HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Simaroubaceae
Long jack
Eurycoma longifolia Jack
A li zhi zhang

Scientific names Common names
Eurycoma longifolia Jack Ali's umbrella (Engl.)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Long jack (Engl.)
Eurycoma longifolia subsp. eglandulosa (Merr.) Noot. Malaysian ginseng (Engl.)
Eurycoma eglandulosa Merr.  
Eurycoma longifolia subsp. eglandulosa (Merr.) Noot.  
Manotes asiatica Gagnep.  
Eurycoma latifolia Ridl.  
Eurycoma longifolia var. cambodiana Lecomte  
Eurycoma longifolia var. cochinchinensis Pierre  
Eurycoma longifolia var. merguensis (Planch.) Pierre  
Eurycoma merguensis Planch.  
Eurycoma tavoyana Wall.  
Picroxylon siamense Warb.  
Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BAHRAIN: Langir siam.
INDONESIAN: Pasak bumi, Bedara pahit, Bidara laut.
JAPANESE: Babi kurus.
JAVANESE: Babi kurus.
LAOTIAN: Tho nan.
MALAY: Akar pasak bumi, Batang pasak bumi, Kayu dali, Payong ali, Penawar pahit, Sengkayap, Tongkat ali, Umpudumaidu, Wonod mondou.
THAI: Tung saw, Ian-don, Hae phan chan, Phiak, Plaa lai phuenk.
VIETNAMESE: Cay ba benh, Hau phat, Ba binh.

Gen info
- Tongkat Ali (E. longifolia Jack) is one of the most well-known herbal folk medicine in Southeast Asia, especially for its aphrodisiac effects.
- While Tongkat Ali is popularly
related to Eurycoma longifolia, there are three other plants species locally sharing the same common name, viz., Entomophthora apiculata, Polyalthia bullata, and Goniothalamus sp. (5)
- The name "Tongkat ali" literally means "Ali's walking stick," which refers to its aphrodisiac property. Some authors claim the "stick" refers to the long twisted roots harvested for its medicinal value. (5)
- There are over 200 E. longifolia products registered with the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau of Malaysia (NPCB, 2016). It is now currently sold as a Traditional Herbal Medicine in Malaysia. Approximately 21,000 kg are harvested by collectors per year, with a demand of more than 54,000 kg per year. (5)
- Caution: Adulteration and contamination: There have been reports on products falsely claiming to contain E. longifolia as ingredient; and also, cases of contamination. In 2006, the U.S. FDA banned seven dietary supplements, which additionally contained prescription drugs untested for safety in humans. In 2017, the FDA recalled two brands of E. longifolia-containing coffee found adulterated with active ingredients from erectile dysfunction drugs. In Malaysia, in a 2004 study, 36% of over 200 registered E. longifolia products were contaminated with mercury beyond legal limits. (3) (Also see study below: 32)

• Eurycoma longifolia is a medium-sized slender shrub that can reach a height of 10 meters, often unbranched with reddish brown petioles. Leaves are compound even pinnate, up to i meter in length. Each compound leaf consisting of 30 to 40 leaflets, lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate. Each leaflet is about 15 to 20 centimeters long, 1.5 to 6 centimeters wide, much paler on the underside. Inflorescence is axillary, in large brownish red panicles, pubescent with fine soft, granular trichomes Flowers are dioecious. Petals are small, finely pubescent. Fruit is a drupe, hard, ovoid, with a distinct ridge, yellowish brown when young and brownish red when ripe. (3)

• An usually unbranched, small tree up to 12 m tall, with branches crowned by a rosette of leaves. Foliage: Alternate, stalked pinnate leaves are up to 100 cm long. Its leathery leaflets are lance- to egg-shaped, dark green above, mid-green below, and 5–20 by 1–6 cm. Flowers: Glowers are bell-shaped, greenish white to greenish red or purple, 6 mm wide, with petals that are 4.5–5.5 by 1.5–3 mm, and develop each into 1–5 fruits. Fruits: Fruits are oblong, yellow when ripe turning red, and 10–20 by 5–12 mm. (30)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Borneo, Cambodia, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam. (1)
- An understorey plant of lowland forests.

- Grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.

