HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Fabaceae
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.
Ci guo su mu

Scientific names  Common names
Bonduc minus Medik. Bangbang (C. Bis.) 
Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Fleming Bayag-kambing (Tag.)
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Dalagdag (Tag.) 
Caesalpinia crista "L.,p.p.A" Kamot-kabag (Tag.) 
Caesalpinia crista Thunb. Bebit (Sub.) 
Caesalpinia crista sensu auct. Binit (Bik.) 
Caesalpinia cristata Prowazek Bugtong (Bis.) 
Caesalpinia grisebachiana Kuntze Dalugdug (Tag., Bis.)
Caesalpinia sogerensis Baker f. Kalumbibit (Tag., Pang.)
Guilandina bonduc Griseb. Kamaunggi (Sul.)
Guilandina bonducella L. Sabinit (Bik.) 
Guilandina gemina Lour. Smbar (Bag.) 
Guilandina bonduc L. Siñgor (Ilk.) 
Guilandina bonducella (L.) Fleming Dawer (Ilk.) 
  Physic nut (Engl.)
  Grey niker seed (Engl.) 
  Erolucca bean (Engl.)  
  Bonduc seed  (Engl.) 
  Fever nut (Engl.)
  Nicker tree (Engl.)
Quisumbing's compilation lists (1) Caesalpinia crista, Kalumbibit and (2) C. nuga, C. laevigata, Bakaig as separate species. Other compilations list C. crista Linn and C. nuga (Linn.) Ait as synonyms. For this compilation, Kalumbibit is listed as Caesalpinia boducella and Bakaig as Caesalpinia crista.
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Akit makit, Banduc, Bunduq hindi.
ASSAMESE: Letaguti.
BENGALI: Natakaranja.
CHINESE: Ci guo su mu.
FRENCH: Canique grise, Cadoc, Cniquier, Graines quinique, Guénic, Quinique jaune, Sappan liane, Yeux à chatte, Yeux de bourrique, Yeux de chat, Yeux de chatte.
GERMAN: Molukkenbohne.
HINDI: Gajga, Kañjā, Karanju, Kaṇṭkarej, Kat-kaleji, Kat karanj, Panshul, Pattil, Putik, Putikaranj.
KANNADA: Gejjuga.
MALAGASY: Vatolalaka.
MALAY: Gorek, Kelichi, Tinglur (Java).
MALAYALAM: Kāḻañci, Kazhanchi, Kazhanji, Kazhanchikkuru, Kalimarakam.
MARATHI: Katukaranja, Sagargoti.
ORIYA: Gila.
PERSIAN: Khayahe i iblis.
PORTUGUESE: Noz de bonduque.
SANSKRIT: Angarhavallari, Kantakikaranja, Kuberakshi, Latakaranja, Pattil, Puti, Raktakaranjavruksha.
SINHALESE: Kalu vavuletiya, Kumburu wel, Wael kumburu .
SPANISH: Mate de costa, Matojo de playa, Ojo de Venado.
TAMIL: Kaccuram, Kalarci, Kalichikai, Kazharchikkaai, Kalarci ver, Kalarcik koluntu, Kalichiki, Kazarci.
TELUGU: Gatstsa, Mulluthige, Gaccakayai, Sukajambuka, Yakshakshi.
THAI: Sawad.
URDU: Karanja.
VIETNAMESE: Điệp mắt mèo, Móc mèo,

Kalumbibit is a prickly shrub or woody vine reaching a length of 10 meters or more. Leaves are bipinnate, often nearly 1 meter long, with the rachis armed with stout, sharp, recurved spines. Pinnae usually number about 10 pairs and are about 20 centimeters long with a pair of short, sharp spines at the point of attachment of each pair of leaflets. Leaflets also number about 10 pairs and are oblong, 2 to 5 centimeters long and somewhat hairy. Flowers are yellow, borne in axillary, simple or panicled racemes and about 1 centimeter long. Calyx is deeply cleft, the disk basal, the lobes imbricate, the lowest one larger than the others. Petals spreading, usually clawed, the uppermost smaller than the others. Stamens, 10, free, declinate, anthers versatile. Ovary few-ovuled. Fruits are pods, oblong 5 to 7 centimeters in length, inflated and covered with slender spines and contain one or two seeds. The seeds are large, somewhat rounded or ovoid, hairy, gray and shiny.

- In thickets along and near the seashore throughout the Philippines.
- Pantropic.

- Seeds yield a bitter, resinous principle, named bonducin.
- Fatty oil yields glycerides of palmitic, stearic, lignoceric, oleic, and linoleic acids, two phytosterols and a hydrocarbon similar to heptacosane.
- Study isolated four known cassane-type diterpenes and three new norcassane-type diterpenes.
- Phytochemical studies of seeds have revealed alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and triterpenoids.

- Study yielded ten new furanocassane-type diterpenes, caesalpinins H-P (1-9) and norcaesalpinin F (10) from seed kernels, together with 13 known diterpenes. (16)
- Petroleum ether extract of seeds yielded saponins, glycoside, starch, sucrose, proteins, sterols, and reported constituents like homoisoflavone (bonducillin) and a non alkaloid bitter principle (natin). (see study below) (21)
- Various seed extracts yielded bioactive molecules including oils, sterols, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and resins. (see study below) (32)
- Physiochemical screening of seeds yielded foreign matter 0.97%, loss on drying 8.83%, total ash 3.37%, solubility in water 28.8%, and extractive value in water 6.7%. Phytochemical study yielded alkaloid 0.12 mg/g-1, phenol 0.60 mg g, flavonoid 0.33 mg g, tannins 4.90 mg g, and lignin 74.7 mg g. Nutrient analysis yielded carbohydrate 18.4 mg/g-1, proteins 17.6 mg, fat 3.6 mg, fiber 3.3 mg, and energy value 73.6 kcal. (see study below) (37)
- Bioassay guided fractionation isolated seven flavonoids viz., 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-3,11- dehydro-homoisoflavanone (1), 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-chalcone (2), 7,3'-dihydroxy-3,11- dehydrohomoiso-flavanone (3), Luteolin (4), quercetin-3-methyl ether (5), Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (6) and Kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-B-D-xylopyranoside (7). (see study below) (27)
- Study of aerial parts yielded a new compound, caesanol 1, and a known diterpene 6ß, 7ß-dibenzoyl-oxyvoiacapen-5-α-ol. (49)
- Study of roots isolated four cassane furanoditerpenes: bonducellpins A, B, C, and D. (56)
- Phytochemical analysis of leaves powder of C. bonducella yielded terpenoids and phenolics (4.490%), alkaloids (0.085%), alkaloids and N-oxides (25.745%), fats and waxes (8.850%) and fibers (60.050%). (see study below) (61)
- Phytochemical screening of roots powder yielded tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, leucoanthocyans, mucilage, saponosides, anthracemic, heterosids, alkaloids, and quinons. (see study below) (62)
- Phytochemical screening of seeds yielded steroids and terpenes in the petroleum ether extract, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides and tannins in the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis of saponified matter of PE extract yielded fatty acid viz. hexadecanoic acid and 9-methyyl-8-tridecen-2-ol acetate. (68)
- A new rearranged furanoditerpene, caesalpinin B, was isolated from the roots of C. bonduc. (74)

- Bitter tasting, cooling.
- Considered anti-contusion, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, antidote, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, diuretic, anthelmintic, and tonic.

- Leaves are deobstruent and emmenagogue.
- Bark considered rubefacient.
- Seeds considered tonic, febrifuge, purgative.
- Studies have shown antimalarial, antioxidant, radical scavenging, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antitumor, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, nootropic, antifertility, anticonvulsive, antiplasmodial, nephroprotective, diuretic, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, seeds, root and bark.

· In the the Philippines, seeds used for stomach troubles and as a mild purgative. Powdered seeds used as febrifuge and regarded as tonic.
· Acute and chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, carbuncle, furuncle.
· Pounded fresh material may be applied as poultice on carbuncle and furuncle.
· Leaves and seeds used as external applications for dispersing inflammatory swelling.
· Bark and leaves used as anthelmintic, febrifuge and emmenagogue.
· Tender leaves used for disorders of the liver.
· Ointment made from seeds, mixed with castor oil, used as external application to hydrocoeles, acute orchitis and glandular swellings.
· Oil expressed from seeds used for convulsions, palsy, and a variety of nervous complaints; also, used as embrocation in rheumatism.
· Seeds, roasted and powdered, internally administered for hydrocoele and leprosy.
· Fixed oil from the seeds used as emollient and as embrocation to remove freckles, and to stop ear discharges.
· Decoction of roasted seeds used for consumption and asthma.
· In Ayurveda, sprouts and root bark used to treat tumors. The juice of leaves for elephantiasis, worms. Paste of leaves used for pain and edema. Internally, used for abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery and colitis.
· In Assam, seeds are used in the treatment of diabetes.
· In Malaya, young leaves used for intermittent fevers and as vermifuge.
· In Indo-China, leaves used as deobstruent and emmenagogue.
· In traditional Indian medicine, used as antipyretic, antiperiodic, anticonvulsant and antiparalytic.
· In some part of Vidharbha region, seed kernels used as crude learning and memory enhancer.
· In French Guiana root decoction used as febrifuge.
· In French Guiana. roots used for gonorrhea. Dried seeds used as anthelmintic. In Guyana, whole plant used for syphilitic diseases. Crushed fresh seeds used as febrifuge and to treat snake bites. Dried seeds are pounded and used as dropsy medication. (70)
· In South Africa seeds used for treatment of diarrhea; leaf infusion used for cerebral hemorrhage and infantile convulsions. Pounded leaves are used as vesicant.
· In Ceylon young leaves applied to toothaches; also used for worms in children.
· Decoction of leaves used as gargle for sore throat.
· Bonducin, as a pill, used in the treatment of malaria.
· In the Southwestern part of Nigeria, young twigs and leaves used as antimalarial decoction in combination with other medicinal plants. (27)
· In Benin plant used to enhance male sexual activity.

Antimalarial: Study isolated 44 casssane- and norcassane-type diterpenes. Most of the tested diterpenes showed antimalarial activity; norcaesalpinin E showed the most potent activity, more than the drug chloroquine. (1) In a study of six plants used in traditional medicine for malaria, C. bonducella and Cassia abbreviata leaf ethanol extracts were the most promising for further studies. (12)
Radical Scavenging Activity: Ethyl acetate extract showed a maximum of 49% free radical scavenging activity at the end of 1 hr. Although it may help in diabetes-linked oxidative stress, it does not necessarily contribute to its hypoglycemic activity.

Antidiabetic / Hypoglycemic: Study showed the seed kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella has significant antidiabetic and hypoglycemic effects. Activity may be partly due to a positive effect on glycogen synthesis in the liver, skeletal muscle and heart muscle due to an insulin-like action of its constituents and partly due to stimulatory action on insulin release. (3)
Antidiabetic / Seed Extracts: Study of ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed significant blood sugar lowering effect of C. bonducella in the type 2 diabetic model. (7)
Oral Antidiabetic Activity / Seed Extracts: Study of aqueous extract of C. bonducella seed shell showed very significant blood sugar lowering in glucose loaded, STZ and alloxan diabetic models. (4)
Antidiabetic: Study in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed blood sugar lowering attributed to increase of insulin release from the pancreatic cells.
Antifilarial / Seed Kernel: Study showed the C. bonducella seed kernel extract and fractions showed microfilaricidal, macrofilaricidal and female-sterilizing efficacy against L. sigmodontin and microfilaricidal and female-sterilizing efficacy against B. malayi in animal models, suggesting a potential for its use in new antifilarial drug development. (5)
Anxiolytic Activity: Study of seed extract of C. bonducella showed a significant and dose-dependent anxiolytic activity. (6)
Antitumor / Antioxidant Activity: Study of methanol extract of C. bonducella showed significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice. (8)
Analgesic Activity: Study of flower extract of C. bonducella showed significant antinociceptive effect in the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced pain and acetic-induced parietal pain. (10)
Analgesic / Antipyretic / Anti-Inflammatory / Seed Oil: Study showed the seed oil of C. bonducella could be a potential source of an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic agent. (11)
Immunomodulatory / Seeds: Study of the aqueous extract of C. bonducella seeds on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in rats produced an increase in hemagglutinating antibody titer and a change in delayed-type hypersensitivity suggesting that the extract could be a promising immunostimulatory agent. (13)
Anti-Amyloidogenic / Alzheimer's Disease: Abeta (amyloid beta) is a major etiological factor in Alzheimer's disease. Study showed C. crista aqueous extract could inhibit the Abeta(42) aggregation from monomers and oligomers and able to disintegrate the preformed fibrils.
