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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Pogostemon cablin Blanco
Guan huo xiang

Scientific names  Common names 
Menta auricularia Blanco  Kablin (Tag., Pamp, Ilk.)
Menta cablin Blanco  Kabling (Pamp., Tag.)
Pogostemon battakianus Ridl. Kadling (Tag.) 
Pogostemon cablin Blanco Kadlum (Bik., S.L. Bis., Sul.) 
Pogostemon comosus Miq. karlin (Tag.) 
Pogostemon javanicus Backer ex Adelb. Katluen (Bis.) 
Pogostemon mollis Hassk. Sarok (Ig.) 
Pogostemon patchouly Pellet. Patchouli (Engl.) 
Pogostemon tomentosus Hassk. Patchouly (Engl.) 
In the confusing directory of common names for medicinal plants, "Kabling" is partly shared by Kablin, kabling, kabling-parang, kabling-gubat, kabling-kabayo, kabling-lalake.
Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Guan huo xiang.
FRENCH: Patchouli.
INDIAN: Pachi, Pachauli, Pachapat, Patchouli, Pachila, Kattam, Pachetene, Pacha, Panch, Suganda pandi.
INDONESIAN: Nilam wnagi, Nilam, Singalon.
KOREAN: Hyangdukkaephul.
MALAYSIAN: Dhalum wangi, Tilam wangi, Nilam.
SPANISH: Pacholi, Pachuli.
THAI: Phimsen.
VIETNAMESE: Ho[aws]c h[uw][ow]ng.

Gen info
- Etymology: Patchouli oil may have derived from the Hindi word "pacholi," meaning "to scent." Or, it may have derived from the ancient Tamil words "patchai" and "ellai," meaning "green leaf."
- There are three species of Patchouli, Pogostemon cablin, P. heyneanus, and P. hortensis. Of These, the most popular is P. cablin, the one most cultivated for its essential oil, which is considered superior to others.
- While widespread in popularity i the 60s, Patchouli oil was used centuries ago. Highly values, European traders exchanged it for gold, pound for pound.
- "King Tut"--Pharaoh Tutankhamun, was buried with 10 gallons of it.
-- In the 1800s, it was used to scent Indian fabrics such as fine silks and shawls to rid them of moths and other insects.
- The essential oil extracted from leaves of P. cablin has the highest potential for use in the perfume industry. (21)

Kabling is an aromatic, erect, branched and hairy herb, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1 meter. Leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate, 5 to 11 centimeters long, with coarse and doubly-toothed margins, and with a blunt or pointed tip. Flowers are pinkish-purple, crowded and borne in hairy, terminal, axillary spikes 2 to 8 centimeters long, 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Calyx is about 6 millimeters long. Corolla is 8 millimeters long, with obtuse lobes.

- Found in Cagayan, Bontoc, Rizal, Pampanga and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Leyte, occasionally planted in gardens, and occurring also on steep talus slopes in areas remote from settlements.
- Generally cultivated in tropical Asia and Malaya.

