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Family Amaranthaceae
Botonsilyong gapang
Gomphrena celosioides Mart.
Ji guan qian ri hong

Scientific names Common names
Gomphrena celosioides C. Mart. Botonsilyong-gapang (Tag.)
Xeraea celosioides (Mart.) Kuntze Bachelor's button (Engl.)
Accepted infraspecifics (3) Globe amaranth (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides var. celosioides Gomphrena weed (Engl.)
Gomphrena alba Peter Khaki weed (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides var. aureiflora Stuchlik Prostrate globe amaranth (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides f. aureiflora (Stuchlik) Pedersen Soft khaki weed (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides f. grandifolia Stuchlik Water globehead (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides f. parvifolia Stuchlik White eye (Engl.)
Gomphrena celosioides f. roseifolia (Stuchlik) Pedersen  
Gomphrena celosioides f. suberecta Stuchlik  
Gomphrena celosioides f. villosa Suess.  
Gomphrena decumbens f. albiflora Chodat  
Gomphrena decumbens var. albiflora Stuchlik  
Gomphrena decumbens var. aureiflora Stuchlik  
Gomphrena decumbens f. aureiflora Chodat  
Gomphrena decumbens subvar. parviflora Stuchlik  
Gomphrena decumbens var. roseiflora Stuchlik  
Gomphrena decumbens f. roseiflora Chodat  
Gomphrena decumbens subf.villosa Chodat  
Gomphrena globosa subsp. africana Stuchlik  
Gomphrena hygrophila var. subecristata Herzog  
Gomphrena lutea Rusby  
Gomphrena perennis f. parvifolia Stuchlik  
Gomphrena perennis f. ramosissima Stuchlik  
Gomphrena celosioides var. fallax (Seub.) Pedersen  
Gomphrena celosioides var. hygrophila (Mart.) Pedersen  
Gomphrena celosioides Mart. is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
AFRiKAAN: Lebolomo la naga.
BRAZIL: Perpetua, Perpetua brava.
CHINESE: Ji guan qian ri hong, Yin hua xian.
INDIA: Neervadamalli, Nirvadamalli (Malayalam).
SPANISH: Arrasa con todo.

Gen info
- Gomphrena celosioides is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae; a cosmopolitan pioneer plant of disturbed areas, and one of 51 species in the genus Gomphrena. (1)

• Botonsilyong-gapang is a prostrate or sprawling annual plant about 20 to 60 centimeters long, with fleshy taproots. Stems are striate and hairy, the older ones smooth. Leaves are simple, and opposite, 2 to 4 centimeters long and tapering on both ends. Flower stalk bears white globose, ovoid, or cylindrical heads, densely covered with persistent white bracts giving the entire cluster an elongated look.

• Much-branched, prostrate plant is an annual or short-lived perennial, with a deep taproot and is often mat-forming. Opposite, elliptical leaves have short, hairy petioles, are pubescent and about 4 cm (1.6 in) long. Flowers are in dense terminal spikes and grow on a woolly receptacle; perianth segments are papery, 4–6 mm (0.16–0.24 in) long, shining, and whitish to pink in color. Stigmas are 2, and stamens are 5, inserted opposite the sepals and joined into a 5-toothed staminal tube. Ovary is superior, developing into a single-seeded fruit. Seed is about 1.5 mm (0.059 in) in length, lentil-shaped, brown and glossy, and is routinely distributed by ants. (1)

- Introduced after World War II.
- Widely distributed in waste places, along roadsides, and in moist grassland areas of Luzon
- Native to Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay. (12)
- Note: As a weed, it has already infested wide areas in Luzon. In seed production, the herb creeper compares to Cyathula prostata which produces 2000 sounds per plant at seeding time.

