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Family Clusiaceae
Chinese santol
Garcinia intermedia
(Pittier) Hammel

Scientific names Common names
Calophyllum edule Seem. Berba (Tag.)
Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel Cherry mangosteen (Engl.)
Rheedia edulis (Seem.) Planch. & Triana Chinese santol (Tag.)
Rheedia intermedia Pittier Lemon drop mangosteen (Engl.)
Rheedia tonduziana Engl. Monkey fruit (Engl.)
  Wild-lemon rheedia (Engl.)
Achachairu is a common name shared by both Garcinia intermedia and G. humilis.
Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel is an accepted name. Plants of the WorldOnline

Other vernacular names
BELIZE: Waiki plum, Waika plum.
COSTA RICA: Jorco, Mangostan, Sastra, Mameyito.
FRENCH: Garcinia intermediaire.
MEXICO: Ishbastie (Chhiapas), Limoncillo, Naranjillo, Patacua, Mamellito (Michoacan), Zapotillo, Toronjil (Oaxaca), Chichi de mono (Puebla), Elemuy (Quintana Roo), Manzanillo, Gu-guo, Wuowo (Veracruz).
PANAMA: Sastra.
PORTUGUESE: Limao do matto.
SPANISH: Achachairu, Arrayan, Caimito, Caimito de montana, Chaparron, Charichuelo, Fruta de mico, Jocomico, Jocote de mico, Jorco, Mameyito, Pacuri, Palo bayo, Palo de fruitilla, Sakipa, Sastra.

Gen info
- Garcinia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Clusiaceae. The number of species is disputed. Plants of the World Online recognizes up to 400 species. The plants in the genus are called saptrees, mangosteens, or garcinias.
- The genus name Garcinia honors the French botanist Laurent Garcin (1683-1751). (10)

Berba is a fast growing tree reaching a height of about 5 m with a straight, slim trunk supporting a densely branched pyramidal crown. Bark is dark brown, smooth, which exudes a sticky yellowish sap when wounded. Leaves are opposite, short-petioled, thick, leathery, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 8-15 cm long and 1-5 cm wide, or larger, with numerous lateral veins, conspicuous on both surfaces, bright red when young, becoming dark green above, pale green or brownish on the underside. Flowers are small, greenish white or ivory colored, densely clustered below the leaves, 4-petaled, the male with 25-30 stamens; female flowers are solitary or occasionally in clusters. Fruit is oval or oblong, 2-3.2 cm long, smooth, orange or yellow, with thin and easily peeled skin; one- or two-seeded with a white edible but scant pulp, with an appealing sweet and sour flavor.

- Introduced.
- Native range is Central Mexico to Ecuador.

- Cultivated sporadically throughout the tropics.
- Propagated by seeds; can be grafted.

- Study of leaves yielded active components, the polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative guttiferone A and the xanthone 8-desoxygartanin with biflavonoids podocarpusflavone A and amentoflavone, and friedelin. (3)
- Study of fruits yielded guttiferone A, gutti8feronne E, xanthochymol, Fukugetin, volkensiflavone, and fukugeside. (see study below) (4)
- Guttiferone A, 8-desoxygartanin, podoscarpusflavone A, amentoflavone, and friedelin have bee identified in the leaves.
- Study performed metabolomics profiling of G. intermedia leaves using three drying method treatments: air-dried (room temperature), freeze-drying, and oven (hot air) through GC-MS. Results identified a total of 35 compounds. The highest area pct was Friedelan-3-onne (29.92%) form air-dried method. Other compounds were sesquiterpenes group (beta-Caryophyllene, gamma-Muurolene, Naphthalene,1,2,3,5,6,8a-hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-1- (1-methylethyl)-,(1S-cis)-, and 1-Isopropyl-4,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,6,8a-hexahydronaphthalene); alkane group (Octadecane and Heptacosane) and vitamin E (delta-Tocopherol and dl-alpha-Tocopherol). (12)
- Study of seeds and rinds of Rheedia edulis identified two new polyisoprenylated benzophenones, 32-hydroxy-ent-guttiferone M (1) and 6-epi-guttiferone J (2), along with seven known compounds, 6-epi-clusianone (3), guttiferone A (4), xanthochymol (5), guttiferone E (6), isoxanthochymol (7), (+)-volkensiflavone (8), and (+)-morelloflavone (9). (see study below) (14)

- Fruiting may occur in as early as two years.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antiproliferative, trypanocidal properties.

Parts used
Fruits, leaves.


- Fruit is edible; usually eaten out of hand with an appealing sweet and sour taste.
- Fruit can be used for making jams, jellies, and drinks.
- In Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, fruit use in the treatment of flu. (9)
- Wood: Termite resistant. Used for light construction, making fence posts, tool handles and temporary railroad ties.
Bark is rich in tannin.