- Leaves yield a volatile oil, 6-10%.
- Patchouli oil contains patchouli alcohol Patchouli camphor), cadinene, coerulein, benzaldehyde and eugenol.
- Important components of the essential oil are patchoulol and norpatchoulenol.
- Study of essential oil yielded 11 compounds, including α- and ß-patchoulene, patchouli alcohol (patchoulol), ß-caryophyllene, α-guaiene, seychellene and selinene. (9)
- GC-MS hydrodistillation study of leaves for essential oil on yielded 22 compounds with18 sesquiterpenes and three oxygenated sesquiterpenes.
Among these patchouli alcohol (60.30 %) was the major component, followed by germacrene A (11.73 %). (7)
- Study of aerial parts yielded 13 compounds: patchouli alcohol (1), pogostone (2), friedelin (3), epifriedelinol (4), oleanolic acid (5), methyl oleanolate (6), 5alpha-stigmast-3,6-dione (7), stigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), beta-sitosterol (9), pachypodol (10), retusin (11), (-)-guaiacylglycerol (12) and dibutyl phthalate (13). (16)
-Study of leaves, a water extract showed highest total phenolic content with 116.88 ± 0.48 mg GAE/g dry plant extract. An ethanolic extract yielded highest total flavonoid content with 280.12 ± 2.04 mg QE/ g dry plant extract. (see study below) (18)
- GC-FID and GC-MS studies evaluated leaves, inflorescence, whole aerial parts and root of patchouli for essential oils. Altogether 34 constituents were identified representing 86.9-97.7% of the total oil compositions. Major constituent of oil from aerial parts (leaves, inflorescence, and whole aerial parts) were patchouli alcohol (42.2–57.7%), α-bulnesene (9.0–15.2%), α-guaiene (6.4–17.9%), seychellene (3.4–6.9%), pogostol (0.3–5.0%) and (E)-caryophyllene (2.1–3.6%). the root oil yielded higher amount of pogostone (70.2%), norpatchoulenol (5.3%) and β-pinene (4.5%). (19)
- In a study evaluating the major sesquiterpenes in essential oil of three different parts (leaves, stems, and roots), GCMA analysis yielded 12 sesquiterpenes. Patchouli alcohol (37.54%-51.02% in leaves, 28.24-41.96% in stems, and 14.55%-35.12% i roots) was the major sesquiterpene during maturation o f the plant. Other sesquiterpenes (α-bulnesene, α-guaiene, seychellene, ß-humulene, and yophyllene) were higher than 3% among leaves, stems, and roots. (23)
- Activity guided study of acetone extract of P. cablin isolated three new sesquiterpene hydroperoxides (1-3), with known sesquiterpene, patchouli alcohol (3). (see study below) (30)

- Antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, carminative, insecticidal, stimulant, and emmenagogue.
- The oil may have antibactericidal activity and pogostone may have antibacterial and antifungal activities.
- Components eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde have insecticidal activity.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, mosquito repellent, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, analgesic, anti-platelet aggregation properties.

Parts used
Leaves, flowering spikes, roots.

- Oil used as ingredient in foods and beverages.
- In the Philippines, leaves and tops are used as insecticide - as a repellent of cockroaches, moths, ants, etc.
- For arthritis and rheumatism, crushed leaves are applied on affected parts.
- Infusion of fresh leaves for given for dysmenorrhea; also as emmenagogue.
Infusion of leaves, dried tops or roots used for scanty urination.
- Leaves and tops employed in baths; used for antirheumatic action.
- In India, infusion of leaves, flowering spikes or dried tops and root used as diuretic and carminative; used with Ocimum sanctum for scanty urine and biliousness. This infusion is reported to occasionally cause loss of appetite and sleep, and nervous attacks.
- In Malaysia and Japan, has been used as antidote for venomous snake and insect bites.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used for colds, fever, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain, to stimulate the appetite.
- In Uruguay, infusion of leaves used for nervous troubles; roots considered stimulant.
- In traditional Asian folk medicine, patchouli oil used for the treatment of dandruff, skin irritation and dryness, acne, and eczema.
- Repellent: Leaves and tops used as insecticide repellent for cockroaches, moths, ants, etc. Juice of leaves rubbed on hands and feet for climbing mountains to repel leeches (limatiks).
- Hair: Leaves used with gogo for washing hair. Also, used as hair conditioner for dreadlocks.
- Smoking: In India, used as ingredient in tobacco smoking.
- Patchoui oil / Fragrant scent: Patchouli fragrant oil is an ingredient in cosmetic and perfumes, shampoos, toilet soaps, household cleaners and detergents. It is an ingredient in Asian incense. During the hippie decades of the 80s and 90s, there was a surge in the commerce of oil and incense.
- Aromatherapy: Used in aromatherapy for its calming effect.

