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Family Malpighiaceae
Galphimia glauca Cav.

Jin ying

Scientific names  Common names
Galphimia glauca (Cav.) Kuisia (Tag.)
Malphigia glauca (Cav.) Poir. Golden thryallis (Engl.)
Thryallis glauca (Cav.) Kuntze Rain of gold (Engl.)
  Slender golden shower (Engl.)
  Spray of gold (Engl.)
  Thriallis (Engl.)
  Thryallis (Engl.)
Golden shower is an English common name shared by (1) Spectacular cassia, Cassia spectabilis (2) Flame flower, Pyrostegia venusta (3) Kuisia, Glaphimia glauca (4) Kanya pistula, pudding pipe tree, Cassia fistula
Galphimia glauca Cav. is an accepted name. Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jin ying.
MEXICAN: Calderona amarilla, Flor estrella, Hierba del cuervo, Ojo de gallina, Hierbo de desprecio.

Gen info
- Galphimia is a genus in the Malpighiacea family of about 75 genera of flowering plants in the order Malphighiales. Galphimia is an anagram of Malpighia.   The genus consists of 26 species of large herbs, shrubs, and treelets.   (23)

Kuisia is a small, erect, glabrous and branching shrub, growing to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are glossy green, opposite, up to 3 centimeters long, petioled, ovate, with a rounded tip. Flowers are in clusters, fragrant, bright yellow, up to 1.5 centimeters across, in clusters of 4 to 6 at the stem tips.


- Introduced.
- Popularly cultivated in towns and cities.
- Makes a good hedge plant.
- Flowers year-round.

- Native range is Mexico to Guatemala.

- Sedative methanolic extracts prepared from aerial parts yielded nor-secofriedelanes from five major peaks that were mixtures of isomers represented by endocyclic C-20, C-21 double-bond isomers, galphimines A, B, D, and E. Galphamine C, isolated from peak III, corresponded to C-19, C-20 double-bond isomer previously known as the major sedative constituent galphimine B
. (17)

- Studies have shown anti-asthmatic, anxiolytic, anti-protozoal, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, muscle relaxant properties.

• No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In Latin American traditional medicine, used for asthma and allergies.
• Used for treating phobias, anxiety, and stress.
• In Mexican traditional medicine, used as a sedative and tranquilizer for mental disorders and nervous excitement.

Homeopathic Proving: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences, certain symptoms were observed, i.e., relaxing, sedative, anxiolytic and anti-allergic. Results confirmed toxicological and clinical effects of Galphimia glauca compared to placebo, but not enough to satisfy the ICCH criteria for distinguishing between specific and unspecific symptoms. (1) Study describes the effectiveness of homeopathy in respiratory allergy (18 randomized trials and 9 observational studies). Some evidence demonstrates that in some conditions homeopathy shows significant promise i.e. allergic oculorhinitis, otitis, and possibly asthma and allergic complaints. (16)
• Bronchoconstriction inhibition / Asthma: The ethylacetate fraction of the aerial parts significantly and selectively inhibited the bronchoconstriction induced by leukotrine D4 (LTD4). (2)
Anxiolytic / Galphimine B: Study has yielded an active principle, galphimine B (GB, a nor-seco-triterpene). Aqueous extract of Gg showed anxiolytic effectiveness, similar to that produced by lorazepam, but with regards side effects, Gg showed a higher tolerability than lorazepam. (3)
Anxiolytic / Galphimine B: Study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of galphimine B, A and E. Results showed the GRF (galphamine-rich fraction) had activity similar to the most active pure glaphamines (1 and 2), and the main determining factor for anxiolytic activity was the presence of free hydroxyl groups at C4,6,and 7 and the double bond A ring. (7)
Anxiolytic / Friedelanes: Studies have isolated the anxiolytic and sedative principle consisting of a mixture of norsecofriedelanes, named the galphimine series. (6)
Hay Fever / Pollinosis: Study comparing Galphimia glauca to placebo in the treatment of pollinosis showed a significant superiority of Gg over placebo, with effects comparable to those of conventional antihistamines but with no side effects. (4)
Anxiolytic Activity / Non-Genotoxic / Inhibition of Colon Cancer Cell Growth: Study of extracts have yielded different triterpenes, known as galphimines. Galphimine B possess anxiolytic activity and selectively inhibits discharges of dopaminergic neurons in  the ventral tegmental area in rats. In a 28-day study, no deaths were recorded and no histopathological alterations in studied organs; only behavioral parameters showed a diminution of spontaneous activity. All the extracts inhibited colon cancer cell line growth with no genotoxic effect. (5)
Phytochemicals / Weak Anti-Protozoal Activity: Study isolated four new terpenoids with the known sterols and flavonol quercetin. Quercetin was the only isolate that showed any antiprotozoal activity, and weak at that. (6)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder / Clinical Trial / Comparison with Lorazepam: Study of G. glauca herbal medicinal product, standardized in 0.175 mg of glaphimine-B and administered for 15 weeks to patients with generalized anxiety disorder, showed greater anxiolytic effectiveness compared with lorazepam, with a high percentage of therapeutic tolerability and safety. (9)
Re-Analysis of Homeopathic Use for Hay Fever: An earlier meta-analysis reached a positive conclusion regarding use of GC for hay fever. This findings from this reanalysis seem to suggest efficacy, however, important caveats prevent any firm conclusions and casts doubts on the reliability of conclusion of the published meta-analysis. (12)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: In a bio-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory compounds from extracts of leaves of G. glauca, the hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity. (13)
• CNS Antidepressant / Muscle Relaxant / Leaves / Stems: Study of G. glauca leaf methanol extract in a Swiss albino mice model using various models (Sodium pentobarbital induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open-field test, PTZ-induced convulsions, Picrotoxin induced convulsions, Grip strengthening test and Rota rod test) showed significant depressant and muscle relaxant effects. LD50 for the leaf extract was > 2000 mg/kbw. (1
4) Study of methanol stem extract in Swiss albino mice showed potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to standard drugs. LD50 was found to be > 2000 mg/kbw. (15)
• Effect on Neuropharmacological Tests / Aerial Parts: Study of a methanolic extract of aerial parts showed sedative properties in several neuropharmacological animal models, such as: hypothermic activity, barbiturate potentiation, protection against strychnine- and leptazol-induced convulsions. (18)
• Social Anxiety Disorder / Pilot Study:  A pilot study evaluated the therapeutic effectiveness of G. glauca in young people with social anxiety disorder. A double-blind clinical trial was done using sertraline as control. Patients who received the G. glauca standardized extract showed significant reduction in anxiety with a Brief Social Phobia Scale value of 41 points at the start and 11.2 points at the end of treatment, while patients on sertraline showed value of 37.7 at the beginning and 11.2 at the en d. Results suggest efficacy and safety in patients with social anxiety disorder, with no significant difference from sertraline-treated patients. (19)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative / Leaves:  Study reports on the green, eco-friendly and cost effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles from G. glauca leaf extract. The AgNPs showed effective dose dependent increase in scavenging activity. Antimicrobial testing showed efficient inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa and C. glabrata. The AgNPs showed strong anticancer activity against SK-HEP1 liver cancer cell line with IC50 of 19.12 µg/mL. (20)
• Galphimine Extraction with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Nanoparticles:  Galphimine B has been shown to have anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects. Study reports on the supercritical extractions of glaphimines from G. glauca in the presence of carbon dioxide. (21)
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory / Stem:  In vivo study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Galphimia glauca stem methanol extract in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats. The LD50 of the extract was >2000 mg/kbw. The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kbw exhibited significant (p≤0.001) and dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. It also showed central and peripheral antinociceptive actions when treated with naloxone and acetic acid, respectively.   (
• Glaucacetalin E and Galphimidin B / Anxiolytic / Aerial Parts:   Study sought to validate the use of G. glauca as an antistress and anxiolytic agent. Nor-triterpenes glaucacetalin E (1) and galphimidin B (2) were isolated for the first time along with seven known compounds, including galphimidin (3) from the CHCl3 fraction of aerial parts. Oral administration of the CHCl3 fraction and compounds 1-3 produced significant attenuation in the anxiety response in cylinder activity, decrease in ambulatory activity and head dipping. Only the extract enhanced phenobarbital-induced hypnosis. Diazepam was used as positive control. (24)
• Review of Herbal Medicines Used for Psychiatric Disorders:  In a 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, which covered  clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders, high quality evidence was found to exist for Galphimia glauca for anxiety disorders. (25)
• Tetragalloylquinic Acid / Antiasthmatic:  A bioguided fractionation of an alcoholic extract of G. glauca yielded  tetragalloylquinic acid (1), along with other compounds (gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid, and flavonoid acylglycoside). The compound showed highest activity against bronchial hyperactivity and allergic reactions. (26)
• Treatment of Pollinosis / Clinical Trial:  A 1987 randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of G. glauca in treating patients suffering from pollinosis (hay fever). Verum-medication was saccharose globule sprinkled with Galphimia glauca D4. Outcome was measured by nasal and ocular symptoms on four level ordinal scale. Results showed statistically significant differences (α=5%) for improvement of nasal and ocular symptoms on first follow up, and ocular symptoms on second follow up. (27)
• Muscle Relaxant Activity / BS-4 / Stems:  Study evaluated the muscle relaxant activity of a novel isolated phytomolecule (BS-4) from G. glauca stems using in vivo models. The LD50 of BS-4 was >2000 mg/kg. Mice treated with BS-4 showed dose-dependent significant (p≤0.001) effects on muscle relaxant activity in Rota rod test and Grip strengthening test in mice (p≤0.001). Results showed the isolated phytomolecule BS-4 has significant muscle relaxant effects. (28)
• Effect on Induced Acute Psychosis and Schizophrenic-Like Symptoms: Study evaluated the effect pf G. glauca methanolic extract, a galphimine-rich fraction (GRF) and galphamines G-A, G-B, and G-E, on acute psychosis induced by apomorphine in mice and on schizophrenic-like symptoms induced by subchronic administration of MK-801. Results showed G. glauca and their derivative products (GRF and galphimines) were able to interact with dopaminergic and glutamatergic drugs and to block different behaviors associated with some of the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of induced schizophrenia in mice. (29)
• Galphimine-B / Anxiolytic: Study evaluated a new phytopharmaceutical with anxiolytic effect  obtained from G. glauca.  In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated anxiolytic activity of a crude extract. The pharmacologic effect was attributed to the nor-seco, triterpene galphimine-B, which showed an innovative mechanism of action, selective of dopaminergic neurons on ventral tegmental area.  The therapeutic effectiveness, safety, and tolerability was compared with lorazepam on patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. (30)
• Antiasthmatic: Study evaluated a methanolic extract showed inhibition of acute bronchial reactions to allergen (ovalbumin, 10 mg/mL) and platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1 µg/ml) inhalation challenges, but not to histamine or acetylcholine in spontaneously breathing guinea pigs. PAF-induced bronchial hyperactivity was markedly reduced. Gallic acid and related compounds, as well as flavonoid and quercetin were identified as active compounds. (31)
• Effect on Behavioral Models: Study evaluated the effect of G. glauca extract, a galphimine rich fraction (GRF), and pure galphimines (G-A, G-B, and G-E) in Haloperidol-induced catalepsy test and in acute schizophrenia-like symptoms induced with Ketamine in mice. The methanol extract and pure galphimines interacted with the dopaminergic pathway and modified behavioral response to potentiate the cataleptic effect induced with Haloperidol and inhibited behavior induced by Ketamine in mice exposed to OFT and FST. The extract and GRF were also capable of blocking cognitive decline induced by KET in mice. Results suggest part of effect was due to interaction of Galphimines with dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in vivo. (32)
• Muscle Relaxant Effect / BS-3 / Stem: Study evaluated the muscle relaxant activity of isolated phytomolecule (BS-3) from G. glauca stem methanol extract. The LD50 of BS-3 was > 2000 mg/kg. Treated mice showed significant (p<0.05) effects on muscle relaxant activity in Rota rod test and Grip strengthening test. (33)

- Wildcrafted.
- Ornamental cultivation.

- Pellets, extracts and supplements in the cybermarket.

Updated August 2022 / January 2018 / August 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
A homoeopathic proving of Galphimia glauca / Teut M, Dahler J, Schnegg C / Forsch Komplementmed. 2008 Aug;15(4):211-7. Epub 2008 Aug 15.
Galphimia glauca organic fraction antagonizes LTD4-induced contraction in guinea pig airways
/ María G. Campos et al /Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2001; Volume 74, Issue 1: pp 7-15 /
DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00322-6
Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized herbal product from Galphimia glauca on generalized anxiety disorder. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial controlled with lorazepam / HERRERA-ARELLANO Armando et al / Planta medica, 2007; 73(8): pp 713-771 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-981539
A meta-analysis of homeopathic treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca / Lüdtke, R et al / Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift • 1997-; vol 147 (issue 14) : pp 323-7
Toxicological and cytotoxic evaluation of standardized extracts of Galphimia glauca/ Lucía Aguilar-Santamaría et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Jan 2007; Volume 109, Issue: pp 35-40 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.06.013
Assessment of the Antiprotozoal Activity of Galphimia glauca and the Isolation of New Nor-secofriedelanes and Nor-friedelanes / Maria del Rayo Camacho et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (10), pp 1457–1461 / DOI: 10.1021/np010419i
Anxiolytic Effect of Natural Galphimines from Galphimia glauca and their Chemical Derivatives / Maribel Herrera-Ruiz et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (1), pp 59–61 / DOI: 10.1021/np050305x
Metabolic Profiling of the Mexican Anxiolytic and Sedative Plant Galphimia glauca Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis / Cardoso-Taketa, Alexander et al / Planta medica, 2008, vol. 74, no10, pp. 1295-130
Therapeutic effectiveness of Galphimia glauca vs. lorazepam in generalized anxiety disorder. A controlled 15-week clinical trial. / Herrera-Arellano A, Jiménez-Ferrer JE, Zamilpa A, García-Alonso G, Herrera-Alvarez S, Tortoriello J. / Planta Med. 2012 Sep;78(14):1529-35. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Thryallis gracilis Kuntze (accepted name) / Chinese name / Catalogue of Life, China
Galphimia glauca / Synonyms / Plants of the World Online
Homeopathic Galphimia glauca for hay fever: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials and a critique of a published meta-analysis / Edzard Ernst / Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies
Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 200–203, September 2011 / DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7166.2011.01084.x
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS FROM Galphimia glauca AND THEIR ROLE IN THE METABOLOMIC PROFILING / Emma Rocío Medellín Cardoso, María Luisa Villarreal Ortega, Alexandre Cardoso-Taketa
CNS Depressant effects and muscle relaxant activity of Galphimia glauca leaf methanol extract / Baba Shankar Rao Garige, Srisailam Keshetti*, Uma Maheshwara Rao Vattikuti / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.9, No.6, pp 230-240, 2016
In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract / Baba Shankar Rao Garige, Srisailam Keshetti and Uma Maheshwara Rao Vattikuti / Pharmacognosy Res. 2016 Oct-Dec; 8(4): 219–225 / doi:  10.4103/0974-8490.188878
Immunology and Homeopathy. 4. Clinical Studies—Part 2 / Paolo Bellavite, Riccardo Ortolani, Francesco Pontarollo, Valeria Piasere, Giovanni Benato and anita Conforti / E
vidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 3 (2006), Issue 4, pp 397-409 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel046
Isolation of Nor-secofriedelanes from the Sedative Extracts of Galphimia glauca / Alexandre T Cardoso Taketa et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2004, 67 (4), pp 644–649 / DOI10.1021/np0304666
Effect of Galphimia glauca Methanolic Extract on Neuropharmacological Tests / J Tortoriello, X Lozoya /   Planta Med, 1992; 58(3): pp 234-236 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-961442
Therapeutic Effectiveness of Galphimia glauca in Young People with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot Study / Ofelia Romero-Cerecero, Jaime Tortoriello et al / Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine, Volume 2018, Article ID 17169039 / DOI: 10.1155/2018/1716939
Evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, and  antiproliferative activity of silver nanoparticles  derived from Galphimia glauca leaf extract  / Bidhayak Chakraborty, Sreenivasa Nayaka et al / Journal of King Saud University-Science, Dec 2021; 33(8): 101660 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jksus.2021.101660
Extraction of Galphimines from Galphimia glauca with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Francisco Javier Veronico Sanchez et al / Molecules, 25(3) / DOI: 10.3390/molecules25030477
Assessment of Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Galphimia glauca stem methanol extract on noxious provocation induced pain and inflammation in in-vivo models / Baba Shankar Rao Garige et al /  Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 8(4): pp1282-1289 /  ISSN: 0975-7384 / CODEN(USA): JCPRC5
Galphimia / Wikipedia
Glaucacetalin E and galphimidin B from Galphimia glauca and their anxiolytic activity
/ Maria Yolanda Rios et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2020; Volume 259 : 112939 /  DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112939
Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review / Jerome Sarris / Phytotherapy Research, 2018; 32(7): pp 1147-1162 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6065
Tetragalloylquinic acid, the major antiasthmatic principle of Galphimia glauca / A Neszmelyi, B Kreher et al / Planta Med, 1993; 59(2): pp 164-167 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-959635
The treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca D4 — a randomized placeb-controlled double-blind clinical trial / M Wiesenauer, R Lüdtke / Phytomedicine, 1995; 2(1): pp 3-6 / DOI: 10.1016/S0944-7113(11)80041-3
Isolation, Characterization and Assessment for Muscle Relaxant Activity of Novel Phytomolecule from Galphimia glauca Cav. Stems / Baba Shankar Rao Garige, Vasudha Bakshi et al / Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2020; 12(2s): pp s67-s71 / DOI: 10.5530/jyp.2020.12s.49
Galphimia glauca and Natural Galphimines Block Schizophrenia-Like Symptoms Induced with Apomorphine and MK-801 in Mice / Mayra Alejandra Santillan-Urquiza, Jaime Tortoriello et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2019; Art ID 8404258 / DOI: 10.1155/2019/8404258
New anxiolytic phytopharmaceutical elaborated with the standardized extract of Galphimia glauca / J Tortoriello, A Herrera-Arellano et al / Planta Med, 2012; 78-PI414 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1321101
Antiasthmatic effects of Galohimia glauca, gallic acid, and related compounds prevent allergen- and platelt-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction as well as bronchial hyperactivity in Guinea pigs / Dorsch W, Bittinger M, Wagner H et al / International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 1992; 97: pp 1-7 / DOI: 10.1159/000236088
Pharmacological interaction of Galphimia glauca extract and natural galphimines with Ketamine and Haloperidol on different behavioral tests / Mayra Alejandra Santillan-Urquiza, Jaime Tortoriello et al / Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 2018; Vol 103: pp 879-888 / DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.082
Isolation and assessment of novel phytomolecule (BS-3) for muscle relaxant activity from Galphimia glauca Cav. stem methanol extract / Garige Baba Shankar Rao et al / Current Trends in Biotechnology & Pharmacy, 2020; Suppl: pp 101-102


DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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