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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham

Jiu wei yi zhi hao

Scientific names Common names
Ajuga alba (Gürke) Robyns Bracted bugleweed (Engl.)
Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth     [Illegitimate] Blue bugle (Engl.)
Ajuga crenata Chiov. Bungle (Engl.)
Ajuga densiflora Wall. ex Benth Small-flowered bugleweed (Engl.)
Ajuga hyosciami Wall. ex Benth  
Ajuga integrifolia Buch-Ham.  
Ajuga remota Benth.  
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AMHARIC: Anamuro.
CHINESE: Jiu wei yi zhi hao.
ETHIOPIA: Armagusa.
INDIA: Neelkanthi, Nilkanthi, Kanasar.
KASHMIR: Jan-i-adam.
KENYA: Imbusi yo mtakha.
SIDAMA: Anamuro.

Ajuga is a genus of about 40-50 species of annual and perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the mint family Lamiaceae.

Ajuga integrifolia is a low herb covered with soft hairs, with erect, ascending stems which arise from the rootstock, branching usually diffusely from the base and measuring 10 to 20 centimeters in length. Leaves are oblanceolate or subspatulate, 2.5 to 10 centimeters long, and 1 to 3.5 centimeters wide; the lower ones are stalked; the upper ones are stalkless and sinuate-toothed or nearly entire. Calyx is hairy, with ovate-lanceolate teeth. Corolla is pale blue or white and hairy; the tube is rarely twice as long as the calyx; the upper lip is erect and 2-fed; the side lobes or lower lobes are oblong, and the midlobe is dilated and variable in length. Stamens protrude from the upper lip. Nutlets are ellipsoid and very small.

- Found in Benguet, Bontoc, and Cavite Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindanao.
- Mainly in ravines, and sometimes in open cultivated areas, at an altitude of 600 to 1,700 meters.
- Also occurs in East Asia - Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, China and Malaysia.

- Leaves have yielded glycoside, tannin, ceryl alcohol, and cerotic acid.
- Plant yields phytoecdysteroids, iridoid glycosides, sterols, withanolids (bracteosin A, B, and C), neo-clerodane diterpenoids. Roots have yielded steroids, palmitic acid, and heptacos-3-en-25-one. Roots yield comparatively large amounts of potassium (159 mg/100 g) compared to leaves (139 mg/100 g)   (19)
- Yields glycosides, tannin, ceryl alcohol, ß-sitosterol, y-sitosterol, cerotic acid, palmitic acid, oleic and linoleic acid, glucose, arabinose, phenolic bitter compounds.
- Study of the whole plant yielded five compounds including a new clerodane diterpenoid designated Bracteolin-A. The other compounds were a hydroxy ajugapitin, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol.

- A dichlormethane extract yielded both clerodin- and dihydroclerodin-type diterpenes - ajubractins A-D, along with clerodin, 3-epi-car- yoptin, ajugapitin, 14,15-dihydroclerodin, 3-epi- 14,15-dihydrocaryoptin, ivain II , and 14,15-dihydroajugapitin.
- Phytochemical screening of crude extracts obtained from dried ground roots yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, and steroids. Chromatographic separation from dichlormethane/methanol (1:1) extract isolated two compounds, DB6 and DB4. (21)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts of leaves yielded phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids. (see study below) (26)

- Leaves have a peculiar resinous color and bitter taste.
- Considered stimulant, diuretic, depurative, and aperient.
- Plant considered aromatic, astringent, and tonic.


- Unknown medicinally in the Philippines.
- Elsewhere, given for rheumatism, gout, palsy and amenorrhea.
- Used to kill lice.
- Juice of leaves used as blood purifier.
- Powdered leaves used for burns and boils.
- Juice roots used for diarrhea and dysentery.
- A bitter astringent, substituted for Cinchona in the treatment of fevers.
- Considered depurative, and an aromatic tonic especially useful in ague.
- Leaves used for fevers as a substitute for quinine.
- In Ayurveda, used in treatment of rheumatism, gout, palsy, and amenorrhea. (11)
- In Pakistan, plant decoction used for fever, kidney pain, and as cooling agent. Plant also used as stimulant, diuretic and aperient. Smoke from burning plant is considered an insect repellent. (12)
- Extracts used for swollen wounds, insect bites, eye problems, bladder afflictions, and also tumors.
- In
Ethiopia, whole plant water filtrate is drunk for diarrhea and jaundice. (15) Sidama people use leaves for gastritis. (16) The Oromo people of southwest Ethiopia use pounded leaves mixed with nut oil as oral treatment for epilepsy. (22) Used for the treatment of diabetes. (26)
- In
Kenya, cold infusion of leaves used for diarrhea and malaria; used for gastrointestinal afflictions associated with HIV. (17)
- In
Yemen, flowers and leaves used as antiseptic and for teeth pains.
- In India, root extract used as antidote for snake bites. (24)
- Perfumery: Plant is a new source of linalyl acetate, a valuable perfumery compound.
- Veterinary:
Leaves given for endoparasites. (27)

Aqueous extract of leaves showed diuretic activity on rats. An alkaloidal fraction isolated from the leaves showed stimulant action on isolated perfused frog heart, rabbit auricle and rat ventricle.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed the 70% ethanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa possesses promising anti-inflammatory activity, probably mediated through inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Results support its traditional used for inflammatory diseases. (1)
Antiplasmodial: Study to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of an ethanolic extract of A bracteosa in Plasmodium berghei infected mice demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of parasitemia and survival time during early and in established infections. (2)
Chemical Constituents / Enzyme Inhibition: Phytochemical study yielded Bractin A and bractin B, new sphingolipids, bractic acid, and a long-chain polyhydroxyl acid from the whole plant along with four known diterpenoids 4-7. Various activities displayed were inhibition of enzyme lipoxygenase, concentration-dependent inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. (3)
New Phthalic Acid Ester / Perfumery Source: Study yielded a new phthalic ester from the hexane extract of AB. Linalyl acetate was common in two oil fractions. The plant is a new source of linalyl acetate, a valuable perfumery compound. (4)
Anti-Feedant Activity / neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids: Study yielded different neo-clerodane diterpenoids from a dichlormethane extract. Antifeedant activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae was evaluated for the compounds obtained. (8)
Antimicrobial Activity: Ethanolic extract of leaves showed a dose-dependent chemosuppression during early and in established infections, along with significant repository activity.
Cardiotonic: Alkaloidal fraction showed cardiostimulant action on frog heart and rat ventricle. The activity was antagonized by dichlorisoprenaline, and may be due to liberation of catecholamine stores in the heart.
Antiarthritic: Study evaluated a 70% ethanolic extract against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde-induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results showed significant and promising antiarthritic activity and supports traditional use for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. (10)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of a methanolic extract of whole plant in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, egg albumin induced inflammation in rats. Extract doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg showed potent action compared with standard drug diclofenac sodium. (11)
Survey / Plants Used to Treat Malaria in Ethiopia: Survey documented 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families used by Sidama people of Boricha District, South Region of Ethiopia, calculating RFC (relative frequency of citation) and preference ranking. Leaf was the dominant (59.0%) part of the plant used in preparation and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). (14)
• Antimalarial: Study evaluated in vivo activity of crude water extracts of Ajuga remota Benth against Plasmodium berghei in mice. A wet leaf extract was most effective with 90.4% suppression of parasitemia. Extracts of air-dried and powdered flowers were least effective with 17.2% suppression of parasitemia. (20)
• Antidiarrheal / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antidiarrheal activity of 80% methanol extract of aerial part of Ajuga remota in a castor oil diarrheal model in mice. Results showed dose-dependent and significant inhibition in both frequency and onset of diarrhea. The extract also inhibited the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in a dose dependent manner in both normal and castor oil induced intestinal transit. Results suggest the presence of pharmacologically activity substances with significant antimotility and antisecretory effects. (23)
• Inhibitory Against Dengue Virus Serotype-2: Study the inhibitory effects of five different fractions (extracted by methanol, ethanol, benzene, chloroform and n-hexane) of Rumex dentatus, Commelina benghalensis, Ajuga bracteosa and Ziziphus mauritiana, as well as their constituents (gallic acid, emodin, and isovanillic acid) against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). All the samples except for isovanillic acid exhibited significant prophylactic effects against DENV-2 infectivity (without cytotoxicity) when administered to cells before infection, but were not effective when give 6 hours post-infection. (25)
• Antidiabetic / Non-Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts of leaves of Ajuga remota on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The LD50 of both extracts were higher than 5000 mg/kg. At doses of 300 mg/kbw and 500 mg/kbw the aqueous extracts reduced blood glucose levels by 27.83 ± 2.96% and 38.98 ± 0.67% (p<0.001), respectively, while the ethanol extracts caused 27.94 ± 1.92% and 28.26 ± 1.82%, respectively. By comparison, glibenclamide (10 mg/kbw) reduced blood glucose level by 51.06% (p<0/05). (see constituents above) (26)


Updated December 2018 / July 2016

IMAGE LINK: Lamiaceae: Ajuga bracteosa / Copyright © 2008 by P. B. Pelser (contact: nickrent@plant.siu.edu) [ref. DOL9490 ] / click on image to go to source page /PhytoImages

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Anti-inflammatory effect of Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex Benth. mediated through cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition / Gautam R, Jachak SM, Saklani A / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Nov 10.
Antiplasmodial activity of Ajuga bracteosa against Plasmodium berghei infected BALB/c mice / Chandel S, Bagai U / Indian J Med Res. 2010 Mar;131:440-4.
Isolation and enzyme-inhibition studies of the chemical constituents from Ajuga bracteosa / Riaz N, Nawaz SA, Mukhtar N et al / Chem Biodivers. 2007 Jan;4(1):72-83.
A new phthalic acid ester from Ajuga bracteosa / Singh N, Mahmood U et al /
Nat Prod Res. 2006 May 20;20(6):593-7.
Positive inotropic action of an alkaloidal fraction from Ajuga bracteosa Well ex Benth / Patel DG, Gulati OD, Gokhale SD / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1962 Oct;6:224-30.
Clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga bracteosa Wall / Verma VH, Mahmood U, Singh B. / Nat Prod Lett. 2002 Aug;16(4):255-9.
Ajuga bracteosa / Plants For A Future
neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Ajuga bracteosa / Amaya Castro, Josep Coll, and Mohammad Arfan / Journal of Natural Products, 2011, 74, 1036–1041
AJUGA BRACTEOSA: A PROMISING HERB / Upadhyay S U, Patel V B, Patel A A, Upadhyay U M, Patel N M / www.pharmasm.com

Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats / Gaurav Kaithwas,* Raju Gautam, Sanjay M Jachak, and Arvind Saklani / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Mar 2012; 2(3): 185–188. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60039-2
Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ajuga bracteosaWall ex Benthmore / Raghunath Singh, S. M. Patil, Gagandeep Pal, Mumtaz Ahmad / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S404-S407
HERBAL RMIDIES USED FOR GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN KAGHAN VALLEY, NWFP, PAKISTAN / Samin Jan1, Mir Ajab Khan2, Siraj ud din, Waheed Murad, Manzoor Hussain and Aneela Ghani / Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 14(3-4): 169-200, 2008
Ajuga integrifolia / Synonyms / The Plant List
Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia / Solomon Asnake, Tilahun Teklehaymanot, Ariaya Hymete, Berhanu Erko, and Mirutse Giday / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2016 (2016) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9690164
Ethnopharmacology of single herbal preparations of medicinal plants in Asendabo district, Jimma, Ethiopia
/ Nayyar Parvez & Suman Yadav / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9 (04) Oct 2010, pp 724-729
Handbook of Sidama Traditional Medicinal Plants /
Heidi Busse, MPH and Girma Tefera, MD July 2013 / University of Wisconsin: School of Medicine and Public Health
Types of Herbal Medicine Used for HIV Conditions in Vihiga County, Kenya / Antony Omondi Radol*, Michael Kiptoo, A. O. Makokha and Festus M. Tolo / European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 13(2): 1-23, 2016
Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine / R. A. A. Mothana , R. Gruenert , P. J. Bednarski , U. Lindequist / Pharmazie 64 (2009) 4 / doi: 10.1691/ph.2009.8789
Bioprospecting Potential of Ajuga integrifolia for Access and Benefit Sharing / Reviewed by Amare Seifu / Sept 2017
In vivo antimalarial activity of Ajuga remota water extracts against Plasmodium berghei in mice. / Gitua J N, Muchiri D R, Nguyen X A / Southeast Asuab J Trop Med Public Health, May 2012; 43(3): pp 545-548 / PMID: 23077832
Phytochemical Investigation and Isolation of Compounds From Ajuga integrifolia Root Extract / Derilo Bekeri, Legesse Adane and Fikre Mamo / World Journal of Chemistry, 2018; 13 (1): pp 1-13 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjc.2018.01.13
Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia
/ Balcha Abera / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2014; 10:40 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-10-40
Antidiarrheal activity of 80 % methanol extract of the aerial part of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) in mice / Teshager Yacob, Workineh Shibeshi / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Dec 2016; 16: 303
Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment / Manali Sughosh Upasani, Sughosh Vishweshwar Upasani, Vishal Gokul Beldar, Chetana Gokul Beldar, Pranjal P. Gujarathi / Integrative Medicine Research, 2018; 7: pp 9-26
Inhibitory activities of extracts of Rumex dentatus, Commelina benghalensis, Ajuga bracteosa, Ziziphus mauritiana as well as their compounds of gallic acid and emodin against dengue virus. / Batool R, Aziz E, Mahmood T, Tan BK, Chow VT. / Asian Pac J Trop Med., 2018;11: pp 265-271
Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice / and  / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017; 17:243 / https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1757-5
Survey of Veterinary Herbal Folk Medicine and Its Threats in West Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia / Hirpa Bobaso, Wollega University

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