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Family Fabaceae
Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.
Qiu hua dou

Scientific names Common names
Inga timoriana DC. Amarang (Palawan)
Mimosa biglobosa Roxb. Cupang (Tag,)
Mimosa peregrina Blanco Kopag (Tag.)
Parkia biglobosa Benth. Kupang (Tag., Bis.)
Parkia brunonis Graham Tree bean (Engl.)
Parkia calcarata Gagnep.  
Parkia grandis Hassk.  
Parkia roxburghii G.Don.  
Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.  
Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. is an accepted name. Plant of the World Online
Kupang is a common name shared by two Parkia species: Parkia timoriiana and P. javanica. Both species are also confusingly referred to as "Tree bean."
The compilation contains three species of Parkia with phonetically confusing local names: (1) Parkia speciosa, Upang (2) P. timoriana, Copag, and (3) P. javanica, Kupang,

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Qiu hua dou.
INDIA: Aoelgap, Barri-phang, Jingbam tngaw, Jongcha, Jongta, Kedawong, Kukitetoi, Manipuri urohi, Pukkatetoi, Tupum ashschein, Sohbtar,Themuk-arong, Umkamn-pinching, Yongchak, Zongto.
INDONESIAN: Alai, Alei, Kedawung, Peundeuj, Dawoeng, Petir.
JAVA: Kedawung, Peundeuj, Dawung, Petir.
MALAYSIA: Kedawong, Kada-ong, Kedaung, Petai kerayong, Gudayong, Kuayong, Neneting, Tayur.
MYANMAR: Mai-karien.
THAI: Riang, Karieng.

Gen info
- Parkia timoriana is a species of flowering plant in the legume family.
- Parkia timoriana is one of the most widespread species of Parkia in the Info-Pacific region.

- Etymology: The genus name Parkia honors the Scottish physician and explorer Mungo Park (1771-1806). The species epithet timoriana refers to one of its places of origin, the Island of Timor. (20)

• Pagoda is a large tree growing to a height of up to 20 m at maturity. Bark is white to brown or light gray with white spots. Branches are spreading. Leaves are compound, bi-pinnate. with 14-31 pairs of pinnate and52-71 pairs of leaflets in each pinnate Inflorescence is a head or racehorse capitulate with clusters of yellowish-white tiny flowers, hanging at top of long stalks. Young inflorescences are protected by foliaceous bracts. At the base of each flowers is a thin membranous bracteole, which covers individual flowers in inflorescence during juvenile stage. Heads produce numerous flowers, the majority fades or drops off. Fruits in early stages are soft, tender and bright green pods, in bunches, up to 50 cm length. Pods turn black on maturation, yielding a yellow dry powdery pulp embedded with 12-19 seeds each.

• A tree growing up to 30 meters tall. Leaf is bipinnate, divided into 20 to 30 or more leaflets called pinnae, which are up to 12 centimeters long. Each pinna is divided into 50 to 60 pairs of smaller, narrow leaflets each up to a centimeter long. Inflorescence is a head of flowers dangling at the end of a peduncle up to 45 centimeters long. The flower head is a few centimeters wide and contains several flowers with five-lobed corollas. Fruit is a long, flattened legume pod up to 36 centimeters long which contains up to 21 hard, black seeds each around 2 centimeters long. (7)

- Native to the Philippines. (21)
- In Luzon, Bataan, Bulacan, La Union, Laguna, Pampanga, Rizal; Mindoro; Palawan. Low and medium elevation forest, especially in the more seasonal parts of W Philippines. Briefly deciduous. (21)
- Native to Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand. (6)
- Introduced into the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. (6)
- Considered vulnerable.

- Seeds are rich in protein (albumins and globulins), minerals (potassium, iron, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus, manganese), essential amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine), and fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acid) (Mohan and Janardhanan 1993) (11)
- Protein content of pods range from 12.1% in tender pods to 18.8% in mature pods. Protein content of kernels (28.8%) was much higher than pod. Protein content increased as the pods mature, accompanied by a decrease in ash and carbohydrate content (Longvah and Deosthatle 1998). (11)
- Flowers and tender pods to mature seeds are edible and a good source of ascorbic acid (26.0 mg/100g). fat (20.28%), proteins (32.82%), and minerals (4.45%) Seeds yield Na (51.0), Mg (34.7). and P (160 mg/100g), Ca (97.47), K (2400), Cu (2.3) and Zn (2.77 mg/100g. It is also a good source of Fe and Mn, 57.1 and 35.0 mg/100g in the pod, and 34.9 and 9.4 mg/100g in the seeds, respectively. Protein fraction revealed globulin and albumin as the major fractions. It contains saponins, flavonoids, and tannins, with absence of alkaloids and cyanogenetic factors. (15)
- Study of the plant for phytosterol content revealed that almost all parts of the tree have a significant content of phytosterol, which is dominated by ß-sitosterol, the highest amount of which is found in the stem of leaf (35.24% w/w) and pod (29.67% w/w). (16)

- Seeds have a strong sulphur smell, which is due to the presence of thioproline.
- Plant reported to possess antioxidant, a-glucosidase, a-amylase inhibitory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiproliferative and insecticidal activities.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, insecticidal, radioprotective, anti-diabetic properties.

Parts used
Bark, fruit, rind, leaves.


- An underutilized nutritious leguminous tree with edible flowers, tender pods, and mature seeds. Antinutritional factors, total free fatty phenols, tannins and lectins can be eliminated by proper processing, heating or cooking.(3)
- In Thai cuisine, vegetable is known as nitta sprout and added to curry. (7)
- In some parts of northeast India, the pods from the trees are one of the costliest vegetable. (9) Pods are consumed in different stages of maturity. Pods used in making chutney. Flowers and young shoots used to prepare curries and salads.
- Seeds can be dried and stored. They have a strong "sulphur" smell" due to the presence of thioproline. The tree bean requires
an acquired taste. (7)
- In Porac, Pampanga, the Ayta people burn dried fruits as insect repellent. (14)
- Seeds are used in the treatment of hepatalgia, edema, nephritis, diabetes, colic. Also used as anthelmintic. Powdered seeds applied externally to wounds, ulcers, and the abdomen to relieve pain. Leaves and bark applied to clean wounds and ulcers; also used for treatment of scabies. Bark used for treatment of scabies and abscesses. (8)
- In India, bark decoction used as bath to relieve fever; used as mouthwash to relieve toothache. Pulped bark taken orally with lemon for wound healing. Pods used for treatment of diabetes, headache and hypertension. Decoction of bark, fruit skin, and leaf used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. Bark decoction used for diabetes. Paste made from bark used as plaster to treat eczema.   (11)
- In the North easter states of India, fruit used for treating piles and stomach aches, cholera. Fruit and young shoots used for treating dysentery, scabies, and food poisoning. Bark and pods used for treating piles, diarrhea and dysentery. Bark used for treating eczema. (18)
- In Nigeria, used for the treatment of diabetes, diarrhea, pneumonia, ulcers, burns, cough, jaundice. (13)
- Wood: Used for firewood and lumber.

- Shampoo: Pods pounded in water used as hair shampoo. (8)
- Agroforestry: Binds and prevents soil erosion from heavy rainfall through its wide crown in shifting cultivation fallows. (9)
- Fodder: Leaves used as fodder and green manure. (11)
- Dye adhesive: Fruit skin soaked in water yields a dark brown liquid used as adhesive for different dyes, mainly for red color (Akimpou et al. 2005). (11)

Pectin / Antioxidant / Pod:
Synthetic antioxidants added to food products can have noxious effects.Study evaluated Riang husk pectin (RHP) and Riang pod powder pectin (RPP) for antioxidant properties. The extracted pectins showed high uronic acid content (>65%) and high molecular weight (200-250 kDa) with yields of approximately 15 and 36% w/w (dry weight) for RHP and RPP pectin, respectively. Antioxidant activities of RHP were higher than RPP in all assays studied. Highest antioxidant activities were from ABTS assay, 0.95 and 0.24 mmol Trolox equivalents/g for RHP and RPP, respectively. (2)
• Thioproline / Radioprotective: Thioproline is the principal agent responsible for the distinctive sulphur-aroma in Parkia timoriana seeds. It is a condensation product of formaldehyde and cysteine and is a natural metabolite that can act as antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Study showed radioprotective effects of pure thioproline through protection of DNA against gamma irradiation, with practical applications in cancer radiotherapy and risk reduction of exposed individuals. (4)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruit: Study evaluated a methanolic extract and fractions of fruit of P. timoriana for analgesic activity using an acetic acid induced model and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Results showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 100 mg/kbw comparable with standard drugs aspirin and diclofenac. (10)
• Insecticidal / Seed Oil: Seed oil extract has shown insecticidal properties. Percentage of mortality of aphids by seed oil was significantly increased with increase in time and concentration under laboratory conditions (Salam et al, 1995). (11) Laboratory studies with oil extracts of P. roxburghii showed a mortality rate of 100% of Aphis craccivora after 96 hours with a concentration of 2%. (12)
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Parkia biglobosa crude methanolic leaf extract against alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as control. Leaf extract treatment significantly decreased (p<0.05) blood glucose level, with the 300 mg methanol extract showing the best activity. Study recommends isolation of the active compound. (13)
• Cytotoxicity Against Breast Cancer Cells / Seeds: Study evaluated extracts from 40 kinds of Thai vegetables for cytotoxic activity against human breast (MCF-7) and prostrate (PC3) cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The aqueous extract of Parkia timoriana seeds showed highest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells with IC50 of <1. (17)
• Antimicrobial Activity / Edible Parts: Study of P. timoriana extract from different edible parts using agar well diffusion method showed significant antibacterial potential against Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. GC-MS analysis of the extracts revealed characteristic peaks of phenols, carboxylic acids, alkenes, glycogen, alkyl halides, halogen, aliphatic amine, primary and secondary amines, esters, ether, aromatics, lipids, triglycerides, nitro compounds that had antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. (19)

Herbal teas, supplements, and seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated April 2024
May 2021

IMAGE SOURCE: Fabaceae : Parkia timoriana / Copyright © Bali Organic Center / Two images / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / facebook: Bali Organic Center
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Parkia timoriana / Copyright © India Biodiiversity Portal / Non-commercial use / Click on image or link to go to source page / India Biodiversity Portal
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Fabaceae : Parkia timoriana Leaflets / Copyright © 2013 by Greg Rule (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL70120 / Non-Commercial use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Re adings
Studies om chemical compositon, rheological and antioxidant properties of pectin isolated from Riang - Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. pod / Chonchanok Buathongjan, Pawadee Methacanon / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Dec 2020; Vol 164: pp 4575-4582 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.079
Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr., an underutilized multipurpose tree bean: a review /Theja Angami, Rupankar Bhagawati, Letngam Touthang et al / Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Feb 2018; 65(1) / DOI: 10.100/s10722-017-0595-0
Sulphur Free Radical Reactivity of Thioproline and Crude Extracts of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. / Robert Thangjam, Damayanti Devi Maibam / Environ. Eng. Res. 2012 December,17(S1): S9-S13 /
DOI: 10.4491/eer. 2012.17.S1.S9
Parkia timoriana / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
Parkia timoriana / Plants of the World Online
Parkia timoriana / Wikipedia
Parkia timoriana / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Databases / Useful Tropical Plants
Ethnic uses of Parkia timoriana (Fabaceae) and their significance to the Lotha tribes of Nagaland, Northeast India / Etsoshan Y Ovung, Baanu Loya, S K Tripathi et al / Vegetos, 2021; 34: pp 77-85 /
DOI: htt[s://doi.org/10.1007/s42535-020-00178-7
Structural elucidation of bioactive compound from the fruit of Parkia timoriana / Biplab de, Choudhury S N, Paul S B / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2013; 25(17): pp 9565-9568
Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Parkia timoriana (DC,) Merr., an underutilized multipurpose tree bean: a review / Thejangulie Angami, Rupankar Bhagawati, Letngam Touthang, Muniappan Ayyanar et al / Genet Resour Crop Evol / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-017-0595-0
The oil of Parkia roxburghii G. Don, a potential insecticide / Salam J S, Khuman M S, Singh M P / Current Science, 1995; 68(5) / ISSN: 0011-3893
Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic extract of Parkia biglobosa leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rat / Abubakar Abdullahi
A survey of plants used as repellent agaiinst hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A Obico, Elena M Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, 2014; 7(1): pp 179-186
Chemical Composition and Nutritive Indices in Parkia roxburghii G. Don, A Leguminous Plant of India / Salam Jakendra Singh, Singh P K, Dutta B K, Sahoo U K / Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry, 2009; 22(2): pp 87-93 / pISSN: 0970-6399 / eISSN: 0974-4479
Studies on phytosterol content of Parkia roxburghii G. Don / Djadjat Tisnadjaja, Suci Lestari Hidayat, Sukma Sumirja, Partomuan Simanjuntak / Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 2006;; 7(1)
Cytotoxic activity of local Thai vegetables against breast and prostate cancer cells
/ Thammasat Medical Journal, Han-Mar 2019; 19(1)

Policy Issues in Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants in India / Shivam Tripathi / Medicinal Plants of India: Conservation and sustainable use, 2019: pp 467-475 / ISBN: 9788170196525
GC–MS and molecular docking analyses of phytochemicals from the underutilized plant, Parkia timorianarevealed candidate anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory agents / Laldinfeli Ralte, Laldinliana Khiangte, Nurpen M Thangiam, Awadhesh Kumar, Y Tunginba Singh / Scientific Reports, 2022; 12: Article No 3395 / DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-07320-2
Parkia timoriana / Pietro Puccio, Mario Beltramini / Monaco Nature Encyclopedia: Discover the Biodiversity
Parkia timoriana / Last edited by Pieter B. Pelser, 2019 / Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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