ROS-scavenger / Effect on ROS-Induced Neuroglial Cell Injury: Pogostemon cablin effectively protected human neuroglioma cell line A172 against both necrotic and apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Results suggests beneficial effects of PC on ROS-induced neuroglial cell injury possibly as a ROS-scavenger. (1)
Antimutagenic: Study of methanol extract of P cablin showed suppressive effects against the mutagen furylfuramide, Trp-P-1, and activated Trp-P-1. Test isolated suppressive compounds (7,4'-di-O-methyleriodictyol among others) plus three flavonoids, mobuine, pachypodol and kumatekenin. (2)
Comparative Mosquito Repellent: Study of the mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants against Aedes aegypti on human subjects showed the undiluted oil of patchouli, together with citronella, clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and makaen (Zanthoxylum limonella), to be effected in providing 2 hr of complete repellency. (3)
H Influenza Adhesion Inhibition: Study has shown inhibition of H Influenza on oropharyngeal cells to be inhibited by aqueous extracts of P cablin and A rugosa; a mixture also effective in preventing otitis media and sore throat. (4)
Anti-Platelet Aggregation / A-bulnesene: Study isolated a-bulnesene, a sesquiterpene from the water extract of P cablin. It showed a potent and concentration-dependent effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF) and arachidonic acid (AA) induced rabbit platelet aggregation; a first study demonstrating a-bulnesene as a PAF-receptor antagonist and anti-platelet aggregation agent.
Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of methanol extract of Pogostemon cablin demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting its use in traditional medicine. (8)
Insecticidal and Repellency Activity Against Urban Ants / Patchouli Essential Oil : Study of analyzed the bioinsecticidal activity and repellence of patchouli essential against three urban ant species. Results showed strong repellency to the three species in all tested concentrations. (10)
Immunomodulatory / Patchouli Alcohol: Patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene constituent, isolated from P. cablin was investigated for immunomodulatory potential in Kunming mice. Results showed PA has significant immunomodulatory properties probably acting by activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system, augmenting humoral immune response while suppressing cellular immune response. (12)
Pupicidal and Repellent / Human Vector Mosquitoes: Study evaluated the repellent and pupicidal activities of P. cablin for toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Study yielded 15 chemical constituents in the essential oil with major components of α-patchoulene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. Results showed repellent and pupicidal activities with potential as an eco-friendly alternative for mosquito control. (13)
Suppression of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study evaluated a water extract of PC for effects in bowel inflammation. Results showed effective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α induced adhesion of monocytes to HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. It suppressed clinical signs of colitis in a trinitrobenze sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of IBD. Results suggest, PCW suppressed colon inflammation via suppression of NF-kB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (14)
Comparative Antibacterial Activity: Study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Aqueous and organic (hexane, ethanol, and methanol) extracts from Patchouli and Geranium showed significant growth inhibition for E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, and E. aerogenes. (17)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antiicrobial activities of leaves from P. cablin extracts. Ethanolic extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity with IC50=18 ± 0.90, 20 ± 0.24 µg/ml by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays, respectively. Both extracts showed moderate inhibition of superoxide and nitric oxide production in a concentration dependent manner. The ethanolic extract also showed greatest activity against MRSA, methicillin sensitive S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. (see constituents above) (18)
Sedative / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the sedative effects of hexane extract of P. cablin using locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of hexane extract exhibited significant sedative activity in a dose-dependent manner. On extract fractionation, diacetone alcohol was identified as an active compound. Inhalation of the diacetone alcohol significantly reduced murine locomotor activity in a dose dependent manner; an effect not observed in olfaction-impaired mice. (20)
Amelioration of Ethanol-Induced Acute Liver Injury / Leaf Essential Oil: Excessive alcohol consumption can cause serious hepatic injury associated with oxidative stress and fatty metabolic disturbance. Study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of patchouli leaf oil on ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model. Results showed PO treatment could dramatically decrease the levels of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH in serum along with improvement in histopathologic alterations. There was also reduction of ROS, TNF-a, free fatty acid, and triglycerides along with enhanced activities of GSH, GR, and SOD. Study concludes the PO has potent effect against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity by relieving oxidative stress and preventing lipid peroxidation. (24)
Microwave Hydrodistillation / Essential Oil Extraction / Leaves: Study reports on the extraction of patchouli oil with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and studied the effect of microwave power on the yield of patchouli oil and the kinetics during the extraction process. Results showed operation time for MAHD was shorter compared to classical HD. Higher yield results from higher extraction rats by microwave and could be sue to synergy of two transfer phenomenon: mass and heat-acting in the same way. (25)
Effect of Moisture Content on Recovery of Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of moisture content of Patchouli plants o recovery percentage of essential oil. Results showed drying up to 15% moisture content was optimum for extraction of EO. The extracted EO samples exhibited values of physico-chemical parameters in the standard permissible range of patchouli oil. (26)
Antifungal / Candida tropicalis Strains / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin essential oil exhibited strong fungicidal activity against strains of Candida tropicalis. Further studies were suggested to elucidate mechanisms and standards of efficiency and effectiveness. (27)
Protective on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury / Patchouli Alcohol: Patchouli alcohol is a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from P. cablin, which has shown anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and cognitive-enhancing bioactivities. Study investigated the protective effects of PA on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Pretreatment with PA significantly increased survival rate, attenuated histopathologic damage and lung edema and decreased the protein content in the BAL fluid of mice with ALI. The PA also inhibited expression of pro inflammatory cytokines. The potent protective effects were attributed to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of PA.     (28)
Toxicity and Repellency / Anti-Termite / Patchouli Oil and Patchouli Alcohol: Study evaluated the repellency and toxicity of patchouli oil and its main constituent, patchouli alcohol, against Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Both were found toxic and repellent. Unusual destruction was noted inside the exoskeleton of the termite when patchouli alcohol was topically applied.
Trypanocidal / New Sesquiterpene Hydroperoxides: Activity guided study of acetone extract of P. cablin isolated three new sesquiterpene hydroperoxides (1-3), with known sesquiterpene, patchouli alcohol (3). In vitro minimum lethal concentrations of 1-3 against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were 0.84 microM, 1.7 microM, and 1.7 microM, respectively. The activity of corresponding alcohols and patchouli alcohol were very weak (MLC >200 microM). (30)

Safety info
- Safe in amounts in foods.
- Maximum allowed for food use: 0.0002%.
- Animal data shows no toxic effect on short-term use.

Patchouli oil in the cybermarket.

Updated April 2020 / August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William Brown and Arthur Fisher / Figure 72 / Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli or Kablin) THE SOURCE OF PATCHOULI OIL / 1920
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pogostemon cablin / File:Pogostemon cablin 001.jpg /17 juin 2006 / Vieux jardin botanique de Göttingen / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. 1848 - Patschuli - Patchouly [Bildquelle: Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany. -- London. -- Vol 1 (1849), Pl. 11.] / / Payer
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. 1848 - Patschuli - Patchouly / Payer

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Pogostemon cablin as ROS Scavenger in Oxidant-induced Cell Death of Human Neuroglioma Cells / Hyung Woo Kim, Su Jin Cho, Bu-Yeo Kim, Su In Cho and Young Kyun Kim /Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 June; 7(2): 239–247 / doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem176
Antimutagenic Activity of Flavonoids from Pogostemon cablin / Mitsuo Miyazawa, Yoshiharu Okuno, Sei-ichi Nakamura, and Hiroshi Kosaka / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48 (3), pp 642–647
DOI: 10.1021/jf990160y
Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. / Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasorn C./ Phytother Res. 2005 Apilr; 19(4): pp 303-309 /
PMID:16041723 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1637
Pogostemon cablin extract for inhibiting H. influenzae adhesion and treating otitis media or sore throat / FreePatentOnLine
Patchouli / Wikipedia
α-Bulnesene, a novel PAF receptor antagonist isolated from Pogostemon cablin / Hui-Chun Hsua, Wen-Chia Yang et al / Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications / Vol 345, Issue 3, 7 July 2006, Pages 1033-1038 /doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.05.006
Chemical Constituents from Leaves and Cell Cultures of Pogostemon cablin and Use of Precursor Feeding to Improve Patchouli Alcohol Level / Supawan Bunrathep et al / ScienceAsia 2006;:
32: pp 293-296 / doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2006.32.293
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Extract from Pogostemon cablin / Tsung-Chun Lu et al / eCAM, Volume 2011 (2011) / doi:10.1093/ecam/nep183
Composition and Comparison of Essential Oils of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli) and Pogostemon travancoricus Bedd. var. travancoricus / Sundaresan et al / Journal of Essential Oil Research
Vol. 21, May/June 2009
Insecticidal and repellence activity of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin against urban ants species. /
Albuquerque EL, Lima JK, Souza FH, Silva IM, Santos AA, Araújo AP, Blank AF, Lima RN, Alves PB, Bacci L. / Acta Trop. 2013 Sep;127(3):181-6. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.04.011. Epub 2013 Apr 30
Pogostemon cablin / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED .

Immunomodulatory Potential of Patchouli Alcohol Isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth (Lamiaceae) in Mice / Jin Bin Liao, Dian Wei Wu, Shao Zhong Peng, Jian Hui Xie, Yu Cui Li, Ji
Yan Su, Jian Nan Chen* and Zi Ren Su* / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2013; 12 (4): 559-565
Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes / Gokulakrishnan J, Elumalai Kuppusamy, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam, Anandan Appavu, Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthi / Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2013; 3(1): 26-31
Protective effects of Pogostemon cablin Bentham water extract on inflammatory cytokine expression in TNBS-induced colitis in rats / Su-Young Park, Ganesh Prasad Neupane, Sung Ok Lee, Jong Suk Lee, Mi-Young Kim, Sun Yeou Kim, Byung Chul Park, Young-Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim / Archives of Pharmacal Research, February 2014, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 253-262
Pogostemon cablin / Synonyms / The Plant List
Study on constituents of the aerial parts of Pogostemon cablin
/ Zhou QM, Peng C, Li XH, Guo L, Xiong L, Lin DS / Zhong Yao Cai. 2013 Jun;36(6):915-8.
Comparitive studies on antibacterial activity of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth] and Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) aromatic medicinal plants / Chakrapani Pullagummi, Nirmala Babu Rao, B. Chandra Sekhar Singh, Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, Prem Kumar, Venkatesh K and Anupalli Roja Rani / African Journal of Biotechnology, 4 June 2014; 13(23): pp 2379-2384 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB12.1369
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. / Bhanuz Dechayont, Pimnapa Ruamdee, Sukrita Poonnaimuang, Khwanchanok Mokmued, and Jitpisute Chunthorng-Orn / Journal of Botany, Volume 2017 /  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8310275
Chemical composition of leaves, inflorescence, whole aerial-parts and root essential oils of patchouli {Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.) / Ram Swaroop Verma, Rajendra Chandra Palalia Amit Chauhan and Ved Ram Singh / Journal of Essential Oil Research, 2019; 31(4) / https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2019.1566100
Sedative effects of inhaled essential oil components of traditional fragrance Pogostemon cablin leaves and their structure–activity relationships / Ken Ito, Shuji Kaneko et l / Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, April 2016; 6(2): pp 140-145 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.01.004
Patchouli Oil: The History, Benefits, Uses and More! / New Directions: Aromatic Blog
Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae): It’s Ethnobotany & in vitro regeneration / Pratibha Sharma & Jintu Sarma / PHCOG J, May-June 2015; 7(3)
Dynamic accumulation of sesquiterpenes in essential oil of  Pogostemon cablin / Ying Chen, You-Gen Wu, Yan Xu, Jun-Feng Zhang, Xi-Qiang Song, Guo-Peng Zhu, Xin-Wen Hu  / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.24 no.6 Curitiba Oct./Dec. 2014 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2014.11.001 
Patchouli oil isolated from the leaves of Pogostemon cablin ameliorates ethanol-induced acute liver injury in rats via inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation  / Qiong-Hui Huang, Xue Wu, Xiao-Hong Chen et al / RSC Advances, 2018; Issue 43
Microwave-assisted Hydrodistillation for Extraction of Essential Oil from Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) Leaves / Heri Septya Kusuma, Mahfud Mahfud / Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 2017; 61(2): pp 82-92 / https://doi.org/10.3311/PPch.8676
Study on the Effect of Moisture Content of Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) Plants on Recovery Percentage of Essential Oil / Deepak Parganiha, S. Patel, R K Naik, D Khokhar, N K Mishra / International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, Mardh 2016; 5(3)
Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Pogostemon cablin (Lamiaceae) against Candida tropicalis Strains / Joyce Natielle Miranda Cavalcante, Daniele de Sousa Siqueira, Jose Lucas Soares Ferreira et al / IJPPR: International Journa of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Research, Sept 2018; 13(2)
Protective effects of patchouli alcohol isolated from Pogostemon cablin on lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute lung injury in mice / Zuqing Su, Jinbin Liao, Yuhong Liu et al / Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2015 / https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2918
Toxicity and Repellency of Patchouli Oil and Patchouli Alcohol against Formosan Subterranean Termites  Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera:  Rhinotermitidae) / Betty C R Zhu, Gregg Henderson, Ying Yu, Roger A Laine / J. Agric. Food Chem, 2003; 51(16): pp 4585-4588 / https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0301495

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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