active allelopathic substances isolated were characterized as (3R)-3-hydroxy-β-ionone (1), cis-3-hydroxy-α-ionone (2), and loliolide (3). The three limited the seedling growth of cress, with compound 1 showing strong allelopathic effects. Results suggest all three substances contribute to the phytotoxicity of E. floribundus. (12)
Sunscreen Property / Leaves: Study evaluated the total flavonoid content (TFC) of various leaves extract and its sunscreen activity. The methanol extract yielded highest total flavonoid content (149.28 mg QE/g extract) with highest SPF values of 45.47, 44.79, 38.86, and 21.10 for tested concentrations of 1000, 800, 600, 400, and 200 mg/mL, respectively. Activity was not more potent than 3-benzophenone, which had a SPF value of 22.647 at 50 mg/mL. Results suggest the methanol extract of leaves has greatest potential for sun protection among tested extracts. (13)
MAO Inhibitory Property / Model of Parkinson's Disease: Study evaluated flavonoids viz. myricitrin, mearnsitrin, myricetin, and mearnsetin isolated from Indian olive for MAO inhibitory properties. All four compounds were evaluated for therapeutic potential in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in measures of behavior, neurotransmitter levels, and dopaminergic neuronal loss. All four compounds inhibited total MAO, whereas myricitrin exhibited some selectivity against MAO-B at 100 µM. Myricitrin and mearnsitrin exhibited no toxicity in vitro or in vivo. Only myricitrin inhibited MAO in the mouse brain and elevated dopamine levels. Myricitrin attenuated motor incoordination in the mouse model of PD and improved dopamine levels in the striatum. (14)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethanolic seed extract. Phytochemical screening isolated five phenolic compounds. The isolated compounds exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activities against tested pathogens. Compound 4, gallic acid, showed most activity against Bacillus subtilis with MIC of 30 µg/mL. Compound 4, crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed more potent free radical scavenging of DPPH compared to ascorbic acid. Results suggest a potential source of bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical and food related industries. (15)


November 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Elaeocarpus floribundus flowers / Forestowlet / CC0 / Public Domain / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Elaeocarpus floribundus fruits / ©  earth.com / Non-commercial use / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / earth.com
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Elaeocarpus floribundus leaves / Forestowlet / CC0 / Public Domain / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Elaeocarpus floribundus / Asian Plant Net
Elaeocarpus floribundus / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Elaeocarpus floribundus Bl. / Ayyappan N, V Kokilavani / India Biodiversity Portal
Chemical constituents from the leaves of Elaeocarpus floribundus / Ayorinde Victor Ogundele, Archana Moni Das /  Nat Prod Res., 2021; 35(3): pp 517-520 / DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1637870
Elaeocarpus / Wikipedia
Phenolic contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume / Rahayu Utami, Nurhasniza Khalid, Mohd Aspollah Sukari, Mawardi Rahmani, Ahmad Bustaman Abdul, Dachriyanus / Pak J Pharm Sci., 2013; 26(2): pp 245-250
Antimicrobial activities of extract, fractions and isolated compounds from the fruits of Elaeocarpus floribundusgrowing in North-East India / Ayorinde Victor Ogundele, Archana Yadav, Saikat Haldar, Archana Moni Das / Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2021; Vol 30: 100511
Screening of Elaeocarpus floribundus fruit extracts for bioactive phytocomponents and antibacterial activity against food-borne bacteria / Bijayanta Sircar, Shyamapada Mandal /  International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2017; 5(8): pp 3665-3671 / pISSN: 2320-6071 / eISSN: 2320-6012 /
DOI: 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20173582
Identification of bioactive metabolites and evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory and in viv antinociceptive and antiarthritic activities of endophyte fungi isolated from Elaeocarpus floribundus blume / Kishor Mazumber, Yasmeen Nazim Ruma, Rasheda Akter, Asma Aktar et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2021; Volume 273: 113975 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.113975
Antimicrobial and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Constituents from Elaeocarpus floribundus
/ Ayorinde Victor Ogundele, Archana Yadav, Archana Moni Das / Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 2021; 31: pp 330-334 / DOI: 10.1007/s43450-021-00152-7
Indian olive, Elaeocarpus floribundus fruits in combating MRSA infection / Bijayanta Sircar, Manisha Mandal, Shyamapada Mandal / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 2017; 5(11): pp 501-503 /
DOI: 10.12980/jclm.5.2017J7-123
Allelopathic Activity and Characterization of Allelopathic Substances from Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume Leaves for the Development of Bioherbicides / Kaswar Hossen, Krishna Rany Das, Yuka Asato, Toshiaki Teruya, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi / Agronomy, 2022; 12(1) / DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12010057
Total flavonoid content and in vitro study on the sunscreen activity of extracts of leaves of Elaeocarpus floribundus blume /Rahayu Utami, Raynaldi Syahputra, Rahma Dona, Haiyul Fadhli, Mustika Furi, Ihsan Ikhtiarudin / Pharmacy Education, 2023; 23(2): pp 118-121 / DOI: 10.46542/pe.2023.232.118121
Myricitrin – a flavonoid isolated from the Indian olive tree (Elaeocarpus floribundus) – inhibits Monoamine oxidase in the brain and elevates striatal dopamine levels: therapeutic implications against Parkinson's disease / Chayan Banerjee, Sumangal Nandy, Joy Chakraborty, Deepak Kumar / Food & Function, 2022; Issue 12
Elaeocarpus floribundus Bl. seeds as a new source of bioactive compounds with promising antioxidant and antimicrobial properties / Ayorinde V Ogundele, Saikat Haldar, Archana Yadav, Archana M Das / Z Naturforsch C J Biosci., 2020; 76(3-4): pp 141-146 / DOI: 10.1515/znc-2020-0114

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,400 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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