- Studies of roots have isolated 65 phenolic compounds. Various classes of bioactive compounds include quassinoids, ß-carboline alkaloids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, triterpene-type tirucallane, squalene derivatives, and eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, layrycolactone, biphenyl neolignan and bioactive steroids. (5)
- Quassinoids isolated from the roots include various types of eurycomanone (pasakbumin-A), eurycomanols, pasakbumin-B, hydroxyklaineanones, eurycomalactones, eurycomadilactones, eurylactones, laurycolactones, longilactones, and hydroxyglaucarubol. (5)
- Alkaloids isolated include 5,9-dimethoxycanthin-6-one; 9,10-dimethoxycanthin-6-one, 11-hydroxy-10-methoxycanthin-6-one; 10-hydroxy-9-methoxycanthin-6-one; and 9-methoxy-3-methylcanthin-5,6-dione. (5)
- Study of stems isolated ten new structurally diverse quassinoids (1-10) and 14 known compounds, New compounds were two eurycomanone-type C20 quassinoids (1,2), one klaineanone-type C20 quassinoid (3), one C19 quassinoid (4) with a 1,2-seco-1-nor-6(5→10)-abeo-picrasan-2,5-olide skeleton, and six eurycomalactone-type C19 quassinoids (5−10). (see study below) (9)

- Studies have suggested antimicrobial analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticaner, antihyperglycemic, aphrodisiac, male fertility enhancing, antioxidant, adaptogenic, antitumor, ergogenic, antimalarial, wound healing properties.

Parts used
Roots, fruits, bark, leaves.


- Fruits and leaves consumed for medicinal use.
- No reports on culinary use.


- Popular in many Southeast Asian folk medicine, particularly, for its aphrodisiac effects.
- Used for malaria, for washing itches. Fruits used in dysentery. Bark used as vermifuge. Taproots used to treat high blood pressure. Root bark used for diarrhea and fever.
- Roots used for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis, among many others. (
- Roots used as aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. Also used to combat stress and improve physical strength. (
- Used to treat lumbago and indigestion; also, as a tonic after delivery.
- Decoction of leaves used for washing skin itches.
- Leaves eaten for stomach pains. Root decoction used for fevers, high blood pressure, and to relieve stomach pains. Roots also used to induced vomiting and for poulticing sores, ulcers, and wounds. Bark is used for bark clotting in childbirth complications. (30)
- Neutraceutical commerce: The root is the most used of all plant parts for various health purposes. A commercial E. longifolia-infused coffee marketed as a powdered dark brown beverage (a premixed instant coffee powder) contains plant roots. Physta, the world's first patented Tongkat Ali extract, known as LJ100 in the U.S.A. is a freeze-dried extract powder from roots, standardized to contain 1.5% eurycomanone. In Malaysia, several products are marketed as instant coffee. A mixed product  of E. longifolia and ginseng extracts is marketed as an energizer and immunity enhancer, and with B6 and B12 as an energy drink. A capsulized dietary supplement has also been standardized for its eurycomanones. A 300 mg tablet formulation is touted for enhancing testosterone levels while improving male fertility, increasing energy and muscle strength, relieving stress, and boosting athletic performance. (31)