Phytoconstituents / Trypanocidal Activity / Leaves:
Study evaluated the leaves of Garcinia intermedia and heartwood of Calophyllum brasiliense for phytoconstituents based on their trypanocidal activity against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent for Chagas disease. Garcinia intermedia yielded active components, the polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative guttiferone A and the xanthone 8-desoxygartanin with biflavonoids podocarpusflavone A and amentoflavone, and friedelin. (3)
Antioxidant / Antiproliferative Against Colon Cancer Cells / Fruits: Study of fruits yielded guttiferone A, guttiferonne E, xanthochymol, Fukugetin, volkensiflavone, and fukugeside. The antioxidant activity of guttiferone A on DPPH assay showed an IC50 of 46 µM. The antiproliferative effect of guttiferone against colon cancer cells (HT-29) was IC50 15.8 µM. (4)
Garcinia Benzophenones / Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cells / Synergism with Sulindac and Turmeric: Previous studies have showed extracts and purified components from Garcinia species inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Garcinia benzophenones activate the expression of genes in the endoplastic reticulum and cellular energy stress (mTOR) pathways. Study evaluated the growth inhibitory and synergistic effects of Garcinia benzophenones, alone or combined with chemopreventive agents, on human colon cancer cells. New and known benzophenones from G. intermedia inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells. Studies indicate the potential of benzophenones, alone or combined with sulindac sulfide or turmeric, to prevent and treat colon cancer. (6)
Benzophenones and Biflavonoids / Antioxidant / Fruits: A methanol extract exhibited low antioxidant activity (IC50=118.1 ±0.94 µg/mL) in DPPH assay. The chloroform and ethyl acetate partition exhibited high activity, (23.4±1.28 µg/ml and 41.4±3.66 µg/ml respectively. The n-butanol partition showed moderate activity (68.0 ± 1.41 µg/ml). Guttiferone E, isoxanthochymol, fukugetin and volkensflavone have been previously isolated. The antioxidant activity of these compounds have previously been reported, except for guttiferone A with IC50=46 µM, which is comparable to gallic acid (IC50=35µM). (7)
Metabolomic Profile of Leaves with Drying Methods: Study performed metabolomics profiling of G. intermedia leaves using three drying method treatments: air-dried (room temperature), freeze-drying, and oven (hot air) through GC-MS. Results provide insight into potential uses of leaves extract with additional functional metabolites to use in the study of potential drugs to benefit human health. (see constituents above) (12)
Antioxidant Activity: HPLC-PDA study evaluated eight Garcinia species including seven edible fruits: Garcinia aristata, G. hombroniana, G. intermedia, G. livingstonei, the "superfruit" G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. xanthocymus, and the wood of G. kola. Garcinia intermedia and G. mangostana demonstrated high antioxidant activity with IC50s of 60.1 µg/mL and 64.3 µg/mL respectively. Garcinia intermedia yielded highest quantity of guttiferone A, determined to be rich in total phenolic content. (13)
Benzophenones and Biflavonoids / Antioxidant / Seeds and Rind: Study of seeds and rinds of Rheedia edulis identified two new polyisoprenylated benzophenones, 32-hydroxy-ent-guttiferone M (1) and 6-epi-guttiferone J (2), along with seven known compounds. Compound 1 showed significant antioxidant activity in both DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. (see constituents above) (14)


Updated February 2024
August 2021

IMAGE SOURCE: Garcinia intermedia costata / Lemon drop mangosteen / Rison Thunboor / CC by SA 4.0 / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Garcinia intermedia / Sesse M, Cervantes V, Mociño M / Drawings from the Spanish Royal Expedition to New Spain, 1787-1803 / / PlantIllustrations.org
IMAGE SOURCE: Garcinia intermedia fruit / Vinayaraj / CC by SA 3.0 / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Garcinia intermedia / Synonyms / Plants of the WorldOline
Sorting Rheedia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Trypanocidal Constituents in Plants 3: Leaves of Garcinia intermedia and Heartwood of Calophyllum brasiliense / Fumiko Abe, Shinya Nagafuji, Hikaru Okabe, Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa et al / Biological annd Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2004; 27(1): pp 141-143 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.27.141
Phenolic constituents from Garcinia intermedia and related species / Ulyana Muñoz Acuña / Dissertation and Theses, 2011 / City University of New York / UMI No: 3444330
Garcinia intermedia / Wikipedia
Garcinia Benzophenones Inhibit the Growth of Human Colon Cancer Cells and Synergize with Sulindac Sulfide and Tumeric / Linda Saxe Einbond, Jason Mighty, Edward J Kennelly et al / Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemmistry, 2013; 13(10) / DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/18715206113139990095
Benzophenones and biflavonoids antioxidants from Rheedia edulis fruits (Clusiaceae) / U M Acuña, M J Basile, E J Kennelly / Planta Med, 2008 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1084862
Garcinia intermedia / Plantz — Useful Plants for Warm Climates
Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines / Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo /Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2914; 4(Suppl1): pp 5525-5538
Garcinia / Wikipedia
Garcinia intermedia, a little-known fruit tree in the American tropics / Jorge Andres-Agustin, Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo, Jose Carlos Bautista-Villegas / Revista Chapingo, Serie horticultura, 2022; 28(1) / eISSN: 2007-4034 / pISSN: 1027-152X / DOI: 10.5154/r.rchsh.2021.03.005

The metabolomic profile of Garcinia intermedia leaves with several sample drying methods / T Budiyanti, W Nawfetrias, E Mansyah, NLP Indriyani, R Reninta, ED Husada / IOP Conference Series, 2023;: Earth Environ Sci.: 1253 012018
Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array (HPLC-PDA) analysis of benzophenones and biflavonoids in eight Garcinia species / Ulyana Muñoz Acuña, Keyyvan Dastmalchi, Margaret J Basile, Edward J Kennelly / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2012; 25(2): pp 215-220 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2011.10.006
Benzophenones and Biflavonoids from Rheedia edulis / Ulyana Muñoz Acuña, Mario Figueroa, Adam Kavalier, Nikola Jancovski, Margaret J Basile, Edward J Kennelly /  J Nat Prod., 2010; 73(11): pp 1175-1179 / DOI: 10.1021/np100322d

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. While I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection, they are becoming more difficult to find. If you have a plant to suggest for inclusion, native or introduced, please email the info: scientific name (most helpful), local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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