- Phytochemical screening yielded steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, and tannins.
- EA and methanol extracts yielded 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylpropenoate. (see study below) (9)
- Study of EA and ME yielded secondary metabolites which included alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, glycosides, and reducing sugars. (16)
- Study of dried whole plants extracted by Soxhlet with n-hexane isolated aurantiamide and auratiamide acetate. (see study below) (4)
- In a study of primary metabolites, the maximum levels of soluble sugars, lipids, and phenols were found higher in the stem, starch and proteins in roots. (see study below) (5)

- Study for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, tannins, saponins steroids, glycosides, and reducing sugars.
- Fractionation of methanol extract yielded 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylpropenoate. (see studies below) (9)
- Study for proximate composition and vitamins content of various parts showed moisture, ash and crude fiber as highest in the stem (64.20±0.14, 8.26±0.00 and 18.66±0.01) respectively. Total protein and fat contents were highest in the leaf (0.44±0.00 and 0.52±0.00) respectively. Carbohydrate was highest in the root (33.21±0.63). Vitamins A and C were highest in the leaf (1.96±0.01 and 1.68±0.01) respectively. (14)
- Study of ethanol extract yielded polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, sterols and triterpenes, tannins and alkaloids, with absence of quinones and cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (20)
- Phytochemical screening of EtOH extract of leaves yielded polyphenols ++, flavonoids ++, alkaloid ++, tannin +, with absence of saponin, cardiac glycoside, and carotenoid. (see study below) (32)
- Study of ethanolic extract of flowers revealed presence of sterols, triterpenoid, tannins, phenols, and flavonoids.   GC-MS analysis showed 11 peaks indicating 11 phytochemical compounds. Major bioactive compounds are docosanoic acid, docosyl ester (25.404%) and hexatriacontane (24.324%), which has proven anti-inflammatory activity. (35)

- Toxicity: Reported to cause toxicity to horses when eaten over an extended period of time. Symptoms include incoordination tremors, gait abnormalities, seizures. All plant parts contain saponins, steroids, and alcohols. In Australia, known to cause coastal staggers (ataxia) in horses. (37)
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antifungal,  anti-biofilm, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-urolithiatic, anticarcinogenesis, antioxidant, diuretic, natriuretic, antiarthritic, phytoremediative, antihyperalgesic, properties.

Parts used
Whole plant.


- Study for proximate composition and vitamin content of various parts suggest they are very nutritious and can contribute significantly to human health requirements. (see constituents above) (14)
- No reported medicinal used in the Philippines.
- In southern
Nigeria, used for treatment of skin diseases, worm infections and infectious diseases.
- In
South America, plant is utilized as abortifacient. Decoction of whole plant, together with G. globosa, applied to gangrenous wounds.
- In
Trinidad and Tobago, plant used to treat diabetes, hypertension, kidney problems, and as heart tonic. (3)
- In
Africa, used for treatment of jaundice and malaria. In Togo, west Africa, used for treatment of hepatic diseases.
- In the Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India, whole plant juice along with Piper nigrum and lemon juice taken twice daily for 10 days to cure urolithiasis. (15)
- In Limpopo province of South Africa, roots used as part of mixtures for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Leaves and leaves boiled and used in mixtures for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (21)

- Rituals:
In Nigeria, plant used in magical and spiritual rituals.

Anthelmintic / Antibacterial:
Study evaluated EA and methanol extracts for anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. The extracts exhibited anthelmintic activities against Pheretima posthuma, Fasciola gigantica, and Taenia solium, comparable to reference compound piperazine citrate. Extracts also showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited higher anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. (2)
Aurantiamide / Antibacterial: Study of dried whole plants extracted by Soxhlet with n-hexane isolated aurantiamide and its acetate. The compounds were active against microorganisms even at very low concentrations. (4)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the primary metabolites and antimicrobial activities of G. celosioides against clinical isolates E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. A methanolic extract of leaf, stem, and root were most effective against the three test bacteria; the root showed significant activity against P. aeruginosa, and stem and leaves were maximum against E coli.(See constituents above) (5)
concentrations. (5)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study showed hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats. Possible mechanism of hepatoprotection could be due to antioxidant action in flavonoids. (6)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of aqueous leaf extract of Gomphrena celosioides showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rat and mice, using the hot plate latency test and acetic acid induced writhing for analgesic evaluation and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema for anti-inflammatory evaluation. (8)
Antimicrobial / Anthelmintic / 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) Methylpropenoate: An EAE and ME showed inhibitory activity on S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. typhi. ME was active against C. albicans, A. niger and Trichophyton spp. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed activity against Fasciola gigantica, Taenia solium, and Pheretima posthuma. Fractionation of the ME yielded 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) methylpropenoate which showed mild antimicrobial activity against test organisms. (9)
Antioxidant / Acute Toxicity Testing: In vitro study showed an aqueous extract of Gc to possess strong free radical scavenging activity, low reducing power, and strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation. In vivo, the extract showed strong reducing power similar to vitamin C. The value of 1000 mg/kg as a slightly toxic substance shows the EA extract orally is almost not toxic. Intraperitoneally, it is slightly toxic. (10)
Antifungal: Various extracts of G. celosioides were evaluated at different concentrations on Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. A methanol extract had fungicidal effect on the selected fungal isolates at concentration of 2000 µg/mL. Results suggest a potential natural source for the treatment of fungal diseases. (11)
• Extraction of Essential Oil by Green Extraction Technique: Study reports on super critical fluid extraction process which yielded a pure product with no need of additional solvent to extract bioactive ingredients from the herbs. Highest yield of essential oil was equal to 4.21gm/100gm. Results suggest a potential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries to obtain highly pure essential oil using optimized conditions. The presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, glycosides, terpenes and reducing sugars provides good anti-fungal and antibacterial activity. (13)
• Anti-Ulcerogenic / Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of ME of G. celosioides leaves in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in male Wistar rats. Results showed dose-dependent gastroprotective activity which was attributed possibly to the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. (17)
• Phytoremediative Potential / Heavy Metals: In a study of 12 plant species growing around the tailing dam of a gold mine, Gomphrena celosioides was one of five plants with BAF (Bioaccumulation Factor) and TF (Translocation Factor) >1 that showed applicability in extraction of studied heavy metal-polluted soils. (18)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of G. celosioides utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema and CRP concentration in rat. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity at 200 mg/kbw of both extracts, comparable to Diclofenac 10mg/kg. There was increased CRP concentration (p<0.05). The ethanol extract showed more activity than the aqueous extract. (19)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of G. celosioides for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities at 200 mg/kbw. comparable to diclofenac and vitamin C inhibition. (see constituents above)  (20)
• Acute Oral Toxicity Testing / Hepatoprotective: Study acute oral toxicity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Gomphrena celosioides, C. nitida, and E. angolense showed the plants to have LD50 superior to 5000 mg/kg and are practically non-toxic. The extracts also showed hepatoprotective activity on CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity. (22)
• Nephroprotective / Gentamicin Induced Toxicity: Study of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Gomphrena celosioides, C. nitida, and E. angolense mitigated the effects of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant decrease in urea, serum creatinine, along with a significant increase in total serum protein, and significant decrease in urinary micro albuminuria. (23)
• Gold Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves Study reported on the synthesis of AuNPs. The AuNPs were effected against all bacteria tested i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Results showed the AuNPs to be effective bacterial inhibitors with potential application in the medical field. (24)
• Diuretic / Mechanisms: Study evaluated the diuretic effects of an ethanolic extract from C. celosioides on acute and extended diuresis in male Wistar rats to provide a pharmacological basis for use in traditional medicine. The diuretic effect was dependent on the NO, prostaglandin, and bradykinin pathways since their inhibitors reduced the diuretic effects of EEGC. After 7 days of treatment, the diuretic effect was sustained and a decrease in serum aldosterone was observed. Results showed diuretic and natriuretic effects associated with more than one mechanism of action. (25)