Effect on Stress Hormones and Stress / Roots / Trial:
Study evaluated the effect of supplements with standardized hot-water extract of Tongkat Ali roots for 4 weeks on 63 subjects (32 men, 31 women). Results showed significant improvement in the TA group for tension (-11%), anger (-12%), and confusion (-15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) showed significant improvement with reduced cortisol exposure (-16%) and increase testosterone status (+37%). Results indicate daily supplementation of root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood parameters. (4)
Male Fertility Enhancement Effect: Water-soluble E. longifolia extracts have been reported to enhance male fertility, in measures of higher semen volumes, spermatozoa count, and motility in rodents and human trials. A standardized extract F2 of E. longifolia and major quassinoids, especially eurycomanone improved rat spermatogenesis by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Eurycomanone, major quassinoid in a root extract, significantly increased testosterone production in a dose-dependent manner. It enhanced testosterone steroidogenesis at rat testicular Leydig's cells by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. The cumulation of studies have suggests that quassinoids from E longifolia has potential for development of phytomedicines for treatment of testosterone-deficient idiopathic male infertility and sterility. (5)
Toxicological Studies / Review: Safety studies have shown that Tongkat Ali concentrations used therapeutically (2.5 µg/mL) appear to not have any detrimental effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. However, at concentrations higher than 100 µg/mL, cytotoxic effects may occur.. While some animal studies showed no effect on offsprings, an acute study in mice (Satayavivad et al) on an ethanolic extract found an oral LD50 between 1500-2000 mg/kb while an aqueous extract showed an LD50 of more than 3000 mg/kg. This study authors showed ethanolic and aqueous extract were not toxic at 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Dosages above 1200 mg/kbw showed significant hepatotoxic effects. Acute toxicity studies found the n-butanol fraction as most toxic, attributed to eurycomanone. The studies suggested that LD50s and daily effective doses vary among fractions, and the water-based fraction is considered the safest. (5)
Effect on Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency: Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis which can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Study evaluated the efficacy of E. longifolia as alternative treatment to treat and prevent male osteoporosis. EL exerts androgenic effects that enhance testosterone level and stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis to maintain bone remodeling activity and reduce bone loss. EL has potential as complementary treatment for male osteoporosis without the side effects associated with TRT. (6)
Detection of Adulteration on Using DNA Barcoding & HPLC Analysis: Study evaluated the extent of adulteration of E. longifolia herbal medicinal products (HMPs) using DNA barcoding validated by HPLC analysis. DNA barcoding revealed 37% of HMPs were authentic while 27% were adulterated. HPLC analysis showed a situation in which a species identified as authentic was found not to contain the expected chemical compound. Integration of DNA barcoding with HPLC analysis will help provide information on safety and efficacy of HMPs. (7)
Aphrodisiac Effect: Of all the traditional uses, the sexual enhancing effect is the one that has gained notoriety. A study investigated the potential of the plant to increase sexual motivation of sexually naive male rats. Results showed repeated and chronic dosing of E. longifolia fractions enabled rats to cross an electric grid, along with an improvement in the amount of mounting, intromission and ejaculation. (7)
Antitumor / Quassinoids: Antitumor activity is one of the mos impressive property of quassinoids. Many quassinoids exhibited antitumor activity in different potencies. The mechanism of action may be through inhibition of protein synthesis by inhibition of ribosomal peptidyl transferase activity that leads to the termination of chain elongation (Hall et all, 1982, 1983; Willingham et al 1981; Freshno et al, 1978).    (8)
Quassinoids / Anti HT-1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cell Line / Stems: Study of stems isolated ten new structurally diverse quassinoids (1-10) and 14 known compounds, All the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity toward the highly metastatic HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cell lines. Compounds 11, 23, and 24 showed potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values 0.93- 1.1 µM. (see constituents above) (9)
Effect on UDP-Gucoronosyltransferase Activity / Root: Studies have been done to reveal the influence of herbal preparations on drug metabolism, especially on UGT- and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Study evaluated the effect of E. longifolia root extract on enzyme activity in phase II drug metabolism on Sprague-Dawley rats, especially on uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity, in vivo and in vitro. The extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced the UGT enzyme activity both in vivo and in vitro. The ELE (IC50 0.74 µg/ml) had a lower potency than positive control Na diclofenac (IC50 0.17 µg/ml). (10)
Anti-Tumor / K-562 Leukemic Cell Line / Roots: Study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative and apoptotic potentials of E. longifolia on K-562 leukemic cell line. The K-562 cells were isolated from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and were treated with various root fractions. TAF273 showed growth inhibition with IC50 of 19 µg/ml. It induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. It also arrested cell cycle t G1 and S phases.. TAF273 showed potent anti-proliferative activity in in-vivo and in-vitro models of CML. Results suggest potent of TAF273 as a novel therapeutic strategy for CML management. (11)
Effect on Lipolysis in Collegiate Athletes / Pilot Study: Study evaluated whether acute consumption of E. longifolia extract would influence lipolysis among athletes. Assessment was done with treadmill exercise test, measurements of free fatty acid, glycerol and triglycerides. Results showed EL supplementation could promote fat lipolysis, resulting with better energy yield. E. longifolia has potential as an ergogenic aid to improve performances and boost energy production. (12)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of Eurycoma longifolia for antioxidant and in-vitro anti-inflammatory properties. DPPH assay showed significant antioxidant activity in all tested concentrations. Human RBC(HRBC) stabilization method showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in all concentrations tested, with activity increasing in a concentration dependent manner. (13)
Effect on Sperm Quality / Eurycomanone: Study evaluated the effects of a standardized methanol extract of Eurycoma longifolia containing quassinoid constituents of 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (1), eurycomanone (2), 13α,21-dihydroeurycomanone (3) and eurycomanol (4) on epididymal spermatozoa profile of normal and Andrographis paniculata induced infertile rats. Results showed increase in sperm count (p<0.01). The extract significantly reversed low count, poor motility and abnormal morphology of spermatozoa induced by A. paniculata fraction (p<0.001). Plasma testosterone level significantly increased (p<0.01). The eurycomanone (2) may have contributed towards the improvement of sperm quality. (14)
Antibacterial / Root: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of E. longifolia root using an ethanolic extract against bacterial strains. The ethanolic root extract showed positive results against Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (S. typhi). B. ceereus and S. typhi showed inhibition zones of 11.76 mm and 14.3 mm at extract concentration of 150 mg/mL, respectively, which were higher than positive control. (15)
Immune System Enhancer or Stimulator / Invention: The invention is a composing comprising an effective amount of Eurycoma longifolia extract for the production of a preparation to stimulate and/or enhance the immune system. Ingredients include eurycomanone, protein, polysaccharide and glycosaponin. Effects measure the number of T-cells, improving scores on SIV (a comprehensive index of overall immune function), and lowering of immunological age (immune function based on T-cell number and proliferative activity, reducing fatigue and stress). (16)
Ergogenic Potential / Review: This review presents studies on the ergogenic potential of Eurycoma longifolia. A double-blind randomized study showed no significant difference in physiological responses and exercise performance during endurance cycling between herbal drink consumption and placebo. It was suggested that lack of carbohydrates in the herbal drink or or low concentration of herbs may explain the absence of significant difference. Another study suggested that longer supplement time, 150 mg daily for 5 weeks, can increase fat free mass, muscle strength, and size (Hamzah and Yusof). Other reports on its aphrodisiac property has been attributed on the plant's ability to stimulate the production of androgen hormones, especially testosterone. Of course, testosterone use to enhance athletic performance is prohibited in sports. Further studies are suggested to further the knowledge on the ergogenic potential of the plant. (17)
Antimicrobial / Anticariogenic / Root: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antifungal activities of root extract against three common oral pathogens viz., Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus casei. Results showed inhibition of growth of C. albicans and S. mutans at concentration of 200 mg/ml with zones of inhibition of 16.0 and 7.0 mm, respectively. MIC for both was 25 mg/ml. Results potential use of E. longifolia as new oral care product. (18)
Blood Glucose Lowering / Root: Study evaluated the blood glucose lowering effect of aqueous root extracts in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results showed lowering of blood glucose by 38% (p<0.05). Fraction 2 showed anti-diabetic activity with ED50 value of 1.71 mg/kbw after 15 days of treatment. (19)
Inhibitor of CDK2 Methylation / Quassinoid / Root: In Indonesia, the plant is used as antitumor by triggering cell apoptosis and reactivating the silence tumor suppressor gene caused by hypermethylation, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Study sought to define the role of quassinoid from Eurycooma longifolia as an inhibitor of CDK2 methylation in silico. Results showed the quassinoid has an affinity as inhibitor of CDK2. In the study, Sunitinid as positive control ligand, showed better value compared to quassinoid, meaning it has better ability to bind than quassinoid. (20)
