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Family Verbenaceae
Vitex trifolia Linn.

San ye man jing

Scientific names Common names
Vitex benthamiana Domin Dangla (Ilk.)
Vitex bicolor Willd Lagundi (Tag., Sbl., Bik., Bis.)
Vitex indica Mill. [Illegitimate] Lagundian (Lan.)
Vitex integerrima Mill. [Illegitimate] Lagunding-dagat (Tag.)
Vitex iriomotensis Ohwi Liñgei (Bon.)
Vitex negundo var. philippinensis Moldenke Lipuk (Tag.)
Vitex neocaledonica Gand. Tigau (Sul.)
Vitex paniculata Lam. Shrubby chaste tree (Engl.)
Vitex petiolaris Domin Simple leaf chaste tree (Engl.)
Vitex trifolia Linn. Three-leaved chaste tree (Engl.)
Vitex triphylla Royle Indian privet (Engl.)
Vitex variifolia Salisb. Indian wild pepper (Engl.)
Lagundi is a shared common name by two Vitex species: Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia.
Vitex trifolia L. is an accepted name. The Plant List


Lagunding-dagat is a shrub or small tree growing from 1 to 4 meters high, sometimes prostate or ascending in habit. Leaves are simple or 3-foliolate. In the prostrate form, the leaves are all simple, stalkless, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 7 centimeters long, 1.5 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, smooth and shining on the upper surface, and sparsely covered with gray hairs beneath. Flowers are numerous, borne in terminal, oblong panicles 5 to 10 centimeters long. Corolla is hairy, lavender to blue. Tube is about 8 millimeters long, the larger central lobe of the lower lip has a white blotch at the base; limb is 12 millimeters in the greatest diameter. Fruit is rounded, 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter.

- Along the seashore throughout the Philippines.
- Occurs in similar habitats in India to Mauritius and Japan, and southward through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

Study yielded 31 compounds and 28 were identified as triterpenes, fatty acids, flavones, and derivatives of benzene.
Leaves Leaves yield an essential oil and resin.
Fruit contains an acid resin, an astringent organic acid, malic acid, traces of an alkaloid, and coloring matter.
Chemical studies of leaves and twigs yield an essential oil, 0.11 - 0.28 per cent. Chief constituents of the oil are l-d-pinene and camphene (55 %); terpinyl acetate (10 %); and a diterpene alcohol (20 %).

Study isolated a new benzofuran-type lignan, vitrifol A, from the fruits of V. trifolia with three known compounds.
Study yielded five triterpenoids: (1) ursolic acid (2), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (3) betulinic acid (4) taraxerol, and (5) 2alpha,3beta, 19-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid.
• Study of fruits isolated seven new labdane-type diterpenoids, vitextrifoline A-G (1-7), along with eight previously reported analogues. (see study below) (36)
• Preliminary phytochemical screening of various leaf extracts yielded carbohydrates, flavonoids, protein and amino acids, tannins, phytosterols, and saponins. (39)
• Phytochemical analysis of methanol extract of seeds yielded alkaloids, essential oil, phenol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. (see study below) (44)

- Plant has been reported to trigger allergic reactions: sneezing, dizziness, headache, nausea.
- Leaves considered antiseptic, anthelmintic, aromatic, febrifuge, anodyne, diuretic, emmenagogue, insecticidal.
- Fruit considered nervine, cephalic, emmenagogue.
- Roots considered tonic, expectorant and febrifuge.
- Studies have shown larvicidal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-asthmatic, wound healing, anthelmintic, antitubercular properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, fruits.


For that peculiar Filipino malady characterized by an intense localized burning in the soles of the feet - quemaduras del pie o ignipedites - application of leaves 3 to 4 times daily provides relief. The leaves are heated in an earthen pot without the addition of water, then applied when sufficiently hot, and held in place by a bandage.
Decoction of leaves used for aromatic baths.
Emmenagogue, used in amenorrhea.
In Malaya, decoction of roots is drunk for fever and after childbirth.
In India, leaves used as anodyne, diuretic and emmenagogue. Leaves in fomentations and baths used for treatment of beri-beri and burning of the feet.
Dry fomentation of leaves used for sprains, contusions and rheumatism.
Infusions used for intermittent fevers with scanty urine, rheumatism and as febrifuge.
In Malaya, leaves are ground with garlic, pepper, turmeric and boiled rice and made into pills and given for consumption.
Powdered leaves used as febrifuge and antiseptic.
Used for headache, catarrh, watery eyes, and to promote growth of the beard.
Used in treatment of breast cancer.
Powdered fruit, sweetened or mixed with honey, or in decoction, used as nervine, cephalic and emmenagogue.
Leaves used internally or externally in baths to cure itching associated with Ciguatera fish poisoning.
In Chinese medicine, dried fruit has been used for colds, headache, migraine, eye pain. In some parts of China, used as folk medicine to cure certain cancers.
Roots used as tonic, expectorant and febrifuge.
• In India, crushed leaves mixed with ghee applied to ringworm infection. Juice collected from crushed plant is mixed with equal amount of honey, boiled, and the collected oil is filtered, and a teaspoon is taken twice daily for tuberculosis. Juice from crushed leaves applied to skin rashes. (27)
Decorative: Flowers and seeds used in making leis.
Repellent: Leaves are burned as insect or mosquito repellent.

Wood: Used for fuel and for light construction.

Vitexicarpin / Apoptosis-Inducing:
In a study investigating the inhibitory effect of vitexicarpin on the proliferation of human cancer cells showed it induces apoptosis in K562 cells via mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway.(1)
Larvicidal: In a study of four species of Vitex against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, the highest larvicidal activity was found with the extract of V. trifolia. (2)
Larvicidal: In a study of the larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl ester extracts of V. altissima, V. negundo and V. trifolia against early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the extract of V. trifolia showed the highest larvicidal activity. (13)
Anti-Cancer / Antifungal: Hexane and dichloromethane extracts showed toxicity against several cancer lines in culture. The hexanic extract from the leaves completely inhibited the growth of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium species. (3)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Injury: Study showed V. trifolia could provide significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury. The hepatoprotective activity is supported by histological studies of liver tissue. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Flowers: Study showed ethanolic extract of flowers of Vitex trifolia possess hepatoprotective activity on CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. The activity was comparable to standard drug, silymarin. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory: Aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia showed significant dose- and time-dependent inhibitory activity on interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-6 and iNOS mRNA synthesis. (6)
Wound Healing: Study on the wound healing potency of ethanol leaf extracts of V trifolia and V altissima showed both extracts to possess significant would healing potency. Of the two, V trifolia showed maximum healing activity compared to V altissima.
Anti-Asthmatic Compounds: Study of leaves of V trifolia isolated three compounds – viteosin-A, vitexicarpin and vitetrifolin-E. Vitexicarpin was the most active of the three. The mechanism of activity seems to be non-competitive antagonism to histamine and stabilization of mast cells membrane function.
Antibacterial / Leaves: Various extracts of Morinda citrifolia, Vitex trifolia (leaf) and Chromolaena odorata were evaluated for antibacterial activity. The extracts showed comparable antibacterial activity towards bacterial isolates, supporting its traditional use and suggesting a potential use for the treatment of infectious disease and development of chemotherapeutic agents. (11)
Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of leaf extract showed significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. The leaf extract potentiated the analgesic activity with pentazocine and aspirin. It showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. (12) Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema, granuloma pouch and formaldehyde induced arthritis models. Results showed significant (p<0.001) increase in percentage of inhibition of paw edema and significant inhibition of exudate formation. (26) Study evaluated leaf extracts of Vitex trifolia for anti-inflammatory activity using two models i.e., carrageenan induced rat paw edema and xylene induced ear edema in mice. Results showed significant reduction in paw volume (p<0.01) and ear edema. The alcoholic extract showed more activity than the aqueous extract and also in a dose dependent manner. (28)
Anticancer / Vitexicarpin: Study carried out to identify anticancer components isolated 18 compounds: labdane-type diterpenes 1-6, flavonoids 7-13, iridoid, lignan, steroid, phenolic and fatty acids 14-18. Compound 9, vitexicarpin, exhibited strong dose-dependent anticancer activity. Further anticancer evaluation showed inhibitory activity of vitexicarpin on the proliferation of K562 cells. (14)
Anti-Inflammatory Properties / Inhibition of NF-kB Translocation: Study suggested the anti-inflammatory properties of V. trifolia extract seemed associated with inhibition of NF-kB translocation through a reduction in expression of expression of NF-kB p50, and effects on inflammation mediators such as chemokines CCL-3 and CXCL-10, and COX-2. (17)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated two medicinal plants, Vitex trifolia and Aristolochia indica for potential bacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumonia, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa. A benzene extract of leaves of V. trifolia exhibited highest inhibition against B. subtilis. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenolics, tannins and terpenoids. (18)
Study of crude powdered extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia, V. negundo, and V. leucoxylon showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms viz., B. subtilis and E. coli. (32)

Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of various leaf extracts of V. trifolia against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed the potential usefulness of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of V. tirifolia against the earthworm. (19)
Antitubercular Diiterpenoids / Leaves: Study yielded a new halimane diterpenoid, 13-hydroxy-5(10),14-halimadien-6-one (1) and two new labdane diterpenoids, 6α,7α-diacetoxy-13-hydroxy-8(9),14-labdadien (2) and 9-hydroxy-13(14)-labden-15,16-olide (3). Compounds 3 and 4 (another known diterpenoid, isoambreinolide) exhibited antitubercular activity (MIC 100 and 25 µg/ml, respectively) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in BACTEC-460 assay. (20)
Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated the analgesic potential of V. trifolia using the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and tail immersion method in rats. Results showed both central and peripheral analgesic potential. (21)
Anticancer / HepG2 and HeLa: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity of n-hexane fractions of Vitex trifolia in two cancer lines: HepG2 and HeLa. Results showed VT to be highly effective against both HepG2 and HeLa cancer lines at concentration of 80 µg/ml. Findings suggest a potential for use in liver and cervical cancers. (24)
Cytotoxicity / MCF-7 Cell Lines: Study evaluated the the cytotoxic activities of methanol and PE extracts against MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Results showed strong inhibition against MCF-7 cell lines and weak inhibition against the Vero cell line. Study suggests V. trifolia can cause cell death in MCF-7 cancer cells and has promise as a chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment. (25)
• Effect of Leaves on Acute and Subacute Inflammatory Stages: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of V. trifolia for anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats in acute inflammatory model using an 1% injection of homogenized carrageenan suspension and subacute study using subcutaneous implantation of pellets of compressed cotton and gross pith. The ethanolic extract of Vitex trifolia showed anti-inflammatory activity on both acute and sub-acute stages of inflammation. (29)
• Vitexilactone / Rosiglitazone-Like Effect in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes / Insulin Sensitizer Potential: Study has shown extracts of V. trifolia induced adipogenesis similar to rosiglitazone (EOS), a TZD, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This study isolated three known compounds, vitexilactone (1), vitexicarpin (2) and oleanolic acid (3). Among the three, compound 1 showed the strongest ROS-like action. Both vitexilactone and ROS increased lipid accumulation, expression of adinopectin and GLUT4 in cell membrane and decrease both size of adipocytes and the phosphorylation of IRS-1, ERK1/2 and JNK in 3T3-L1 cells. Results suggest vitexilactone is a novel insulin sensitizer candidate. (30)
• Toxicity Studies of Combined Extracts: Study evaluated the toxicity studies of combined extracts of Vitex leucoxylon, V. negundo, and V. trifolia. On acute toxicity study done in single doses by oral route up to 2000 mg/kg crude extracts, no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects were observed in mice. Subacute toxicity study was done with oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days to mice. Except for transient change in WBC count, there were no significant alterations in hematological parameters. The increase in WBC may indicate the impact of combined extracts in boosting the immune system of treated groups. No changes were noted on renal functions. Gross examination of internal organs showed normal architecture, with no detrimental changes or morphological disturbances. (31)
• Molluscicidal Activity / Leaves: Study of ethanolic extract of Vitex trifolia leaves yielded ß-sitosterol and two triterpenoids, ursolic acid acetate and platanic acid. Preliminary molluscicidal testing of various extracts was done against Biomphalaria alexandria adult snails. Of all the extracts tested, the ethanol extract was most effective and showed an LC50 of 26.42 mg/l. (33)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reported on the simple, eco-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles using shade dried leaves of Vitex trifolia. Five leaf extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method. The ethyl acetate extract showed strongest antibacterial effect against E. coli, Acenatobacter, Proteus, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. (34)