• Antioxidant / Anticarginogenesis in DEN/HCB Induced Rats: Study evaluated crude and ethanol leaf extracts of T. zeylanicus and Gomphrena celosioides on DEN/HCB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male albino rats. The plant treatments showed remarkable effects on LPO and liver marker enzymes. In the study, both plants showed antioxidant/anticarcinogenic activity on carcinogenesis. Trichopus zeylanica showed more remarkable activity. (26)
• Acute Toxicity Study / Hepatic Dysfunction: Study evaluated acute oral toxicity of ethanol extract of Gomphrena celosioides on biochemical and hematological profiles. Results showed the LD50 by oral route was greater than 5000 mg/kbw. Organ weights (kidney, liver and heart) and hematological parameters were not significantly changed. There was suggestion of hepatic dysfunction as evidenced by significant increases in ALT and AST (p<.05) with dose of 5000 mg/kbw. (27)
• Potential against Antibiotic Resistant ß-Lactamase Producing Uropathogens: Study evaluated the antibacterial and anti-biofilm potentials of G. celosioides leaves, twigs, flowers and a combination of all plant parts against ß-lactamase producing E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus. All acetone extracts showed good antibacterial activity with MICs from 0.04 to 0.31 mg/mL, which corresponds to a minimum percentage bacteriostatic dose-dependent activity range of 50.5 to 90%. All extracts including water extracts showed promising anti-biofilm activity above 50% against all strains at the planktonic and biofilm forming stages. A selectivity index between 0..61 and 4.75 showed the extracts are relatively safe. (29)
• Antiarthritic / Antihyperalgesic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antiarthritic and antihyperlagesic activities of ethanol extract of G. celosioides aerial parts using doses of 300, 700, and 1000 mg/kg on Swiss or C57BL/6 mice, using paw edema, mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, articular inflammation zymosan-induced, Freund's complete adjuvant-induced inflammation zymosan-induced peritonitis, and carrageenan-induced adhesion and rolling experiment models. Results showed the ethanolic extract has antihyperalgesic and antiarthritic potential in different acute and persistent models. (30)
• Study on Reproductive Performance and Embryo-Fetal Development: In Brazilian folk medicine, the plant is used as an abortifacient. Study evaluated the effects of ethanolic extract of G. celosioides (EEGc) on reproductive performance, embryo development and chromosome stability in Swiss mice. Results showed not change in test animals' final weight, weight gain, uterine weight, or net weight gain. The EEGc did not change the number of implants, live fetuses, dead fetuses, or fetal resorptions, and no differences in post-operative loss rates, implantations, or resorptions, no differences in fetal viability or sex ration, and no difference in frequencies of malformations. Results suggest safety for use during pregnancy, although some parameters indicated caution in its use. (31)
• Bioactivities: Phytochemical screening of EtOH extract of leaves yielded polyphenols ++, flavonoids ++, alkaloid ++, tannin +, with absence of saponin, cardiac glycoside, and carotenoid. The ethanol extract showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 31.42 µg/mL), antioxidation activity (IC50 of 22.98 µg/mL), and anti-inflammatory activity (IC20 5.13 µg/mL). Results showed good xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activity, suggesting potential in the treatment of gout. (32)
• Toxicity Study / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of G. celosioides (EEGc) in acute and subacute toxicity models in rodents. Animals treated with a dose of 2000 mg/kg EEGc showed no clinical signs of toxicity, indicating an LD50 higher than the dose. Subacute testing with repeated treatment with EEGc in doses of 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg did not cause adverse clinical signs or lesions in target tissues. As per Globally Harmonized System of Classification, the EEGc doses can be in Category 5, which is least toxic or non-toxic. (33)
• Hepato-Nephroprotective / Protective in Aspirin-Induced Biochemical Alterations: Aspirin has been shown to be toxic to the kidneys by inhibiting renal PG-synthesis at usual therapeutic dosage. It can also cause a type of hepatotoxicity known as Reye's syndrome, associated with lactic acidosis, microvesicular fat and hepatic dysfunction, encepalopathy and coma. Study evaluated the protective effects of G. celosioides on aspirin-induced alterations in biochemical markers in the kidney and liver of Wistar rats. Rats treated with 200 mg/kbw of aspirin for 7 days showed significant increase in creatinine, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, BUN. Co-administration of G. celosioides with aspirin significantly (p<0.05) decreased those values. The significant reduction in BUN and creatinine by G. celosioides indicates a possible kidney dysfunction or impairment in the aspirin group that may be ameliorated by G. celosioides. Study also showed significant increase in total and direct bilirubin concentration in aspirin treated groups. Amelioration by G. celosioides was observed as total and direct bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05) in the G. celosioides co-administered group. The hepatoprotectiive activities of G. celosioides may be due to the presence of flavonoids. (34)
• Gastric Ulcer Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential of methanol extract of G. celosioides leaves in the healing of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in male Wistar rats. Acidified ethanol caused severe gastric mucosa damage by measures of ulcerogenic parameters with increased activities and concentration of inflammatory markers and increase in levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl in ulcerated and untreated group. The extract showed significant ulcer healing of 34.79, 39.63, and 53.81% for doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kbw respectively and 58.49% for cimetidine 50 mg/kbw. Results showed gastric ulcer healing by suppression of inflammatory markers. (36)


Updated January 2024 / Dec 2018 / May 2017 / Nov 2014
March 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Gomphrena celosioides C. Mart. / WIKTROP - Weed Identification and Knowledge in the Tropical and Mediterranean areas / Non-commercial use / Image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / WIKTROP
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Gomphrena celosioides / Meneerke bloem / CC BY-SA 3.0 / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Amaranthaceae : Gomphrena celosioides / Inflorescence / Copyright © 2019 by Cliff Scherer (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL141964] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Gomphrena celosioides / Plate 66 from Flora Brasiliensis, 5(1): 1864 / Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 13: 301. 1826 / Public Domain / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Gomphrena celosioides / Wikipedia
Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activities of Gomphrena celosioides (C. Mart.) Extracts / Onocha P A, Ajaiyeoba E O, Dosumu O O, and Ekundayo O / NISEB Journal 5(2):61-67
Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus
/ Cheryl A Lans / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006, 2:45 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-45
Isolation of Aurantiamides from Gomphrena Celosioides C. Mart
/ Omotayo Olutola Dosumu, Patricia Onocha, Muhammad Ali et al / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research : IJPR, 2014 Winter; 13(1): pp 143-147 / PMID: 24734065
Evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of Gomphrena celosioides (amaranthaceae) on wistar rats intoxicated with tetrachloride carbon / Maxime Machioud SANGARE; Jean Robert KLOTOE; Victorien DOUGNON; Jean-Marc ATEGBO; Anatole LALEYE; Patrick EDORH; Lauris FAH; Maximin SENOU; Frédéric LOKO; Karim Laye DRAMANE / International Journal of Current Research
Biological Potential and Phytopharmacological Screening of Gomphrena Species / Y Arsia Tarnam, *M H Muhammad Ilyas, T Nargis Begum / International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, Jan 2014; 3(1):58-66
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF Gomphrena celosioides AND Momordica charantia / G. M. OLADELE, M. O. ABATAN, J. O OLUKUNLE, B. S. OKEDIRAN / ASSET, An International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Sciences, Environment and Technology, Vol 8, No 2 (2009)
Isolation of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylpropenoate and bioactivity evaluation of Gomphrena celosioides extracts / Dosumu, O. O., Ekundayo, O., Idowu, P. A., Onocha, P. A. /
EXCLI Journal, 2010; 9: pp 173-180 / http://dx.doi.org/10.17877/DE290R-1274
Antifungal Activity of Gomphrena celosioides (Soft Khaki Weed) on Selected Fungal Isolates / Abalaka ME, Adeyemo SO, Okolo MO, Damisa D /
Journal of Current Research in Science 2013
Gomphrena celosioides Mart. / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Extraction of Essential Oil from Gomphrena Celosioides by Green Separation Technology / A. K. Tiwari, S.R. Geed, R.S. Singh, B.N. Rai / International Journal of Basic and Applied Biology, Volume. 2 No. 2, November 2014. pp. 18 – 22
Proximate Composition, Vitamin and Anatomical Studies on Gomphrena celosioides / C. V. Ilodibia, F. U. Ewere, E. E. Akachukwu, R. N. Adimonyemma, N. A. Igboabuchi and N. F. Okeke / ARRB, 2016; 10(3): pp 1-6, 2016 / DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2016/25546
Medicinal plants of Muzaffarnagar district used in treatment of urinary tract and kidney stones / Prachi, N Chauhan, D Kumar & MS Kasana* / Indian Journal Of Traditional Knowledge, Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 191-195
Biological Potential and Phytopharmacological Screening of Gomphrena Species / Y Arsia Tarnam, *M H Muhammad Ilyas, T Nargis Begum / International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, Jan 2014; 3(1): pp 58-66
Gastroprotective Effect of Garlic in Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats / Nahla E. El-Ashmawy, Eman G. Khedr, Hoda A. El-Bahrawy, Hend M. Selim / International Journal of Applied Basic Medical Research (2015) Vol 5, Issue 1; pp 41-45.
The Potential of Bioaccumulation and Translocation of Heavy Metals in Plant Species Growing around the Tailing Dam in Tanzania / Mganga, Nyatwere D. / University of Dar es Salaam Research Repository / URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1602
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Gomphrena celosioides Linn. / Konan, Gogahy; Edwige, Aka Ayebe; Dodehe, Yeo; Allico, J Djaman; Adou, F Yapo; Jean, D N’guessan; Houphouet, F Yapi / International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review 2015 5(2): 127-134.
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanol Extract of Gomphrena Celosioides (Amaranthaceae) in Wistar Rats / Mansour F. Adeoti, K. Gogahy, Philipe A. Bidie, M. Camara-Cesse, François G. Monteomo, Innocent K. Kolia, Joseph A. Djaman, Mireille Dosso / Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, Dec 2016-Feb 2017; 4(4): pp 503-511
MEDICINAL PLANT USE OF VILLAGERS IN THE MOPANI DISTRICT, LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA / Chauke et al. / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., 2015; 12(3): pp 9-26 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v12i3.2
EVALUATION OF NEPHROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF GOMPHRENA CELOSIOIDES, COLA NITIDA AND ENTENDROPHRAGMA ANGOLENSE AGAINST GENTAMICIN / Bamba Abou, Yapi Houphouet Felix, Aka Kouadio Ayebe Edwige and Djyh Bernard Nazaire / European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 2016; 3(11) :63-69
The Antibacterial Efficacy of Gold Nanoparticles Derived from Gomphrena celosioides and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) Leaves on Selected Bacterial Pathogens / M E Abalaka, S & Daniyan, S O Adeyemo, D Damisa / International Scholarly ad Scientific Research & Innovation, 2014; 8(4)
Mechanisms underlying the diuretic effect of Gomphrena celosioides Mart. (Amaranthaceae) / Paulo Cesar de Paula Vasconcelos, Fanilo Ramos / Journal of Ethnopharmacology , 2017; Vol 202: pp 85-91 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.03.007
Determination of hematological parameters and Biochemical markers of kidneys and liver in the acute
toxicity of Gomphrena celosioides ethanol extract
/ Bamba Abou, Yapi Houphouet Félix, Djyh Bernard Nazaire / European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience, April 2015; 3(4): pp 1-5
Extracts of Gomphrena celosioides Mart as potential treatment for urinary tract infections against antibiotic resistant β-lactamase producing uropathogens / Aitebiremen Gift Omokhua-Uyi, Johannes Van Staden / South African Journal of Botany, 2020; Volume 132: pp 502-510
Antiarthritic and Antihyperalgesic Properties of Ethanolic Extract from Gomphrena celosioides Mart. (Amaranthaceae) Aerial Parts / Luis Fernando Benitez Macorini, Joyce Alencar Santos Radai, Rafael Souza Maris, Candida Aparecida Leite Kassuya et al / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 2020; 2020: 4170589 / PMID: 33014104 / DOI*: 10.1155/2020/4170589
The Ethanolic Extract of Gomphrena celosioides Mart. Does Not Alter Reproductive Performance or Embryo-Fetal Development, nor Does It Cause Chromosomal Damage / Fabricia Rodrigues Salustriano, Antonio Carlos Duenhas Monreal, Diego Duarte Marques de Oliveira et al / Pharmaceutics, 2022; 14(11) /
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14112369
Preclinical safety evaluation of the ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of Gomphrena celosioides Mart. in rodents / Luis Fernando Benitez Macorini, Rafael Souza Maris, Thiago Chaves Teixeira, Arielle Cristina Arena et al / Regul Toxicol Pharmacol., 2022; 133: 105217 / DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2022.105217
Protective Activity of Chloroform Extract of Gomphrena celosioides Leaves (Amaranthaceae) on Some Biochemical Indices in Aspirin-induced Wistar Rats / Oe Ogunjemite, FK Ola-Mudathir, A Ijani / J Appl Sci Environ Manage, 2022; 26(4): pp 571-576 / DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v26i4.3 / pISSN: 1119-8362 / eISSN: 1119-8362
GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds and Phytochemical Evaluation of the Ethanolic Extract of Gomphrena globosa L. Flowers / Azmat Unnisa Esmat, Sirisha Mittapally, Safiya Begum / Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics, 2020; 10(2): pp 53-58 / DOI: 10.22270/jddt.v10i2.3914
Methanol Extract of Gomphrena celosioides Leaves Affects Inflammatory Markers in Acidified Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing in Male Wistar Rats / Tijani Abiola Stephanie / International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2019; 9(4): pp 92-103 / eISSN: 2230-7605 / pISSN: 2321-3272
Gomphrena weed : Gomphrena celosioides / HorseDVM

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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