Improvement of Quality of Life and Sexual Well Being in Men / Randomized Clinical Trial: Eurycoma longifolia is reputed as aphrodisiac and treatment for decreased male libido. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study evaluated the clinical evidence of E. longifolia in 109 patients aged 30-55 years randomized to E. longifolia and placebo medication. The freeze-dried water extract of roots resulted in significant improvements in libido, sexual performance, satisfaction, and physical functioning. E. longifolia showed strong impact on seminal fluid parameters, i.e., semen volume and sperm motility. The daily dose of 300 mg of extract for three months was well tolerated and compared to placebo. (21)
Potential Adaptogen of Male Sexual Health: Review analyzed and summarized the literature of various databases of human clinical trials on the clinical significance and therapeutic feasibility of EL in improving male sexual health. There is convincing evidence for the prominence of EL in improving the male sexual health. The findings of human clinical trials revealed a promising efficacy of EL in treating erectile dysfunction in sexually sluggish males by improving penile erection, erectile hardness and sexual performance. Critical analysis of literature assessed is that the sex boosting effects of EL are due to its testosterone enhancing effects in males. (22)
Effect on Uric Acid Excretion / Stem: Study evaluated the effect and mechanism of E. longifolia stem 70% ethanol extract and its active compounds on uric acid excretion in potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemic rats model and adenin-PO induced hyperuricemia mice model. EL significantly reduced reduced blood uric acid levels, prevented pathological changes of kidney in PO induced hyperuricemia animal model, and improved renal urate transports. The mechanism, partly clarified, was related to the suppressing effect of URAT1 by quassinoid in EL. This is the first study to demonstrate the role of EL in hyperuricemia by promoting renal uric acid excretion. (23)
Etana / Herbal Combination for Erectile Dysfunction: Study evaluated Etana, an herbal combination of five extracts viz., Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). Study evaluated its effect on the enhancement of erectile function in male rats, measuring penile erection, genital grooming, copulation mounting, and penile erection index (PEI). Maximum response was observed at 7.5 mg/kg of Etana. The PEI was significantly (p<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. Compared to sildenafil citrate, Etana produced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg/kg, but similar to 0.71 mg/kg of sildenafil. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects. (24)
Effect on Spermatogenesis in Estrogen-Treated Rats: Study evaluated the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. Rats treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility compared to control. Results suggest a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after 14 consecutive days of treatment. (25)
Anti-Inflammatory / Alkaloid Enriched Extract / Roots: Study evaluated the in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory effects of an alkaloid enriched extract (ELA) from roots by examining inhibitory activities against NO production, iNOS, and COX-2 expressions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The ELA exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity via suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, and COX-2 and protects mice from LPS-induced mortality i septic shock model. (26)
Effect on Corpus Cavernosum / Root: Study evaluated the mechanisms of action of E. longifolia in rat corpus cavernosum. Fraction DCM-1 was able to antagonize angiotensin II-induced contraction to cause corpus carvernosum relaxation via inhibition of angiotensin III type receptor and enhance bradykinin-induced relaxation through inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. (27)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Roots: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of EL roots in vivo in mice. The root extract showed analgesic effects in the acetic acid test in a dose dependent manner. It showed an anti-inflammatory effect inc carrageenan-induced edema in mice comparable to diclofenac. Results showed the extract alleviated pain and inflammation via inactivation of the NF-kB signaling pathway. (28)
Phytoandrogenic Properties / Natural Alternative to Testosterone Replacement: Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is characterized by many symptoms, including low libido, increase fat mass, fatigue, erectile dysfunction or osteporosis, affecting up to 80% with age-dependent decline of serum testosterone levels. Conventional treatment is testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), with both benefits and significant adverse effects, along with concerns on prostate cancer. Tongkat ali has been touted as a natural alternative to TRT, shown to restore serum testosterone levels, improving sexual health, along with positive effects on bone healing, and a significant antihyperglycemic effect. At therapeutic levels, no significant adverse effects have been reported. Tongkat ali may be a safe alternative to TRT. (29)
Caution / Side Effects: E. longifolia (EL) is probably safe in doses of 200 mg daily for up to 9 months or 400 mg daily for 3 months, and is probably unsafe in larger amounts. Some supplements have been found to contain mercury or lead, and may lead to mercury or lead poisoning. Touted as aphrodisiac or male fertility enhancing, Sildenafil (Viagra) has been found in some E. longifolia supplements. (32)
Caution / Interactions: (1) Propranolol (inderal) interacts with E. longifolia. EL seems to decrease absorption of propranolol and decrease its beta-blocker effects. (2) EL may alter the breakdown of medications by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2A6,and 2C19). (3) Taken with testosterone, EL may increase testosterone levels too much and increase the chance of side effects. (32)
Anticancer / Antimalarial / Roots: Study isolated 65 compounds from the roots of EL by comprehensive analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectral data. Four quassinoid diterpenoids were reported from natural sources for the first time, namely eurycomalide A (1), eurycomalide B (2), 13beta, 21-dihydroxyeurycomanol (3), and 5alpha, 14beta, 15beta-trihydroxyklaineanone (4).  Compounds 12, 13, 17, 18, 36, 38, 59, and 62 exhibited strong cytotoxicity toward human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines; 12, 13, 17, 38, 57, 58, and 59 exhibted strong cytotoxicity toward human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Compounds 57 and 58 showed potent antimalarial activity against resistant Plasmodium falciparum. (34)
Anti-Inflammatory / NF-kB Inhibitors / Roots: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic root extract of E. longifolia. Bioassay guided isolation of NF-kB inhibitors identified a new quassinoid, eurycomalide C (1), along with 27 known compounds. Eurycomalactone (2), 14,15ß-dihydroklaieanone (7), and 13,21-dehydroeurycomanone (10) were identified as potent NF-kB inhibitors with IC50s of less than 1 µM. (see constituents above) (35)
Wound Healing / Excisional Model / Hydrogel: Study evaluated the effect of Tongkat Ali (TA) hydrogel on wound contraction and re-epithelialization in an excisional wound model in Sprague Dawley rats. Hydrocyn® aqua gel was used as positive control. The TA hydrogen significantly accelerated the wound healing process during the early stage, the inflammatory stage. In the later healing stages and
re-epithelialization, it showed the same effect as the Hydrocyn® aqua gel. (36)
Effect of Supplementation on Cell Growth, Exercise Performance and Well-Being: E. longifolia (EL) has demonstrated ability to regulate testosterone production via effect on hypothalamic-pituitary axis in animals. In humans, limited studies have shown that supplementation improves exercise performance and well being. Study evaluated the effect of EL supplementation on skeletal muscles, effect on selected reproductive hormonal changes, short-term and long-term effects on mood state and sexual function and its ergogenic properties with regards exercise performance. Cytotoxicity test showed EL has lower lactate dehydrogenase activity in skeletal muscle cells (SMC), suggesting low toxicity levels. Results showed increase in testosterone level after short-term supplementation, and suggested EL did not influence the HPG axis. EL supplementation improved mood state and sexual function, supporting use as adaptogen and aphrodisiac. The 600 mg dose alone, the highest dose permitted at present, showed no ergogenic effects on strength or power. (37)
Antioxidant Properties: Study evaluated aqueous extract of commercial E. longifolia for antioxidant properties using TPC, DPPH, and FRAP assays. In TPC assay, total phenolic content was 7.3229 mg GAE/g. FRAP showed 1.095 mM FSE/g. At concentrations of 0.001 g/L, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 g/L, the radical scavenging activities of EL and ascorbic acid were 38.90% and 46.79%,59.25 and 73.66, 33.07 and 49.32, 39.46 and 88.43, 50.55% and 90.83%, respectively. Results showed aqueous extracts of commercial EL with antioxidant properties comparable to previous studies of EL crude extracts. (38)
Effect on VEGF Expression During Wound Healing / Root Hydrogel: Study evaluated the effect of topical root hydrogel on VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression during wound healing in in-vivo excisional wound model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed significant increased VEGF expression in granulation tissue of rat's skin treated with TA hydrogel. Results suggest great potential for the TA hydrogel as an effective wound healing agent for cutaneous wounds. (39)
Efficient Extraction of Quassinoids and Alkaloids from Roots: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) extracts have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and used for treatment of male sexual dysfunctions. Study reports on the efficient and environmentally friendly extraction method for EL quassinoids and alkaloids using NADESs (natural deep eutectic solvents) and MAE (microwave-assisted extraction). Optimized NADES, comprising of choline chloride, citric acid, glucose, and water (CCGW), yielded higher eurycomanone and 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (9MCO) than water. Anti-inflammatory activity of 9MCO in diluted CCGW was equivalent to its water-based form. (40)

- Wild-crafted.
- Herbal supplements, gels, coffer and tea bags in the cybermarket.

Updated May 2024
May 2020

                                                     PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) / Mokkie / May 2014 /book / Creative Commons 3.0 / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Simaroubaceae: Eurycoma longifolia / Fruiting twig / Copyright © 2017 by Danilo Tandang (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL119737] / Non-Commercial Use  / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Closeup / Flower / Eurycoma longifolia / Alex Yee / click on image to go to souce page / © Wiki.nus
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph / Roots / click on image to go to source page / © FREAKYFITNESS: fitness for regular folks / FREAKYFITNESS

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

Eurycoma longifolia Jack / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Sorting Eurycoma names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.
Eurycoma longifolia / Wikipedia
Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects / Shawn M Talbott, Julie A Talbott, Annie George, and Mike Pugh / J Int Soc Sports Nutr., 2014; 10 / doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-28 / PMCID: PMC3669033 / PMID: 23705671
Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology / Shaheed Ur Rehman, Kevinn Choe, and Hye Hyun Yoo / Molecules, 2016 Mar; 21(3): 331 / doi: 10.3390/molecules21030331 / / PMID: 26978330 / PMCID: PMC6274257
Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency / Nadia Mohd Effendy, Norazlina Mohamed, Norliza Muhammad, Isa Naina Mohamad, and Ahmad Nazrun Shuid / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 2012; 125761.  / doi: 10.1155/2012/125761 / PMID: 22844328 / PMCID: PMC3403331
Assessing product adulteration of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) herbal medicinal product using DNA barcoding and HPLC analysis / Bashir Mohammed Abubakr, Faezah Mohd Salleh, Mohd Shahir Shamsir Omar, Alina Wagiran / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2018; 56(1) / https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2018.1479869
Advances in Studies on Chemistry, Pharmacological Effect, and Pharmacokinetics of Eurycoma longifolia / Hou Wen-bin, Xiao Xue-feng, Guo Wei, Zhang Tie-jun / Chinese Herbal Medicines, 2011; 3(3): pp 186-195 / DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-6384.2011.03.004
Quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia / Katsunon Miyake, Yasuhiro Tezuka, Suresh Awale, Feng Li, and Shigetoshi Kadota / Journal of Natural Products, 2009; 72(12): pp 2135-2140 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np900486f
In vitro and in vivo effect of Eurycoma longifolia root extract on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity / Purwantiningsih Purwantiningsih, Abas Hj Hussin, Sabariah Ismail, Kit Lam Chan / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, Sept 2019; 9(09): pp 077-083 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2019.90911
Anti-Tumor Activity of Eurycoma longifolia Root Extracts against K-562 Cell Line: In Vitro and In Vivo Study / Omar Saeed Ali Al-Salahi, Dan Ji, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Chan Kit-Lam, Wan Zaidah Abdullah, Abdelhamid Zaki, Shah Kamal Khan Jamal Din, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Aman Shah Abdul Majid / PLOS ONE, 9(1): e83818.  / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083818
Effect of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack Extract on Lipolysis in Collegiate Athletes: Pilot study / P J Lim, C S Gan, T K Khong, S H Hamzah, A Yusof / 3rd International Conference on Movement, Health and Exercise. MoHE 2016. IFMBE Proceedings, Vol 58.
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, A Traditional Medicinal Plant in Malaysia / C P Varghese, C Ambrose, S C Jin, Y J Lim, and T Keisaban / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Jan-Mar 2013; 5(4): pp 1875-1878
The Effect of Eurycoma longifolia on Sperm Quality of Male Rats / Kit-Lam Chan, Bin-Seng Low, Chin-Hoe Teh and Prashanta K. Das / Natural Products Communication, 2009; 4(10): pp 1331-1336
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) Root Extract / Faisal GG, Zakaria SM, Najmuldeen GF / IMJM: International Medicinal Journal of Malaysia, June 2015; 14(1)
Eurycoma longifolia extract and its use in enhancing and/or stimulating immune system  / Annie George, Yuuki Kawasaki, Azreen Abas / 2015 / WO2016036232A2
Review Ergogenic Effect of Long Jack, Eurycoma Longifolia / Thasanee Khanijou, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul / Pharmacogn. Rev., 2016; 10: pp 139-142 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.194041
Effects of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) Alcoholic Root Extract Against Oral Pathogens / Irani Binti Alloha, Nurul ‘Ain Liyana Binti Aziz, Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Zurainie Abllah, Mohd Hafiz Arzmi / Pharmacognosy Journal,2019; 11(6): pp 1299-1302. / DOI:10.5530/pj.2019.11.201
Effect of Active Compound of Pasak Bumi Root (Euricoma longifolia, Jack) as an inhibitor of CDK2 methylation: In Silico Study / E Y Rahman, M Ali, B B Purnomo, N Kania, D H Utomo and P W Nurikhwan / Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1374 (2019) 012004 / doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1374/1/012004
Randomized Clinical Trial on the Use of PHYSTA Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the Improvement of Quality of Life and Sexual Well-Being in Men / Shaiful Bahari Ismail, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad, Annie George, et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2012, Article ID 429268 /  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/429268
Eurycoma Longifolia as a potential adoptogen of male sexual health: a systematic review on clinical studies / Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid et al / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Jan 2017; 16(1): pp 71-80 / DOI: 10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30010-9
Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Stem Extract on Uric Acid Excretion in Hyperuricemia Mice / Ruixia Bao, Mengyang Liu, Dan Wang, Shaoshi Wen, Haiyang Yu, Yi Zhong, Zheng Li, Yi Zhag, and Tao Wang / Frotniers in Pharmacology / https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01464
A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals / N Qinna, H Taha, AA Badwan et al / International Journal of Impotence Research, 2009; 21: pp 315-320 / https://doi.org/10.1038/ijir.2009.18
The effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on spermatogenesis in estrogen-treated rats / Norhazlina Abdul Wahab, Norfilza M Mokhtar, Wan Nurul Heriza A Halim, Srijit Das / Clinics, 2010; 65(1) São Paulo http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322010000100014 
Anti-inflammatory effects of alkaloid enriched extract from roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack / Dao Thi Thanh Hien, Tran Phi Long, Tran Phuong Thao, Jeong-Hyung Lee et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2019; 9(1): pp 18-23 / DOI: 10.4103/2221-1691.250265
Effects of Root Extracts of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on Corpus Cavernosum of Rat / Tee B H, Hoe S Z, Cheah S H, Lam S K / Med Princ Pract, 2017; 26: pp 258-265  / https://doi.org/10.1159/000464363
Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Eurycoma longifolia extracts / Young Min Han, Sang Uk Woo, Min Sun Choi, Yu Na Park, Seung Hyuun Kim, Hyungshin Yim, Hye Hyun Yoo / Archives of Pharmacal Research, 2016; 39(3): pp 421-428 / DOI: 10.1007/s12272-016-0711-2
Phytoandrogenic properties of Eurycoma longifolia as natural alternative to testosterone replacement therapy / A George, R Henkel / Andrologia, 46(7) / https://doi.org/10.1111/and.12214
Eurycoma longifolia Jack / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
A Multifaceted Review of Eurycoma longifolia Nutraceutical Bioactives: Production, Extraction, and Analysis in Drugs and Biofluids / Mohamed A Faraq, Abiodun O Ajayi, Mohammed Taleb, Kai Wang, Iriny M Ayoub / ACS Omega, 2023; 8(2): pp 1838-1850 / PMID: 36687023 / DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.2c06340
Eurycoma Longifolia - Uses, Side Effects, and More / WebMD
Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack standardised water extract (Physta) on well-being of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group study   / Subashini Muniandy, Hanis Mastura Yahya, Suzana Shahar, Ixora Kamisan Atan, Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Annie George, Sasikala M Chinnappan / BMJ Open
Cytotoxic and antimalarial constituents from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia / Ping-Chung Kuo, Amooru G Damu, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Tian-shung Wu / Bioorg Med Chem., 2004; 12(3): pp 537-644 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2003.11.017
NF-κB Inhibitors from Eurycoma longifolia / Thi Van Anh Tran, Clemens Malainer, Hermann Stuppner et al / Journal of Natural Products, 2014; 77(3): pp 483-488 / DOI: 10.1021/np400701k
The Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Tongkat Ali Hydrogel on Wound Contraction and Re-Epithelialization in In Vivo Excisional Wound Model / Maryam Riyadh Yaseen Al-Bayati, Ghasak G Faisal, Azliana Abd Fuaat et al / Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2022; 10(A): A-Basic Sciences
Effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation: An evaluation of cell growth, exercise performance and wellbeing in adult males / K Chan: Doctoral Thesis: Liverpool John Moores University, 2021 /
DOI: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00015104
A Study on Antioxidant Properties of Eurycoma Longifolia (Tongkat Ali) / Masro Mohamad, Yasmin Ismail / Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 2022; 13(SI7): pp 146-149
The Effect of the Topical Application of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (TA) Root Extract Hydrogel on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression during Wound Healing in vivo Excisional Wound Model / Maryam Riyadh Yaseen Al-Bayati, Ghasak G Faisal, Azliana Abd Fuaat, Khairunisa Ahmad Affandi, Batoul Alallam / IMJM: IIUM MEDICAL JOURNAL MALAYSIS, 2023; 22(1) /
DOI: 10.31436/IMJM.V22I1.2228
Efficient extraction of quassinoids and alkaloids from Eurycoma longifolia Jack roots using natural deep eutectic solvents and microwave-assisted extraction / Chanakan Sitthisak, Mudtorlep Nisoa, Warangkana Chunglok, Aruna Prasopthum, Gorawit Yusakul et al / Microchemical Journal, 2024; Vol 196: 109676 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.microc.2023.109676

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you know of a plant to suggest for inclusion, please email the info: local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT