HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Compositae
Centipeda minima (Linn.) A. Br. & Asch.
Qiu zi cao

Scientific names Common names
Artemisia minima L. Harangan (Tag., Bis.)
Artemisia orbicularis (Lour.) Roxb. Pisik (Bis.)
Artemisia stemutatoria Roxb. Sneeze weed (Engl.)
Artemisia sternutatoria Roxb. Sneeze wort (Engl.)
Centipeda minima (Linn.) A. Br. & Asch. Spreading sneeze weed (Engl.)
Centipeda minuta (Less.) C.B. Clarke.  
Centipeda minuta (G.Forst.) Benth.  
Centipeda orbicularis Lour. [Illegitimate]  
Centipeda minuta G.Forst.  
Myriogyne minuta (G.Forst.) Less.  
Centipeda minima (L.) A.Braun & Asch. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Shi hu sui, Qui zi cao.
JAPANESE: To-kin sou.
SANSKRIT: Chikkika, tikshna, ghrandukhahda, chhikkani, kashvakrit, mecheta.
THAILAND: Krataai chan, yaa krachaam, mueat lot.
VIETNAM: C[us]c m[awr]n, c[os]c m[awr]n, c[or] the.

Harañgan is a prostrate or ascending, slender, leafy herb, somewhat woolly or nearly smooth, with numerous branches spreading from the root, and 8 to 20 centimeters long. Leaves are oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, 1 centimeter long or less, and with few coarse teeth on the margins. Heads are stalkless, rounded, 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, many flowered, and borne singly in the axils of the leaves. Achenes are about 1 millimeter long, tipped with the persistent style, and bristly on the angles.

- In open waste places, rice paddies, etc. at low and medium altitudes.
- In Cagayan, Nueva Viscaya, Pampanga, Rizal and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Lanao, Mindanao.
- Also reported from eastern Asia to China through Malaya to tropical Australia.

• Yields an amorphous volatile oil and a bitter principle, myriogynin.
• Contains an alkaloid, a glucoside and traces of saponin.

Study yielded three antibacterial sesquiterpene lactones, identified as 6-O-methylacrylylplenolin, 6-O-isobutyroylplenolin, and 6-O-angeloylplenolin. (see study below) (1)
• Study yielded
two monoterpedoids together with five known thymol derivatives. (Link)
• Study isolated ten compounds, (-)-cis-chrysanthenol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, methy 3,5-dicaffeoylquinate, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinicacid, tricin, 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoicacid, 2-amino-3-phenyl-propionic acid, 4-amino-4-carboxychroman-2-one, brevilin-A, arnicolide C, arnicolide D. (10)
• Study for volatile constituents yielded forty-one compounds. Major constituents were: trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (42.18%), 4,4-trimethyl -bicyclo [3.2.0] hept-6-en-2-ol (6.85%), caryophyllene oxide (4.42%), 2-(2-furanylmethyl)-5 -methyl-furan (3.76%), hexadecanoic acid (3.55%), 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol (3.53%), propanoic acid 2,3,7-trimethyl -2,6-octadienyl ester (2.97%), 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (2.93%), thymol (2.88%) and α-humulene (2.29%).
• Study isolated four triterpenoid saponins from the whole plant: 1α,3β,19α, 23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid-28-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, 1β,2α,3β,19α,23-pentahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid-28-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, 3α,21α,22α, 28-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-β-d-xylopyranoside and 3α,16α,21α,22α,28-pentahydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-β-d-xylopyranoside. (23)

• Considered anodyne, antiphlogistic, anticontusion, antitussive, diuretic, depurative, antiinfectious, antirheumatic.
• Pungent-warming, clears out nose, ear cavity, invigorates blood circulation, relieves gastrointestinal disorders.
• Studies have shown antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoal, anti-asthmatic, molluscicidal, antihistaminic, anti-ulcer, antioxidant properties.

• Plant has been reported to cause poisoning in livestock.

Parts utilized
Entire plant.

• In the Philippines, squeezed between the fingers and inhaled, clearing the head by provoking sneezing.
• Used for rheumatic lumbar and leg pains.
• Powdered herb and minute seeds used as sternutatory.
• Infusion of plant used for purulent ophthalmia.
• Used as hot and dry medicine for paralysis, joint pains and worms.
• Ointment made dried pulverized material with camphor or yerba buena (Mentha arvensis) to make a 10% valenine ointment, applied to the nose for rhinitis.
• Sprains, bone fractures, poisonous snake bites, furuncle.
• Dosage: use 3 to 9 gms dried material or 9 to 15 gms fresh material in decoction.
• Poultice used for sprains, contusions and snake bites.
• In India, used as snuff for treatment of head colds.
• The Mundas of Chota Nagpur sniff the crushed plant for fevers and colds. In Punjab, herb is boiled to a pasted and applied to the cheeks for toothache.
• In Nepal, used to treat sinus infections.
• In China, used for nasopharyngeal cancers. Also, the plant used as a kind of snuff for ophthalmia, causing the eyes to water. Plant decoction used for treatment of paralysis, malaria, joint pains.

Sesquiterpene Lactones / Antibacterial: Study yielded three antibacterial sesquiterpene lactones, which showed activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staph aureus.
(see constituents above) (1)
Antibacterial / Thymol: Study isolated two new monoterpenoids with five known thymol derivatives. All the agents tested exhibited antibacterial effects against all the bacteria investigated. Thymol, as a component of volatile oils, has been shown to possess antimicrobial activities. Results suggest C. minima could be a potential source for antibacterial substances for food preservation. (7)
Antimicrobial / Chemical Composition:
Study showed the extract to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested strains, esp Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staph aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Twenty three compounds were identified. Results show the extract to be a good antimicrobial agent with a potential for public health applications.
Allergic Rhinitis: Treatment with active extract in in an allergic-rhinitic animal model induced by ragweed pollen showed significantly decreased pathologic changes, with decreased infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells in the connective tissue. Results conclude that Cm is effective in treating allergic rhinitis. (3)
Anti-Inflammatory / Induced Pleural Effusion: Study showed the volatile oil of Centipeda minima to have a protective effect on acute pleural effusion in rats induced by an intrapleural injection of Car. (4)
Sesquiterpene Lactone: Brevilin A / Anti-Protozoal: Study isolated a sesquiterpene lactone, brevilin A, which was found to have antigiardial activity and similarly active in vitro against Entamoeba histolytica and against Plasmodium falcifarum. Three flavonoids were isolated: quercetin, quercetin 3-methyl ether and kaempferol 7-glucosylrhamnoside.
Antiproliferative / Florilenalin / Nasopharyngeal CA: Study isolated a sesquiterpene lactone, IF (2B-(isobutylryloxy)florilenalin that showed a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the growth of human nasophayngeal carcinoma epithelial cells. Overall, Cm showed potent antiproliferative effect on NPC cells and suggests further investigation of its medicinal potential. (6)
Antiasthmatic: Study on the essential oil of Centipeda minima showed a good therapeutic effect with significant prolongation asthma latency and gasping on a guinea pig model of spray-induced asthma. (8)
Molluscicidal Effect: Study of water and ethanol extracts against Oncomelania hupensis showed a molluscicidal effect, the aqueous extract higher than the ethanol extract. The main components were sesquiterpenes lactones and sterols. (9)
Antiproliferative / Volatile Oils: Study showed that SFE oil induced CNE cell death via induction of apoptosis by regulating expression of the Bci-2 family of proteins, with consequent mitochondrial dysfunction. Results provided strong evidence for the anti-NPC potential of the SPE oil from C. minima. (12)
Antiproliferative Effect: In this study, the n-hexane fraction showed broad spectrum of inhibitory effects on five human cancer cell lines, including breast CA MCF7 cells, prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells, nasopharyngeal CA CNE cells, and the acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated. (15)
Antihistaminic / Antiulcer: Hydroalcoholic extract of bark demonstrated antihistaminic activity with a concentration-dependent inhibition of histamine-induced contractile response on guinea pig ileum. Various fractions also showed significant ulcer protective effect with inhibition of ulcer index. (16)
New Sesquiterpene Lactones / Minimolides G and H / Anti-Human Nasapharyngeal Cancer Cell Line: Study isolated two new sesquiterpene lactones, minimolides G and H. Both exhibited activity against human nasopharyngeal cancer cell line. (17)
Antibacterial Sesquiterpenoids: Study yielded two new guiaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, with three known guaianolide- or psedoguaianolides from C. minima whole plant. All the compounds were found active against eight different microbial pathogens. (18)
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: An aqueous extract exhibited antioxidant in the TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging assays and anti-inflammatory activity with concentration dependent inhibition of paw edema after Carr treatment in mice. (19)
6-O-angeloylplenolin . Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells: 6-OAP was previously showed to inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma cells through mitotic arrest. Study evaluated the level of apoptosis in dexamethasone-sensitive, dexamethasome-resistant, and chemotherapy sensitive myeloma cell lines. 6-OAP-induced apoptosis showed to be caspase-dependent. (20)
• Anti-Cancer / Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Study evaluated the anticancer activities of Centipeda minima ethanol extracts (CME) against nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-1. Results showed significant inhibition of proliferation of CNE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. (22)
• Potential Use in Anaphylaxis: Several studies have suggested that medicinal plants traditionally used in Asia to prevent allergic reactions may help prevent anaphylaxis in animal studies. One such herbal medicinal plant is Centipeda minima, which contains flavonoids and used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for its anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effects. (24)
• Anti-Angiogenic / Sesquiterpene Lactones: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of Centipeda minima and its four fractions for anti-angiogenic activity in a wild-type zebrafish model. Fifteen sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from the SFE oil. Results showed C. minima possesses anti-angiogenic activity, and 6-O-angeloylenolin is a promising candidate for the development of an anti-angiogenic agent. (25)
• 6-O-Angeloylplenolin / Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Multiple Myeloma Cells: Study has previously demonstrated that sesquiterpene lactone 6-OAP inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma cells through mitotic arrest with accumulated cyclin B1. This study demonstrated that 6-OAP induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in myeloma cells. 6-OAP induces growth inhibition in human MM cells through various mechanisms, including the arrest of mitosis and the inhibition of certain signaling pathways, which lead to caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. (26)

Extracts and supplements in the cybermarket.

Last Update January 2017

IMAGE SOURCE: CLOSEUP --FLOWER / File:Centipeda minima 3.JPG / Dalgial / 16 September 2009 / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Centipeda minima in Bupyung, Korea / File:Centipeda minima.JPG / Dalgial / September 2009 / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikispecies

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Antibacterial constituents of the Nepalese medicinal herb, Centipeda minima
/ Taylor RS , Towers GH /
Phytochemistry, 1998, 47(4):631-634 / DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00534-7
Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of the Centipeda minima (Asteraceae) / Soetardjo, Surjani et al / Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 13 (1). pp. 81-87, 2007
Histopathological study on allergic rhinitis treated with Centipeda minima / Liu ZG, Yu HM, Wen SL, Liu YL. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Feb;30(4):292-4 /
Effects of the volatile oil of Centipeda minima on acute pleural effusion in rats induced by an intrapleural injection of car / Qin RA, Mei X, Wan L, Shi JL, Shen YJ. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Aug;30(15):1192-4.
Antiprotozoal activities of Centipeda minima / H. W. Yu et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 8 Issue 7, Pages 436 - 438 / (DOI) 10.1002/ptr.2650080713
2B-(Isobutyryloxy)florilenalin, a Sesquiterpene Lactone Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Centipeda minima, Induces Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma CNE Cells / Miaoxian Su et al / Molecules 2009, 14(6), 2135-2146; doi:10.3390/molecules1406213
Antibacterial Thymol Derivatives Isolated from Centipeda minima
/ Hengxing Liang et al / Molecules 2007, 12, 1606-1613
Study on the Antiasthmatic Effects of Essential Oil from Centipeda minima / Chen Qiang, Zhou Chunquan et al / Chinese Journal of Modern Applied Pharmacy, 2010-06 / DOI: CNKI:SUN:XDYD.0.2010-06-004
Preliminary study on molluscicidal effect of active components from Centipeda minima / Ni H1, Ma AN, Zhang Y, Geng P. / Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009 Aug;27(4):377-8
Chemical constituents from Centipeda minima / Pu S, Guo Y, Gao W. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009 Jun;34(12):1520-2.
Antiproliferative Effect of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Centipeda minima
/ Miaoxian Su / ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009 / Udini
Antiproliferative effects of volatile oils from Centipeda minima on human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells /
Su M, Wu P, Li Y, Chung HY. / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Jan;5(1):151-6.
Centipeda minima (L.) A. Br. & Asch. / Vernacular names / GLOBin MED
/ Journal of South China Normal University (Natural 2011, Vol. 0 Issue (2) / journal.scnu.edu.cn:8080/jwk_xbzrb/EN/
Antiproliferative Effect of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Centipeda minima
/ Miaoxian Su / ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 2009 / Udini / Proquest
Hydroalcoholic extract of Centipida Minima Linn and its chloroform fractions possess significant antihistaminic activity / Singh Rajbir *, Bhandari Anil, Sangwan P L, Katewa Jitesh / Novel Science International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science (2012), 1(4):200-203
Two new sesquiterpene lactones from the supercritical fluid extract of Centipeda minima
/ Journal of Asian natural products research / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2012.670222
Two New Antibacterial Sesquiterpenoids from Centipeda minima
/ Heng-Xing Liang, Fu-Kai Bao, Xiao-Ping Dong Hua-Jie Zhu*, Xiao-Jie Lu, Ming Shi, Qing Lu, and Yong-Xian Cheng* / CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY – Vol. 4 (2007)
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aqueous Extract of Centipeda minima. / Shyh-Shyun Huang; Chuan-Sung Chiu; Tsung-Hui Lin; Min-Min Lee; Chao-Ying Lee; Shu-Jen Chang; Wen-Chi Hou; Guan-Jhong Huang; Jeng-Shyan Deng / Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2013 Mar
Small compound 6‑O‑angeloylplenolin induces caspase‑dependent apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells / Ying Liu, Ying Dong, Bo Zhang, Yong‑Xian Cheng / Oncology Letters / DOI: 10.3892/ol.2013.1370
Centipeda minima / Synonyms / The Plant List
Centipeda minima (Ebushicao) extract inhibits PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells / Guo YQ, Sun HY, Chan CO, Liu BB, Wu JH, Chan SW, Mok DK, Tse AK, Yu ZL, Chen SB /
Chin Med. 2015 Sep 18;10:26. / doi: 10.1186/s13020-015-0058-5.
Triterpenoid saponins from Centipeda minima / Dipti Gupta, J. Singh / Phytochemistry, Volume 28, Issue 4, 1989, Pages 1197-1201
Centipeda minima: Anaphylaxis / University of Maryland Medical Center
Anti-angiogenic Activity and Mechanism of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Centipeda minima. / Huang W, Yu X, Liang N, Ge W, Kwok HF, Lau CB, Li Y, Chung HY. / Nat Prod Commun. 2016 Apr;11(4):435-8.
Small compound 6‑O‑angeloylplenolin induces caspase‑dependent apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells / Ying Liu, Ying Dong, Bo Zhang, Yong‑Xian Cheng / Oncology Letters, Vol 6, Issue 2, August 2013 / DOI: 10.3892/ol.2013.1370

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL