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Family Santalaceae
Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC.
Liu guo hu ji sheng

Scientific names Common names
Ginalloa siamica var. scortechinii Gamble Bogto (Tag.)
Viscum obstusatum Wall. ex DC. Oval-leaved mistletoe (Engl.)
Viscum orientale var. ovalifolium (Wall. ex DC.) Miq.  
Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC.  
Viscum pedunculatum Barlow  
Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC. is accepted. KEW: Plants of the World Online
Bogto is a common name shared by Viscum orientale, and Viscum ovalifolium. They will share the same page title until another local name is found for either of them. (Dr Stuart)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Liu guo hu ji sheng.
MALAYSIA: Api-api, Dedalu umping, Seri sabulan.
THAILAND: Kaafaak mai cheko hin, Kaafaak mai taatum, Kaafaak mai mahuat.
VIETNAM: Ghi l[as]h[if]nh xoan, Ghi la hinh xoan.

Gen info
- Etymology: The genus name 'Viscum' is Latin for mistletoe. The species epithet 'ovalifolium' means 'oval leaves'. (7)
- The plants was first formally described in 1820 in Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), a Swiss botanist. (7)

A hemiparasitic, erect, divaricate, spreading shrub up to1.5mtall;leaves elliptical to obovate, 2.5-12 cm x 1-3.5cm, base attenuate, apex rounded or obtuse, petiole 2-5 mm long; inflorescence consists of 3 flowers, usually with many subsidiary cymules developing around the first one, with the middle flower female and the lateral flowers male, peduncle 0-5 mm long; fruit globose or slightly ellipsoid, distinctly tuberculate before maturity, yellow, orange or red. (2)

A hyper-parasitic shrub, usually measuring about 25 - 50 cm in length. Leaves are opposite, green, elliptic to obovate, leathery, measuring about 2 - 6.5 by 1.5 - 3 cm, leaf stalk measuring about 2 - 4 mm.
Flowers are axillary inflorescences, usually 3-flowered, monoecious; female flower at the center and male flowers in lateral positions. Female flowers measuring about 1.5  - 2 mm, male flowers measuring about 2 - 3 mm.  Fruits are yellow to orange berries, globular and measuring about 3 - 5 mm wide. It has been observed growing on Exoecaria agallocha and Pemphis acidula in Singapore. (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Australia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Queensland, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Vietnam.
- A hemiparasitic epiphyte and grows primarily in wet tropical biome(s). (1)
- Found in habitats ranging from mangrove forest to open and closed primary and secondary forest from sea-level up to 500(-1400) m altitude. (2)

- Study for chemical constituents isolated 12 compounds identified as 1-octadecene (1), ethyl palmitate (2), 28-hydroxy-amyrone (3), betulinic acid (4), rutin (5), quercetin (6), beta-amyrin palmitate (7), lupeol acetate (8), beta-amyrin (9), beta-sitosterol (10), lupeol (11) and oleanolic acid (2). (4)
- Study of plant isolated 8 triterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins identified as lupeol stearate (1), lupeol palmitate (2), ß-amyrin acetate (3), hederagenin (4), gypsogenic acid (5), hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside (6), hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoyl-(2->1)-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (7), 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoyl-hederagenin-28-O-ß-S-glucopyranosyl-(1->6)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (8). (5)
- GC-MS analysis of leaves for essential oil isolated 47 compounds. Twenty compounds were identified representing 72.91% of oils. Major compounds were 2-(acetylmethyl)-(+)- 3-carene (43.95 %), phytol (8.72 %), 1,3-dichloro-benzene (4.77 %), 6-methyl-5-(1-methylethylidene)-6,8-nonadien-2-one (2.52%), phytone (2.08%). (6)


Parts used
Leaves, whole plant.


- In Peninsular Malaysia, poultice of leaves applied to the temples to treat neuralgia. Ashes of burned plant, mixed with sulphur and coconut oil is rubbed on body to treat pustular itches. (2)
- In Cambodia, plant used as herbal bath to treat fever in children. (2)

(See constituents above) (4, 5)
Leaf Essential Oil: GC-MS study of leaves for essential oil yielded 47 compounds. (see constituents above) (6)


November 2022

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Viscum ovalifolium / Habit of mistletoe on host branch / Copyright © 2016 by Tomoki Sando (contact: nickrent@plant.siu.edu) [ref. DOL109130] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo: Viscum ovalifolium / Fruiting shoot / Copyright © 2014 by Shek-Shing Mar (contact: nickrent@plant.siu.edu) [ref. DOL87987] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Viscum ovalifolium / KEW: Plants of the World Online


Viscum ovalifolium DC. / Editors: Lemmens and Bunyapraphatsara / Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3 / PROSEA: Plant Resoources of South-East Asia
Viscum ovalifolium / National Parks: FLORA & FAUNA WEB
Study on the chemical constituents of Viscum ovalifolium / Ru-Mei Lu, Min-Min Shao, Peng-Ying Liao, Peng Luo / Zhong Yao Cai, 2013;p 36(9): pp 1451-1454 / PMID: 24620692
Constituents of Viscum ovalifolium DC (II) / Y J Yang, C W Sha, M G Chen / 2011
Study on the Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from the Leaves of Viscum ovalifolium and Loranthus pentapetalus Roxb. Parasitizing on Guaiacum spp. / Rui Chen, Lini Huo, Yanfang Liao, Pei Yuan Li, Rumei Lu, Hongyi Zhang / Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2013; 25(3): pp 1757-1758 /
DOI: 10.14233/ajchem.2013.13165
Viscum ovalifolium / Medicinal Plants of China, Korea, and Japan: Bioresources for Tomorrow's . . . / Christopher Wiart

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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