Nootropic / Memory Enhancer: Study evaluated the potential of dried seed kernels of C. crista extract as a learning and memory enhancer. Results suggest CC can be beneficial in improving cognition in disorders like dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders.
Antipyretic / Analgesic / Seed Kernel: Ethanolic extract of seed kernel of C. bonducella was tested for antipyretic and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats or mice. Results showed significant central analgesic activity and marked peripheral analgesic effect. (17)
Genotoxicity Amelioration:Alcoholic extracts significantly reduced chromosomal aberration due to methyl methane sulfonate. There was also reduction of chromatid exchanges, enhancement of replication index. The extracts also reduced the number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberrations per cell in vivo. The ameliorating potential was dose and duration dependent. (18)
Anthelmintic / Leaves / Seeds: Various extracts of leaves of C. bonducella were investigated for anthelmintic activity against Perionyx excavates and Amplostoma caninum. All four hexane extractives showed significant death time and paralysis time. (19) Study evaluated crude extracts of seeds for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Results showed all extracts significantly demonstrated paralysis and caused death of worms at higher concentration 15% w/v as compared to standard drug piperazine citrate. (53)
Female Reproductive System Effects / Antifertility Efficacy: Study evaluated an ethanolic seed extract on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rats. There was significant dose-dependent decrease in the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone. Results showed estrogen antagonistic effects mediated through a direct effect on the reproductive organs possibly by suppression of follicular growth in the ovary and/or disruption of hormonal balance in the hypothalamo-hypophysial ovarian and uterine axis. (20)
Anti-Convulsant / Seed: Various extracts of powdered seed kernels were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity using PTZ, MES, Strychnine, and Picrotoxin induced convulsion models. .It was found to be non toxic up to dose level of 3000 mg/kg (LD50). A petroleum ether extract showed significant anticonvulsant activity, which was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents such as saponins, proteins, homoisoflavone (bonducillin), carbohydrates and sterols. (21)
Sperm Effect: Study of graded doses of alcoholic seed extract of C. bonducella showed morphological changes in the sperm of albino rats. The effect can be due to general disturbances in proteins and alteration in the cauda epididymal milieu, probably due to androgen deficiency secondary to C. bonducella treatment. (22)
Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic / Seeds: Study evaluated seed extracts for antidiabetic effect in Wistar albino male rats. Results showed reduction of blood glucose, improvement in body weight, and rejuvenation of damaged pancreas, comparing favorably with reference drug, glibenclamide. (24)
Antioxidant: Study of ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. bonduc showed antioxidant activity using DPPH, FRAP, superoxide radical scavenging, NO, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Its antioxidant activity may also contribute to the cytotoxic nature of the plant. (25)
Diuretic / Seeds: Study evaluated the aqueous and methanol extracts of dried seeds for diuretic effect. Results showed significant increase in urine volume, with increased excretion of sodium and potassium.(26)
Antiplasmodial / Twigs and Leaves: Study evaluated the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of crude extract, solvent fractions and compounds from C. bonduc using chloroquine sensitive strains of Plasmodium falcifarum FCR-3 . Ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of C. bonduc showed moderate antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 16 and 18 µg/ml. Bioactive fractionation isolated seven flavonoids. Compound 2 exhibited moderate antiplasmodial activity with EC50 and SI of 33 µM and 0.33, respectively. Moderate antiplasmodial activity by solvent fractions may be mediated by 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-chalcone. (see constituents above)
Hepatoprotective / Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Toxicity: Study evaluated the protective effect of methanolic extract of leaves on gentamicin-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. Results showed pretreatment significantly attenuated the physiological and histopathological alterations induced by gentamicin. (28)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Toxicity / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of C. bonduc against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Results showed a hepatoprotective effect which may be due to normalization of impaired membrane function activity. C. bonduc may act as a free radical scavenger of radicals involved in paracetamol metabolism by microsomal enzymes. (29) Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of CB in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxic rat model. Results showed both preventive and curative effects. (41)
Immunostimulating / Gluco-Arabinan / Seeds: A water-soluble gluco-arabinan (PS-II) was isolated from alkaline extract of seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc. Comparison studies of immunostimulating properties between gluco-arabinan (PS-II) and arabinan (PS-I) were carried out. (30)
Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies / Leaves / Seed Kernel: Study evaluated acute and subacute toxicity of ethyl acetate extract of leaves in albino mice. LD50 of the extract was higher than 2000 mg/kg with no changes observed in any behavioral parameters in mice. However, there was a slight change in cellular architecture in liver histology. (31) Study of ethanolic extract of seed kernel showed the LD50 of the extract to be higher than 2000 mg/kbw with no changes observed in behavioral parameters. Doses of 5 to 2000 mg/kbw were administered orally for one day for the acute model and 14 days for the sub-acute model. (44)
Antifungal / Seeds: Study of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of C. bonducella seeds exhibited high to moderate antifungal effect against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria solani. (32)
Antipsoriatic / Leaves: Study evaluated C. bonduc decoction and hydroalcoholic extract for antipsoriatic activity. Of the samples tested, only the water fraction of hydroalcoholic extract showed good activity in the mouse tail test, antiproliferant activity in HaCaT cells and lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Results support the traditional use of CB leaves for psoriasis treatment. (33)
Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study of C. bonducella leaves showed significant anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer, water immersion stress induced ulcer, and HCl-Ethanol induced ulcer models in rats and mice. (34)
Antidiarrheal / Antibacterial / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study of C. bonducella ethyl acetate fraction of leaves showed significant dose dependent antidiarrheal properties, moderate cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp bioassay compared to standard drug vincristine sulfate. A chloroform fraction showed maximum activity against almost all tested bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (35)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study evaluated the phytochemical, physiochemical and nutritive properties of seeds of C. bonducella. An aqueous extract (1000 µg mL-1) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in terms of protein denaturation, inhibition of protease activity, and HRBC membrane stabilization. An aqueous extract showed strong antioxidant activity on DPPH radical scavenging (90%) and lipid peroxidation (99.69%) assays. (see constituents above) (37)
Vedanasthapana (Analgesic) Property: Study evaluated the Vedanasthapana (analgesic) property of the drug Latakaranja in experimental model of albino mice using Hot Plate method. Results showed the Ayurvedic compound acts for a longer duration than standard drug ibuprofen. (38)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Seed Coat: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of C. bonduc seeds using various test methods. Results showed the seed coat extract decreased induced inflammation in the carrageenan model and egg albumin model in rats. Antinociceptive evaluation showed analgesic effect as evidenced by increase in pain threshold and reduction of pain factor. (39)
