- Antidesma is a genus of tropical plants in the family Phyllanthaceae, formally described by Linnaeus in 1753. As of May 2021, it has 101 accepted species.
- Etymology: The genus name Antidesma derives from Greek words anti, against, and desmos, band.
The species epithet derives from Latin ghaesembilla, after the local name of a plant species in Sri Lanka.
- Binayuyo is a small deciduous tree growing to a height of 16 meters. Bark is light grey. Leaves are simple, alternate, shortly petioled, broadly elliptic or orbicular obovate, 6 to 11 centimeters long; margins entire and pubescent; base rounded, rarely obtuse; apex rounded, sometimes mucronate. Male flowers are yellowish green, grouped into much branched spikes. Sepals usually 5, with 4 to 5, 2 to 2.5 millimeters long stamens with filaments free. Female flowers are many, grouped in branched racemes with very short pedicels. Drupes are small, about 4.5 millimeters in diameter, dark purple when ripe and agreeably acid.
A tree up to 20 m tall; young twigs pubescent. Stipules needlelike, 3-6 by 0.5-1 mm, pubescent, caducous; petiole 4-10 mm, pubescent; leaf blade oblong, more rarely ovate or obovate, 3-7 by 3-5 cm, papery to thinly leathery, pubescent to glabrous especially adaxially, often only major veins and margin pubescent, dull or shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, drying olive green to reddish green, base rounded to cordate, rarely obtuse, apex rounded, more rarely obtuse or acute, sometimes mucronate or retuse; domatia sometimes present; midvein flat adaxially, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, axes reddish pubescent, males 4-8 cm, 1-20 branched, females 2-3 10-20 branched; fruiting 4-7 cm. Male flowers sessile; sepals 4 or 5, free, 0.5-1 mm, deltoid to oblong, pubescent outside, glabrous inside, apex acute to obtuse; disk consisting of 4-7 free alternistaminal obconical lobes, pubescent; stamens 4 or 5, 2-2.5 mm; rudimentary ovary obconical. Female including fruiting pedicels 0-1 mm; sepals as in male; disk glabrous to pubescent especially at margin; ovary pubescent; stigmas 2 or 3. Drupes ellipsoid, laterally compressed, 3-4 by 2.5-3 mm, sparsely pubescent; style terminal to more rarely subterminal. (efloras.org/ provided by EOL) (11)
- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Australia, Bangladesh, Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, China, Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, and Vietnam.
- Primarily in wet tropical biomes. (1)
- Preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves yielded phenols, tannins, glycosides, saponins, reducing sugar, flavones, xanthoproteins, and coumarins. (3)
- Leaves showed physical constants of total ash, 8%; moisture, 69%; dry weight, 31%; stomatal index 32, and vein islet number 80. (3)
- Study of dichloromethane extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla isolated ß-friedelinol (1), lupeol (2), squalene (3), polyprenol (4), ß-sitosterol (5), long-chain hydrocarbons (6) and chlorophyll-a (7) from leaves, and ß-sitosterol (5), and triacylglycerols (8) from the fruit.
- Study of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of A. ghaesembilla bark isolated ten compounds: and two new aristolic acid derivatives, 10-amino-5,7-dimethoxy-aristolic acid II (= 6-amino-9,11-dimethoxyphenanthro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-aristolochic acid II (= 9,11-dimethoxy-6-nitrophenantro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (2), along with sitostenone (3), daucosterol (4), chavibetol (5), asperphenamate (6), protocatechuic acid (7), vanillic acid-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8), 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-methyl-phloroglucinol (9), and aristolic acid II-8-O-β-D-glucoside (10). (see study below) (14)
- In a study to evaluate crude extracts of A. ghaesembilla for estrogenic effects, three compounds, a novel aristolochic acid derivative, 6ß-hydroxy-stigmast-4-en-3-one, and asperphenamate were isolated for the DCM extract. (No significant estrogenic effects were detected). (14)
- Study of Antidesma ghaesembillia leaves isolated four flavone glycosides, namely: vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, and homoorientin.
- Nutrient analysis of fruit yielded moisture content of 79.1%, protein 1.3%, carbohydrate 7.03%, total sugar 0.78%, iron 5.60 mg/100g, manganese 17.00 mg/100g, copper 15.00 mg/100g and calcium 3.30 mg/100g.
- Study of methanol extract of leaves isolated five phenolic glycosides, namely: vanillyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), and sinapyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). (20)
Studies have suggested antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anxiolytic, sedative , cytotoxic, antithrombotic, antibacterial properties.
Aristolochic acid toxicity concerns
- Studies of dichlormethane and methanol extract of bark reports on the presence of aristolochic derivatives and raised concerns on its potential toxicity, reports on aristolochic acid nephropathy, and cautions on the traditional uses of the plant. (see study below) (14)
- Aristolochic acids are a family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic phytochemicals commonly found in the flowering plant of family Aristolochiaceae. Aristolochic acid I is the most abundant one.
Leaves, stems, fruit.
- Leaves and fruits are edible.
- Fully ripe fruit can be eaten raw, cooked, pickled, or made into jams and jellies. (9)
- Shoots have a sour flavor; used as vegetable and spice.
- In India, leaves used as vegetable in rural areas of Western Ghats. In Odisha, fruits used as ingredient in meat and fish curry preparations.
- Fruits are crushed and soaked in water to make a cordial-like drink. When eaten or drunk, lips and tongues are stained a blue-purple color. (23)
- In India, leaves applied as paste for headaches.
- Leaves used for fever.
- In Thailand, leaf decoction used for blood nourishment. In Vietnam, leaves and bark used for cough and rheumatism. In China, stems used for menstrual disorders. In Bangladesh, leaves used to enhance breast milk production. In Thailand, flowers used for herpes simplex. In Cambodia, used for stomachaches. (8)
- Fruit is purgative; stems are emmenagogue Leaves used as poultice for headaches, scurf, fevers, and abdominal swellings.
Stems used to stimulate menstrual flow.
- In Odisha, India, fruits used for blood nourishment, breast milk production, and headache.
- In Cambodia, an herbal mixture of Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder, Nelummbo nucifera petals, and Antidesma ghaesembilla bark used for treatment of diabetes.
In Cambodian traditional medicine, young branches, mixed with papaya roots, are used to regulate menstruation. Mixture of bark and tobacco used to dress wounds. Crushed leaves applied to the fontanelle of newborn babies to prevent them from catching cold. Inn eastern Cambodia, the Bunong people use the plant for treatment of 'uterine pain". (23)
- Wood: Used for construction. fences, industrial and domestic woodware, tool handles.
- Calendar plant: In Australia, it is a calendar plant: during Gaynwarr, the cuckoo birds, dowo'min (Mangarrrayi) or jowogban (Yangman) calls out during the buildup, telling the people that the fruit is ready for harvest. (23)
- Dye: In East Kalimantan, the resin (nyatang) from the tree is burnt to make a black dye for sunhats.
• Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic: Study investigated the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of a crude methanolic extract of A. ghaesembillla. Results showed significant hypoglycemic potential with dose dependent decrease in blood glucose. The crude extract also showed moderate to strong antioxidant potential attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds and its ability to scavenge free radicals. (4)
• Acute toxicity testing: Acute toxicity testing of crude methanolic extract performed on Sprague-Dawley rats showed no mortality and nontoxicity up to 5000 mg/kg. (4)
• Anxiolytic / Sedative / Fruits: Study evaluated the anxiolytic and sedative activities of methanol and chloroform extracts of Antidesma ghaesembilla fruits using rodent behavioral models. Results showed the fruit extracts to possess significant neuropharmacological activity with strong sedative and anxiolytic potential. (5)
• Volmifoliol / Megastigmane / Leaves: Study isolated vomifoliol, a megastigmane derivative, from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla. Naturally occurring megastigmane derivatives have been previously found to have antiproliferative, anticancer, and cytotoxic effects. (6)
• Antioxidant / Fruits: Study investigated methanolic extracts from ten fruits for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. Mao khipia (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.) and mao luang (Antedesma bunius) showed highest radical scavenging activity correlating with total phenolic and anthocyanin contents in the berry extracts and scavenging activity. (7)
• Brine Shrimp Lethality: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla to assess for potential pharmacologic activities by Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). A 50-50 ethanol extract showed potential bioactive components with the most toxic concentration at less than 10 ppm toxic in both acute and chronic LC50 values. (9)
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant capacity of extract of leaves. The leaves showed higher antioxidant activity when compared to standards with higher catalase (0.220 mg) and polyphenolic content (653.46 ± 1.09 mg/100g). (10)
• Antithrombotic / Cytotoxic / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of leaves extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla showed significant antithrombotic activity (63.45%) compared to standard streptokinase (81.32%). The extract showed inhibitory activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomoas aeruginosa. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay showed LC50 of 432.13 µg/ml compared to Vincristine sulfate LC50 0.74µg/ml. (13)
• Aristolochic Acid Derivatives / Toxicity Concerns / Bark: Study of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of A. ghaesembilla bark isolated ten compounds: and two new aristolic acid derivatives, 10-amino-5,7-dimethoxy-aristolic acid II (= 6-amino-9,11-dimethoxyphenanthro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-aristolochic acid II (= 9,11-dimethoxy-6-nitrophenantro[3,4-d]-1,3-dioxole-5-carboxylic acid (2), and aristolic acid II-8-O-β-D-glucoside (10). The study raised concerns on exposure of humans to aristolochic compounds, which has been associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy, and cautions on the traditional usage of the plant. (see constituents above) (14)
• Herbal Fruit Drink Formulation: Study evaluated the DPPH-scavenging activities of fruit extracts and formulation of a rapidly dissolving powder for a fruit drink. Decoction and drying by evaporating the extract of ripe fruits yielded an extract with high free radical scavenging activity, high amounts of total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content. The extract was developed into a readily dissolving drink powder that contained 3.08 g%C-3 in 1 sachet (14g) and exhibited free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 0.004 g of vitamin C. The extract has potential as a herbal drink. (16)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Alkaloids / Leaves: Chromatographic study of leaves isolated two new alkaloids, antidesoic acid A (1) and B (2), along with 14 known compounds (3-16). All isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in BV2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Bisflavone 8 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production in BV2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50s of 5.4 and 8.0 µM, respectively. Compounds 1-3, 7, 10, 12, 14, and 16 showed moderate inhibitory activities with IC50s ranging from 11.7 to 77.4 µM. (22)