• Comparative Wound Healing Effect / Vitex trifolia and V. altissima / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of leaf extracts of V. trifolia and V. altissima in incision, excision, and dead space wound models. Both plants exhibited significantly wound healing ability evidenced by various wound healing measures, i.e., decrease in period of epithelization, increase rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight, hydroxyproline content and breaking strength of granulation tissue and increased histological collagenation. Of the two leaf extracts, V. trifolia showed maximum wound healing activity. (35)
• Labdane-Type Diterpenoids / No Cytotoxicity Against Cancer Cell Lines / Fruits: Study of fruits isolated seven new labdane-type diterpenoids, vitextrifoline A-G (1-7), along with eight previously reported analogues. The Isolates were tested against four human cancer cell lines: All were found inactive with IC50 <5 µg/mL. (36)
• Abietatriene / Inhibition of Melanogenesis / Leaf Oil: Study of V. trifolia leaf oil isolated abietatriene and investigated its effect on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Results showed significant decrease in melanin contents and melanogenic factors, such as tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, and MITF dose dependently in both protein and mRNA levels. Study indicates the leaf oil and abietatriene reduces melanogenesis by regulating expression of melanogenic factors. Results suggest a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperpigmentation and as skin-whitening agent. (37)
• Snake Venom Treatment / Sinduvaaraka Moola Agada / Root: Study evaluated the root of Vitex trifolia for snake venom therapy in an animal model. The root was titrated in swarasa of the same and mixed with honey. Given orally, the agada is beneficial in elapidae snake venom poisoning. It is beneficial as first aid measure as it delays the onset of symptoms in common cobra and Russel's viper venom and does not interact with Poly Valent Anti Snake Venom Serum (PVASCS). (38)
• Antigiardial / Antiamoebic / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antigiardial, antiamoebic and cytoxicity of V. trifolia leaves. A petroleum ether extract showed the highest activity against Giardia lamblia with 75.25% mortality within 72 h at 1000 ppm concentration. A methanolic extract showed highest activity against Entamoeba histolytica with 61.64% mortality within 72 h at 1000 ppm. The methanol and PE extracts showed varying degrees of toxicity to Vero cell lines with IC50 of 349.07 µg/ml and 369.77 µg/ml, respectively. (40)
• Casticin / Protective in Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Asthma: Casticin has been isolated from V. trifolia and found to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. This study evaluated the ability of casticin to reduce airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), airway, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the lungs of a murine asthma model. Study showed casticin in a powerful immunomodulator, ameliorating changes by suppressing Th2 cytokine expression in mice with asthma. (41)
• Agnuside / Free Radical Scavenging / Leaves: Study of an ethanol extract of leaves isolated an iridoid, agnuside. On DPPH assay for free radical scavenging, ethanol extract of leaves showed an EC50 of 0.478 mg/mL, more effective than the chloroform extract with EC50 of 0.602 mg/mL. NO free radical scavenging for the ethanol leaf extract showed an EC50 of 0.524 mg/mL, more effective than the chloroform extract EC50 of 0.660 mg/mL. (42)
• Chewable Lozenges / Glycerin-Gelatin Base / Leaves: Legundi leaf is often used in Indonesian traditional medicinal treatment of asthma. Study evaluated an acceptable and practical alternative in the form of chewable lozenges with base glycerin-gelatin and the bioavailability of viteksikarpin in the preparation. Results showed the variation in proportion of glycerin and gelatin affected the physical properties of legundi leaf extract chewable lozenges. The higher the proportion of gelatin, the less the bioavailability of viteksikarpin. (43)
• Anitmicrobial / Essential Oil / Seed: Antimicrobial analysis of seed essential oil showed greater than 10mm zone of inhibition (MICs) against E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia. (see constituents above) (44)

- Wild-crafted.
- Herbal formulations in the cybermarket.

Updated January 2019 / September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Vitex trifolia Blanco1.226-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Pubic Domain / Modifications by Carol Spears Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Vitex trifolia (lala) in Tonga / Tau'olunga / CC BY-SA 3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Vitexicarpin, a flavonoid from Vitex trifolia L., induces apoptosis in K562 cells via mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway / Wang Hai-yan, CAI Bing et al / Acta Pharceutica Sinica, 2005-01
Differential larvicidal efficacy of four species of Vitex against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae / Krishnan Kannathasan et al / Parasitology Research, Volume 101, Number 6 / November, 2007 / DOI 10.1007/s00436-007-0714-5
Biological activities of crude plant extracts from Vitex trifolia L. (Verbenaceae) / M M Hernandez, C Heraso et al /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 67, Issue 1, October 1999, Pages 37-44 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00041-0 |
Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitex trifolia against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damage / B K Manjunatha and S M Vidya / Indian J Pharm Sci. , 2008 Mar–Apr; 70(2): 241–245. / doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.41466.
EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF FLOWERS OF VITEX TRIFOLIA LINN. ON CCl4 INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN RATS / Ramasamy Anandan, Balasundaram Jayakar et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.22, No.4, October 2009, pp.391-394 391
Characterisation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Vitex trifolia L. (Labiatae), a multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional medicine / Mariko Matsui et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 126, Issue 3, 10 December 2009, Pages 427-433 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.020 |
Comparative evaluation of wound healing potency of Vitex trifolia L. and Vitex altissima L. / B K Mamjunatha, S M Vidya et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 21 Issue 5, Pages 457 - 461
Published Online: 30 Jan 2007
One new dihydrobenzofuran lignan from Vitex trifolia / Qiong Gu et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 10, Issue 6 June 2008 , pages 499 - 502 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020801967359
Antiasthmatic Compounds Isolated from Antiasthmatic “JAMU” Ingredient Legundi Leaves (Vitex trifolia L.) / S Wahyuono, G Alam et al / Conference abstract SL-25 / Scientia Pharmaceutica
Studies on the triterpenoids of Vitex trifolia / Chen YS, Xie JM, Yao H, Lin XY, Zhang YH./ Zhong Yao Cai. 2010 Jun;33(6):908-10.
Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Morinda citrifolia, Vitex trifolia and Chromolaena odorata / S. Esath Natheer, C. Sekar, P. Amutharaj, M. Syed Abdul Rahman and K. Feroz Khan / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 6(11), pp. 783-788, 22 March, 2012

Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Leaf Extract of Vitex trifolia Linn. in Experimental Animals / P Goverdhan and Diwakar Bobbala / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 65-72. 2009.
Larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of Vitex species against Culex quinquefasciatus / Krishnan Kannathasan, Annadurai Senthilkumar, Venugopalan Venkatesalu and Manivachagam Chandrasekaran / PARASITOLOGY RESEARCH, Volume 103, Number 4 (2008), 999-1001/ DOI: 10.1007/s00436-008-1078-1
Studies on the Anticancer Constituents of Vitex Trifolia L.,A Traditional Chinese Medicine / Tumor Research Center
Sorting Vitex names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne.
Aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia L. (Labiatae) inhibits LPS-dependent regulation of inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages through inhibition of Nuclear Factor kappa B translocation and expression.
/ Matsui M1, Adib-Conquy M, Coste A, Kumar-Roiné S, Pipy B, Laurent D, Pauillac S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 30;143(1):24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.043. Epub 2012 Jun 23.
Efficacy of different solvent extracts of Vitex trifolia L. and aristolochia indica L. for potential antibacterial activity / M and Mohan V R / Science Research Reporter 2(1): 110-114, March 2012
Evaluation of Anthelmintic activity of Vitex trifolia Linn. leaves against Pheretima posthuma
/ S.Thenmozhi*, K.Vibha, M.Dhanalakshmi, K.Manjuladevi, Sumeet Diwedi and U.Subasini / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2013; 4(5): 878 - 880
Antitubercular diterpenoids from Vitex trifolia / Neerja Tiwari, Jayprakash Thakur, Dharmendra Saikia, Madan M. Gupta / Phytomedicine, 2013; 20: pp 605–610
ANALGESIC POTENTIAL OF VITEX TRIFOLIA LINN (VERBANEACAE). / Kulkarni LA / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vitex trifolia / Synonyms / The Plant List
Vitex trifolia / Local Names / WordAgroForestry
Evaluation of Anticancer Activity Using Hexanic Extract of Vitex trifolia on Two Different Cancer Cell Lines
/ Vasanthi.V. J., Radhjeyalakshmi. R., Nasrin. F. / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2014; 6(3): 449-453

Cytotoxicity of Vitex trifolia leaf extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines / Mohammed I. Garbi*, Elbadri E. Osman, Ahmed S. Kabbashi, Mahmmoud S.Saleh, Yuosof S. Yuosof, Sara A. mahmoud, Hamza A. A Salam / Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research, 2015; 4(2): pp 89-93
Vitex trifolia -An Important Medicinal Plant: A Review of Its Folklore Medicine and Traditional Uses / Goli Venkateshwarlu, E Ragyanaik, Kasireddy Swapna, A Santhosh, C H Santhosh / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Apr-June 2014; 4(2): pp 70-71
Effect of Leaves of Vitex. trifolia Linn on Different Stages of Inflammation / Aryaa Ankalikar, Agadi Hiremath Viswanathswamy / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2017; 51(3): pp 461-471 / doi:10.5530/ijper.51.3.74
The Rosiglitazone-Like Effects of Vitexilactone, a Constituent from Vitex trifolia L. in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
/ Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Daisuke Sato, Hirokazu Kimura, Yasuaki Hirai, Nyunt Phay and Makoto Makishima / Molecules, 2017; 22, 2030 / doi:10.3390/molecules22112030
TOXICITY STUDIES OF COMBINED EXTRACTS OF VITEX LEUCOXYLON, VITEX NEGUNDO AND VITEX TRIFOLIA / K. Phani and A. Ravi Kumar / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jan-Mar 2014; 7(1): pp 54-58
Antimicrobial activity of Vitex leucoxylon, Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia / K. Phani and A Ravi Kumar / Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, March-April 2014; 2(2): pp 1104-1105
Chemical Constituents of Ethanol Extract of Leaves and Molluscicidal Activity of Crude Extracts from Vitex trifolia Linn. / Jeet S Jangwan, Rita P Aquino, Teresa Mencherini, Patrizia Picerno, Raghubir Singh / Herba Polontea, 2013; 59(4) / DOI: 10.2478/hepo-2013-0021
Biological Synthesis of Silver Nano-particle from Vitex Trifolia Medicinal Plant and their Antimicrobial Properties / Sshweta San and Hemlata Nishad / Nano Vision, December 2015; 5(12): pp 313-318
Comparative evaluation of wound healing potency of Vitex trifolia L. and Vitex altissima L. / B K Manjunatha, S M Vidya, V Krishna, K L Mankani, S D Jagadeesh Singh, Y N Manohara / Phytotherapy Research / https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2094
Labdane-Type Diterpenoids from the Fruits of Vitex trifolia / Cheng-Jian Zheng, Jian-Yong Zzhu, Wu Yu,, Xue Qin Ma, Khalid Rahman, and Lu-Ping Qin / J. Nat. Prod., 2013; 76(2): pp 287–291 / DOI10.1021/np300679x
Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Abietatriene from Vitex Trifolia Leaf Oil / Hong Gu Lee, Tae Yoon Kim, Jung Hoon Jeon, Sang Hwa Lee, Yoon Ki Hong, and Mu Hyun Jin/ Natural Product Sciences, 2016; 22(4): pp 252-258 / https://doi.org/10.20307/nps.2016.22.4.252
Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation on leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn. / S.Thenmozhi, R.Shanmuga Sundaram, Jena Prabhat Kumar and Choudhury Golak Bihari / Journal of Pharmacy Research ,2011; 4(4): pp 1259-1262
Antigiardial, antiamoebic and cytotoxic activity of the leaves extracts of Vitex trifolia / Mohammed I. Garbi, Elbadri E. Osman, Mahmoud M. Dahab, Waleed S. Koko, Ahmed S. Kabbashi, Awatif A. Elegami and Sheema Y. Hamed / Adv Med Plant Res, Feb 2015; 3(1): pp 1-7
Protective Effects of Casticin From Vitex trifolia Alleviate Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in a Murine Asthma Model / Chian-Jiun Liou, Ching-Yi Cheng, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Yi-Hong Wu, Wen-Chung Huang / Front. Pharmacol., 14 June 2018 /  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00635
CHEWABLE LOZENGES OF LEGUNDI LEAF EXTRACT (Vitex trifolia L. ) WITH VARIATIONS IN THE PROPORTION OF BASE GLYCERINE-GELATIN / TN Saifullah Sulaiman, Dina Aryani, Yosi Bayu Murti / Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal), 2015; 20(2)

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