• Cytotoxicity / Seed Powder and Callus: Study evaluated the cytotoxic nature of seeds and callus using Daphnia cultures. Results showed both powder extract and callus expressed cytotoxic activities. However, seed powder extract was more effective than the callus extract. (40)
• Antitumor / Antiproliferative and Apoptotic: Study evaluated a methanol extract of Caesalpnia bonducella for anti-proliferative and proapototic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) mode in-vivo. MECB increased the rate of apoptosis. There was increase in mice survival time. Death of MECB treated cells was due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Analysis for molecular mechanism showed MECB decreased the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression while increasing pro-apoptotic Bax level. Results suggest a potential for therapeutic drug development for cancer therapy. (42)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anticancer / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of a total ethanolic extract of C. bonduc stem bark. Results showed in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect which increase in a dose dependent manner. In vitro study in Daltons Ascites Lymphoma, TEE exhibited 100% cytotoxicity even at 100 µg/ml concentrations. Results suggest the activities may be due to the presence of high quantities of phenolics and flavonoids in the stem bark. (43)
Antioxidant / Iron Chelating: Study evaluated the ameliorating effect of C. crista Linn. extract on iron-overload liver injury induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percent increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels. There was dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. Further, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2++ mediated oxidative DNA damage. Results confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against model hepatotoxicant iron overload. Activity was attributed to potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property. (45)
• Comparative Anthelmintic Activity: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of methanolic extracts of Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts against earthworm, Pheretima posthuma. All plants showed significant dose dependent anthelmintic activity. C. epigaeus showed highest activity with death time of 9 min at 100 mg/ml concentration, with Caesalpinia at 18 ming at 100 mg/ml. (46)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves / Seeds: Study of leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella showed anthelmintic activities against Hymenolepis diminuta cestode and Syphacia obvelata nematode. (47)
Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia crista seed kernel and Chenopodium album whole plant against mature Haemonchus contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay and egg hatch test. Both plants exhibited dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic activity by causing mortality of worms and inhibition of egg hatching. C. crista (LC50 0.134 mg/mL) was more than than C. album (LC50 0.449 mg/mL) in egg hatch test. (81)
• Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial / Leaves, Stem Wood and Bark: Study evaluated various extracts from stem wood, stem bark and leaves of C. bonduc for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa and antimycobacterial activity against two non-pathogenic mycobacteria species, M. indicus pranii and M. madagascariense. Extracts with high activity had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL while low activity extracts showed MIC of 5.0 mg/ml. Results suggest a potential for bioactive metabolites as leads for development of antimicrobial agents. (48)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Seeds / Fruits: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic property of alcoholic seed extract of C. bonducella in alloxan induced diabetic male albino mice. Oral supplementation of ASECB for 21 days resulted in significant (p<0.05) decrease in TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and a significant (p<0.05) elevation in HDL. There were no side effects noted with higher doses. (51) Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of various fruit extracts in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed improvement in lipid profile as evidenced by significant inhibition in HFD induced serum TG, TC, LDL,C, and VLDL, together with an increase in HDL-C. Results suggest potential for C. bonducella as preventive and curative agent against hyperlipidemia. (65)
• Antispermatogenic / Seeds: Study evaluated the antispermatogenic effect of C. bonduc seeds on male albino rats. Twenty-one days of orally administered aqueous extract of seeds resulted in significant reduction of sperm density and concentration dependent increase in antispermatogenic activity. Results suggest potential for a safe and effective male contraceptive. (52)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Adjuvant Induced Arthritis / Flower Extract: Study of C. bonducella flower extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in adjuvant induced arthritis using carrageenan-induced inflammation, cotton pellet induced chronic granulomatous inflammation and autocoids-induced inflammation. (54)
• Anxiolytic / Seeds: Study of seed extract of C. bonducella showed various levels of anxiolytic activity in various experimental mice and rat models viz., Stair-case, EPM, Hole-board, LDT, OFT and Mirror-chamber models. (55)
• Wound Healing / Roots: Study evaluated the wound healing activities of C. bonducella and Cyclea peltata extracts on experimentally induced excision wounds in diabetic rats. Both extracts exhibited wound healing activity as evidenced by moderate granulation with marked epithelial enclose and moderate hyperplasia in groups treated with high dose (100 mg/kbw) of methanolic extract of aerial part of C. peltata and root of C. bonducella. (57)
• Antidiabetic / Antihyperglycemic / Antioxidant / Seed Kernel: Study evaluated the effect of C. bonducella seed kernel extract on STZ-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in rats. Results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, HbA1c, free amino groups, along with an increase in serum insulin, liver glycogen contents, and a significant improvement in glucose tolerance. Study suggests the seed kernel extract improves antioxidant defense under hyperglycemic condition and exhibited strong dose-dependent anti-hyperglycemic effect. (58)
• Natural Antifeedant Against Tobacco Cutworm: Study showed C. bonducella can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against field pest, tobacco cutworm Helicoverpa armigera. (59)
• Dechitinizing / Larvicidal / Cx. quinquefasciatus / Leaves: Study exposed 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. bonduc. Results showed prominent larvicidal activity and 100% mortality at 1% concentration of both extracts. Furthermore, both extracts caused thinning of chitin of the larvae exposed, which may be cause of larval mortality. (60)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the phytoconstituents and antimicrobial properties of leaf extracts of C. bonducella. Results showed antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. aerogenes, A niger, and P. chrysogenum. (see constituents above) (61)
• Aphrodisiac / Effect on Sexual Behavior / Roots: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. bonduc roots on sexual behavior of male wistar rats. The ethanolic extract exhibited accelerator effect by decreasing the latent time of goes up while the aqueous extract increased the frequency of goes up. Results suggest C. bonduc roots could potentially induce aphrodisiac activities. (see constituents above) (62)
• Anti-Ulcer / Pylorus-Ligation Induced Ulcers / Dry Nut: Study evaluated the effect of C. bonducella dry nut extract on a pylorus-ligation ulcer model in Wistar rats. Treatment with the extract significantly decreased the gastric volume, total and free acids, and significant decrease in the ulcer index. (63)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Stem Bark: Study reports on the ecofriendly, safe, and economical method for silver nanoparticles synthesis using stem bark of C. bonducella. An antibacterial assay was done on gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, B. subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli). (64)
• Antioxidant / Comparative Flavonoid and Phenolic Content of Various Plant Parts: Study evaluated the total flavonoid and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of root, stem, leaves, and seed kernel of C. bonduc. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoid and saponin in all samples. Total flavonoid content was highest in leaf and lowest in seed kernel. DPPH free radical scavenging activity was highest in the leaf extract followed by root, stem and seed kernel. (66)
• Anticancer / Root Bark: Study evaluated the root bark of C. crista for possible anticancer activity against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) tumor model. Results showed increased survival time and life span, together with restoration of hematological parameters altered by tumor inoculation and significant reduction of solid tumor mass. (67)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity / Liver Fibrosis / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-hepatotoxic and anti-fibrotic effect of aqueous leaf extract of C. bonduc on CCl4-induced chronic hepatotoxicity/fibrosis in Wistar rats. Results showed the hepatoprotective effect and suggest potential for a novel and alternative approach for treating chronic hepatotoxicity/liver fibrosis. (69)
• Serine Proteinase Inhibitor CbTI-2 / Antimalarial Activity / Seeds: Study highlights structural and functional features of a strong serine PI from the seeds of C. bonduc (CbTI-2). Initial studies indicated CbTI-2 is a potent antiplasmodial agent with high toxicity towards growth, schizont rupture process and erythrocytic invasion of Plasmodium falcifarum. (71)
• 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study / Roots: Study evaluated the toxicity of ethanolic root extract of C. bonduc given by oral gavage at doses of 31.25, 125, and 500 mg/kbw for 90 days to male Wistar rats. Results showed no death or abnormal clinical signs, no significant changes in body weight, urinary parameters, no changes in necropsy and histopathology findings of vital organs associated with extract treatment.` High doses caused changes in some indices i.e., erythrocytes, total cholesterol, aspartate amino transferase, along with decreased food intake and prostate relative weight. Results suggest the ethanolic root extract does not cause significant adverse effects and has a tolerability of up to 500 mg/kg for daily administration for 90 days. (72)
• Antimicrobial / Bondenolide / Seeds: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antifungal activities, along with phytotoxicity test of the newly isolated diterpene bondenolide (1) from C. bonduc. (73)
• Adaptogenic / Seeds: Study evaluated seed extracts of C. bonduc for adaptogenic activity using cold stress model and swim endurance model. The seed coat as well as kernel extracts showed significant antistress activity at 300 mg/kg po. The extracts significantly increased swim endurance time. The extract also showed significant effect in overcoming imbalances in stress induced animals such as hypoglycemia, depletion of serum cortisol and increased total leukocyte count, along with control of hyperlipidemia due to stress. (75) α
• Antidiabetic / α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Seeds: Study evaluated the inhibitory activity of hydro-ethanolic extract pf C. bonduc, Pluchea lanceolata, and Alhagi pseudalhagi against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results showed all three extracts antidiabetic activity. (P. lanceolata showed the most potent activity.) (76)
• Enhancement of Male Sexual Activity / Aphrodisiac Potential / Roots: Study evaluated the potential effect of root extracts on sexual behavior of male Wistar rats. Enhancement in sexual behavior was observed in ethanolic extract treated rats, with an significant increase in mount frequency and intromission, along with reduction in mount latency and intromission latency. There was also improvement in testosterone level, relative testes weight, and histological architecture. Results demonstrate the aphrodisiac potential of C. bonduc roots and lend support to its folkloric use as an aphrodisiac. (77)
• Glutathione S-Transferase Inhibiting Constituents / Bark: Glutathione S-transferase inhibition assay-guided fractionations of ethanolic bark extract isolated a new sterol, 17-hydroxy-campesta-4,6-dien-3-one (1), along with four known compounds, 13,14-seco-stigmasta-5,14-dien-3a-p-ol (2), 13,14-seco-stigmasta-9(11),14-dien-3a-ol (3), caesaldekarin J (4), and pipataline (5). Compounds 1-5 were isolated on basis of their inhibitory activity against glutathione S-transferase. an enzyme implicated in the resistances during treatment of cancer and parasitic infections. (78)
• Up-Regulation of Insulin Secretion / Inhibition of JNK Signaling Pathway / Polyphenol Extract: Study evaluated the potential and mechanism of polyphenol extract of C. bonduc in alloxanized diabetic rats. HPLX/MS confirmed the presence of considerable amounts of phenolics in the extract. Results showed the extract reduced oxidative stress in pancreatic ß-cells by restoring free radical scavenging potential, reduction of mRNA expression of Mapk-8, Traf-4, and Traf-6, and increasing the Pdx-1, Ins-1, ngn-3, GLUT-4, and IRS-1 expression ensuing regeneration of ß-cells and subsequent insulin release from pancreas. Findings suggest a promising restorative therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus. (79)
• Butenolide Hemiketal Diterpenes / Anticancer: Study isolated two new cassane butenolides, caesalpinolide A (1) and B (2), epimeric at the hemiketal position. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with IC50s of 12.8 and 5.1 µM, respectively, along with inhibition of endometrial and cervical cancer cell lines. (80)
• Anticancer Flavonoids / Twigs and Leaves: Tyrosine kinase (TK), vascular endothelial factor (VGEF), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are important cancer therapeutic target proteins. Study isolated phytochemicals from young twigs and leaves of C. bonduc. Seven phytochemicals were isolated viz., 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-3,11-dehydrohomoisoflavonone (1), 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-xhalcone (2), 7,4'-dihydroxy-3,11-dehysrohomoisoflavonone (3), luteolin (4), quercetin-3-methyl (5), kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-xylopyranoside (6), and kaempferol--3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-ß-D-xylopyranoside (7). Molecular docking analysis showed strong interactions with the proteins compared with their respective drug inhibitors. Results suggest promising pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties with potential as lead compounds for development of new anti-cancer drugs. (82)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Antispasmodic / Ca++ Antagonistic Effects: Study evaluated crude extract of C. bonducella and its fractions for antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic, and CA++ antagonistic properties. Strongest antibacterial effect was shown by the n-butanol (72%) and ethyl acetate (80%) fractions. followed by crude extract (46 and 42%) against E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. There was maximum antifungal activity against Candida glabrata and Aspergillus flavus, 80 and 70$ respectively. The extract caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous and high K+ induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum. (83)
Increased Muscle Contractile Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the mechanism through which C. bonduc extract of leaves affects gallamine-induced relaxation in rat tibial muscle contractility. Results showed stimulation of muscle contractile activity, an effect possibly due to activation of the cholinergic mechanism. (84)
Effect on Contractile Activity of Uterine Smooth Muscle / Leaves: Study evaluated the calcium dependency and cholinergic effect of a leaf extract of C. bonduc in isolated pregnant rat myometrium preparations. The extract increased the contractile force in isolated strips in a concentration-dependent manner. Effects were comparable to acetylcholine. Results suggest the existence of cholinergic receptors sensitive to the extract, which could influence the influx of calcium (phasic contraction) and mobilization of calcium from cellular stores (tonic contraction), both of which are responsible for the increase in contractile activity and development of contracture of uterine smooth muscle. (85)
Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity / Anti-Cataract / Antioxidant: Study evaluated water, ethanol, and chloroform extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Caesalpinia bonduc, Cassia fistula, and Biophytum sensitivum for rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory potential (RLAR), anti-cataract and antioxidant activities. All the extracts inhibited aldose reductase considerably and exhibited anticataract activity., Extracts also showed significant free radical scavenging activities and inhibited the activity of enzyme PPO, a model oxidizing enzyme. The plant samples showed considerable amounts of vitamin C, total polyphenols, and flavonoids. (86)

- Wild-crafted.
- Nuts in the cybermarket.

Updated June 2021 / Janaury 2018 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Caesalpinia bonducella / P.H.W.Taubert - Leguminosae (1891) / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Nickernuts in fruit capsule / Caesalpinia bonduc fruit / Louise Wolff (darina) / GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2.5 / click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antimalarial Activity of Cassane- and Norcassane-Type Diterpenes from Caesalpinia crista and Their Structure–Activity Relationship / Surya Kant Kalauni et al / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Vol. 29 (2006) , No. 5 1050

Novel norcassane-type diterpene from the seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista / Arjun Banskota et al / Tetrahedron Letters • Volume 44, Issue 36, 1 September 2003, Pages 6879-6882 / doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(03)01722-2
Hypoglycemic Action of Seed Kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming In Normal and Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Albino Rats / Gayatri Sarma / Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2009 Volume 6 Number 2
Oral Antidiabetic Activities of Different Extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella Seed Kernels / Sudeep Parameshwar, K.K. Srinivasan and C. Mallikarjuna Rao / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology
2002, Vol. 40, No. 8: pp 590-595
/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1076/phbi.40.8.590.14656
Antifilarial activity of Caesalpinia bonducella against experimental filarial infections
/ R L Gaur et al / Indian J Med Res 128, July 2008, pp 65-70
Anxiolytic Activity Of Seed Extract Of Caesalpinia Bonducella (Roxb) In Laboratory Animals / N Venkat Rao et al / Internet Journal of Pharmacology, 2008
Advanced studies on the hypoglycemic effect of Caesalpinia bonducella F. in type 1 and 2 diabetes in Long Evans rats / Shrabana Chakrabarti et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 84, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 41-46 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00262-3
Antitumor Activity and Antioxidant Status of Caesalpinia bonducella Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice / Malaya Gupta et al / Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, Vol. 94 (2004) , No. 2 pp.177-184
Oral Hypoglycemic Effect of Caesalpinia bonducella
/ T K Biswas et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology
1997, Vol. 35, No. 4, Pages 261-264
Analgesic Activity of Caesalpinia bonducella Flower Extract / R Aruna Devi et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, No. 10-11, Pages 668-672
Studies on anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models / Shukla Shruti et al / Food and chemical toxicology, 2010; 48(1): pp. 61-64
Screening of Traditionally Used Plants for In Vivo Antimalarial Activity in Mice / Esther Innocent et al / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6(2): 163–167.
In vivo immunomodulatory activities of the aqueous extract of bonduc nut Caesalpinia bonducella seeds / Shukla Shruti et al / Pharmaceutical Biology (Formerly International Journal of Pharmacognosy), Vol 48, Number 2, February 2010 , pp. 227-230(4)
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Constituents of Caesalpinia crista from Indonesia. / Awale S, Linn TZ, Tezuka Y, Kalauni SK, Banskota AH, Attamimi F, Ueda JY, Kadota S./ Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Feb;54(2):213-8.
Antipyretic and analgesic activities of Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel extract. / Archana P, Tandan SK, Chandra S, Lal J. / Phytother Res. 2005 May;19(5):376-81.
Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro study in human lymphocyte culture and in vivo study in Albino mice / Md. Sultan Ahmad, Sheeba Ahmad, Afsar Alia, Mohammad Afzalc /Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Volume 14, Issue 3, July 2013, Pages 247–257 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmhg.2013.04.002
Invitro anthelmintic activity of leaves extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella(L) / J. Karthi*, M. Thamizhmozhi, C. Saravanan, K. Ayas Ahamed, K. Niruban / Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2011: 3 (4) 317-319
Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy / Lilaram, Nazeer Ahmed R* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S957-S962
Anticonvulsive Effect of Seed Extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (Roxb.) / / A. ALI, N. VENKAT RAO, MD. SHALAM, T. SHIVARAJ GOUDA and S. M. SHANTAKUMAR / IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS / IJPT, July 2009, Vol 8, No 2: pp 51-55.
Morphological changes induced by Caesalpinia bonducella seed extract on rat sperm: scanning electrone microscope study / N. Peerzade, / R. Nazeer Ahmed, / S.R. Marigoudar / Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 309–318, March 2011/ DOI: 10.1515/JBCPP.2009.20.4.309.
Sorting Caesalpinia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
Assessment of hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.)Roxb. seeds in alloxan induced diabetic rat and its phytochemical, microscopic, biochemical and histopathological evaluation /
Aswar Prashant B*, Kuchekar Bhanudas S / Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2011, 1 (3):91-102
ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUC / Sivasankari K. Veerabathran*, Janaky S., Sekar T. / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications, Vol 2, Issue 4, 2011, pp 262-266
Diuretic effect of Caesalpinia bonduc in rats / Ajay Khedkar, Yuvaraj D Mandavkar, Gulab Shinde, Pallavi Khalure and Pravin Dere / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2011; 6: 61-63
Antiplasmodial compound from young twigs and leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn) Roxb
/ Olubanke O. Ogunlana, Hye-Sook Kim, Yusuke Wataya, Joseph O. Olagunju, Afolabi A. Akindahunsi, Ning H. Tan / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 7, Issue 1, pp 931-037 (2015)
Protective Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Caesalpinia Bonduc (L.) on Gentamicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats / A. ALI NOORANI, K. GUPTA, K. BHADADA and M. K. KALE / IJPT 10: 21-25, 2011
Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) in Paracetamol Intoxicated Albino Rats / Rajesh J. Mandade / Int.J. PharmTech Res. 2011, 3(1)
Structural studies of an immunostimulating gluco-arabinan from seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc
/ Eshita Kar Mandal, Soumitra Mandal, Saikat Maity, Birendra Behera, Tapas K Maiti, Syed S Islam / Carbohydrate Polymers 2013-01-30
Preliminary phytochemical and antifungal screening of various organic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds / SHRUTI SHUKLA, PRADEEP MEHTA, ARCHANA MEHTA, SURESH PRASAD VYAS, VIVEK K. BAJPAI* / Romanian Biotechnological Letters Vol. 16, No. 4, 2011
Screening of Caesalpinia bonduc leaves for antipsoriatic activity. / Muruganantham N, Basavaraj KH, Dhanabal SP, Praveen TK, Shamasundar NM, Rao KS. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):897-901. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.026.
Anti-ulcer Activity of Caesalpinia bonducella (Linn.) Flem. Leaves / K. S. Patil, Ganesh Wadkar, Sunil Mathapati, Maheshwar Hogade, Sunil Karale, Sunil Deshpande / Journal of Natural Remedies, Vol 10, Issue 2, July 2010
Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves / Muhammad Mutassim Billah, Rafikul Islam, Hajera Khatun, Shahnaj Parvin, Ekramul Islam, SM Anisul Islam, Akbar Ali Mia / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
May 2013, 13:101
Caesalpinia bonduc / Synonyms / The Plant List
Studies on Nutraceutical Properties of Caesalpinia bonducella L.: An Indian Traditional Medicinal Plant /
S. Manikandaselvi, V. Vadivel and P. Brindha / Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2016, Volume: 10, Issue 2, Pp 127-139 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2016.127.139
An Experimental Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonducella Roxb for its Vedanasthapana (Analgesic) Property
/ Arya Prabhu, Ravi Rao S, Prashant BK, Krishnamurthy MS / IJRAP 2011, 2(4) 1023-1025
Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity / Dayanand M Kannur, Mukta P Paranipe, Lalit V Sonavane, Prerana P Dongre and Kisanchand R Khandelwal / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2012 Jul-Sep; 3(3): pp 171–175.  / doi: 10.4103/2231-4040.101010
Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpinia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study
/ Suhani Sumalatha et al / Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Nov 2014, Vol 8(11): HF05-HF07 / DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/9459.5116
Methanol Extract of Caesalpinia bonducella Induces Apoptosis via Up- Regulation of Bax and Activation of PARP in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells / Priyanka Shivaprakash, Kaythegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Gangadhar Maheskumar Lakshmi, Kagepura Thammaiah Chandrashekara and Shankar Jayarama / Medicinal and Aromonatic Plants (Los Angel) 5:273. / doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000273
Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark / Sandhia. K. G*, Bindu. A. R / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR), Vol 6 No 01; Jan 2015
Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity effect of ethanol extract from Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel. / Uday M.Muddapur, Sunil More, Tejashri karekar, Hrishikesh Mungi, Savita Thakkannavar, Naveen Savadatti / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3 (3): 120-124
Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia cristaagainst Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice / Rhitajit Sarkar, Bibhabasu Hazra and Nripendranath Mandal / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/896341
Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants / Asha Devi. S*, Caroline Lo Yan Fung, Priya Prakash, Theodora Lydia  / International Journal of Drug Development and Research
In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda). / Gogoi S, Yadav A K / Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 22 Aug 2016, 5(4):427-433 / DOI: 10.5455/jice.20160821024821 
ANTIMYCOBATERIAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS FROM Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb / Stephano H. Mlozi*, Musa Chacha and Regina Peter / American Journal of Research Communication, Vol 5(2); 2017
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia bonduc L. Roxb / Sarah Mobasher*, Sumayya Saied, Shaista Naz and Juhi Khan / Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 2014, 10, 419-421 419
Chemical Studies on the Philippine Crude Drug Calumbibit (Seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc): The Isolation of New Cassane Diterpenes Fused with a,ß-Butenolide / Takeshi KINOSHITA* / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2000; 48(9): pp 1375—1377 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.48.1375
Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Alcoholic Seed Extract of Caesalpinia bonduc (LLin..)) Roxb.. In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rats / Vedavyasa Sagar and R Nazeer Ahamed / ARC Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol 1, Issue 1, pp 1-9 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2455=5983.0101001
Antispermatogenic Effect of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.)Roxb. Seeds / Kanerkar UR, Bhogaonkar PY, and Indurwade NH / Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering, Vol 3(4). 2015: 173-178
Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonducella flower extract for anti-inflammatory action in rats and its high performance thin layer chromatography chemical fingerprinting / Rathinam Arundevi, Shanmugam Murugammal, Dinesh Kumar, Surendra Kumar Tandan / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Vol 47, Issue 6; 2015: pp 638-643. / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.169582
Anxiolytic Activity Of Seed Extract Of Caesalpinia Bonducella (Roxb) In Laboratory Animals. / A Ali, N Venkat Rao, M Shalam, T Shivaraj Gouda, J Babu, S Shantakumar / The Internet Journal of Pharmacology, 2007, Volume 5 Number 2.
Bonducellpins A−D, New Cassane Furanoditerpenes of Caesalpinia bonduc / Sonia R Peter, Winston F Tinto, Steward McLean, William F Reynolds and Margaret Yu / J. Nat. Prod., 1997, 60 (12): pp 1219–1221 / DOI10.1021/np970308c
EVALUATION OF THE WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA AND CYCLEA PELTATA EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Jagadeep Chandra S., Mahadeva Murthy S., Ranjana Ramesh / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Issue 10 (2017)
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA (LINN.) SEED KERNEL EXTRACT IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA AND OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN WISTAR RATS / Mohammad Ahmad *, Deeba Shamim Jairajpuri, Vidhu Aeri, Zeeba Shamim Jairajpuri, Md. Shamim Akhter, Moon Jain  and Manju Sharma  / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) / Backiyaraj Muthusamy, Elumalai Arumugam, Kasinathan Dhamodaran, Mathivanan Thangarasu, Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy, Elumalai Kuppusamy* / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 2015; 3(5): 382-388
Dechitinising property of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. against Culex quinquefasciatus / K Periyanayagam*, K Sundara Saravanan and M Ismail / Natural Product Radiance, Vol. 6(4), 2007, pp.290-292
Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Caesalpinia bonducella Leaves / Shirish S. Pingale*, Manohar G. Chaskar, Nirmala R. Kakade / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 42(2), January - February 2017; Article No. 39, Pages: 217-220
Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Caesalpinia bonduc Root on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats / Adam GBANKOTO**, Eugénie ANAGO, Pauline A. HOUNDJO, Dogbè Clément ADJAHOUINOU, Fernand GBAGUIDI / International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research, Vol 3; Nov-Dec 2015
Effect of Caesalpinia bonducella extract in pylorus ligation induced ulcers in wistar rats
/ Odelia Sawian, Girish N. Zambare, Arulmozhi S. and Deepali A. Bansode / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (4):191-197
Green synthesis, characterization and biological studies on silver nanoparticles from Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark extract / N. Srinivasa Rao,b and Mandava V. Basaveswara Rao*  /JOURNAL FOR MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY AND COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY
Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Effects of Caesalpinia bonduc in a Murine Model of High Fat Diet Induced Hyperlipidemia / Pankaj G. Jain and Sanjay J. Surana / Pharmacologia 7(1): 1-8, 2016 / DOI: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2016.1.8
Phytochemical Screening, Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Parts of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. / Elin Novia Sembiring, Berna Elya, rani Sauriasari / Pharmacognosy Journal, Jan-Feb 2018; Vol 10, Issue 1: pp 123-127
ANTICANCER STUDY ON ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CAESALPINIA CRISTA ROOT BARK EXTRACT / Bodakhe S H, Agrawal Anchal, Agrawal Ashish, Shinde Nishant, Namdeo K P / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion 1(4); 2011: pp 126-128
Evaluation Isolation and Characterization of Chemical constituents from C. bonducella L. seed / Sunayana Vikhe, Sunil Nirmal / Pravara Journal of Science of Technology 2017; 1(1)
Hepatoprotective Activity Of Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia Bonduc Against Ccl4 Induced Chronic Hepatotoxicity. / Sumalatha, Suhani and Padma, Divya and Pai, Sreedhara KR and Kotian, Sushma R and Kumar, Nitesh and Bhat, Kumar MR / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8 (4). pp. 206-211, June 2016
Caesalpinia bonduc / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / botany.si.edu
Caesalpinia bonduc serine proteinase inhibitor CbTI–2: Exploring the conformational features and antimalarial activity / Arindam Bhattacharyya, C.R. Babu / International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017
A 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study of an Ethanolic Root Extract of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. in Wistar Rats / Mariette Sindete, Adam Gbankoto, Razack Osseni, Anatole Laleye et al / Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2021, Article ID 6620026
Antimicrobial activity of seed extracts and bondenolide from Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb / K Simin et al / Phytotherapy Research, Aug 2001; 15(5): pp 437-440 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.756
Caesalpinin B, a rearranged cassane furanoditerpene of Caesalpinia bonduc / Deon Lyder, Winston Tinto, Suzanne Bissada, Stewart McLean, William Rey nolds / Heterocycles, 1998; 48(7): pp 1465-1469
Adaptogenic activity of Caesalpinia bonduc seed extract in rats / D M Kannur , K S Akki et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Dec 2006; 108(3): pp 327-331
In vitro studies on the inhibition of a-amylase and a-glucosidase by hydro-ethanolic extract of Pluchea lanceolata, Alhagi pseudalhagi, Caesalpinia bonduc / Anupam Kumar Sachan, Ch V Rao, Nikhil Kumar Sachan / Pharmacognosy Research, 2019; 11(3): pp 310-314 / DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_31_10
A comparative study of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. root extracts on sexual behavior in male Wistar rats / Mariette Sindete et al / Andrologia, e14072 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/and.14072
Gutathione S-Transferase Inhibiting Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia bonduc / Chibuike C Udenigwe, Athar Ata, Radhika Samarasekera / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 3007; 55(3): pp 442-445 /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.55.442
Effect of Caesalpinia bonduc Polyphenol Extract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats in Attenuating Hyperglycemia by Upregulating Insulin Secretiom and Inhibiting JNK Signaling Pathway / Asra Uftikhar, Bilal Aslam, Maryam Iftikhar, Wafa Majeed, Mehwish Batool, Iqra Latif et al / Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2020, Article ID 2090219 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/2090219
New cassane butenolide hemiketal diterpenes from the marine creeper Caesalpinia bonduc and their antiproliferative activity / Prem P Yadav, Ashish Arora, Sanjeev Kanojiya et al / Tetrahedron Letters, Oct 2007; 48(40): pp 7194-7198 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2007.07.206
Anthelmintic activity of Chenopodium album (L.) and Caesalpinia crista (L.) against trichostrongyloid nematodes in sheep / Abdul Jabbar, Asim Shamim et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Oct 2007; 114(1): pp 86-91
Potential Anti-Cancer Flavonoids Isolated from Caesalpinia bonduc Young Twigs and Leaves: Molecular Docking and In Silico Studies / Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam, Olubanke Olujoke Ogunlana, Oluseyi Ebenezer
Ogunlana et al / Bioinformatics and Biology Insights, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1177932217721371
Antibacterial, amtifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonistic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella / Hidayat Ullah Khan, Irshad Ali, Arif-Ullah Khan, Rubina Naz, and Anwarul Hassan Gilani / Natural Products Research, 2011; 25(4) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.529445
Leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. (Caesalpinaceae) induces an increase of contractile force in rat skeletal muscle in situ / J Y Datté, P A Yapo, G G Kouamé-Koffi, A M Offoumou et al / Phytomedicine, 2004; 11(2-3): pp 235-241 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1078/1944-7113-00292
Effects of leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpiniaceae) on the contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle of pregnant rats / J Y Datté, A Traorém A M Offoumou, A Ziegler / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, March 1998; 60(2): pp 149-155 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/50378-8741(97)00144-X
Aldose reductase inhibitory, anti-cataract and antioxidant potential of selected medicinal plants from the Marathwada region, India / R N Gacche, N A Dhole / Natural Products Research, 2011; 25(7) /
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.536951

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT