- The genus Aglaia currently consists of 105 species, expected to increase as more is discovered. Within Malesia, the largest number of species is found in Borneo (50), followed by Peninsular Malaysia (48), Sumatra (38), the Philippines (35), and New Guinea (33). (3)
- In Taiwan, Aglaia rimosa is called 'Large-leaved aglaia", referring to its larger leaflets compared to two other native species, Aglaia elaeagnoidea and A. chittagonga; all three are imparipinnate.
Aglaia rimosa is a shrub to medium-sized tree up to 30 m tall, bole up to 50 cm in diameter, buttresses up to 50 cm high, bark surface dark brown to greenish-gray, inner bark pink to dull red. Leaflets (3-)9-11(-15), subopposite, sometimes alternate, with 7-17(-20) pairs of secondary veins, above glossy and often rugulose, sometimes pitted and glabrescent, below sometimes pitted and with few to numerous radiating peltate scales with a dark orange-brown or dark reddish-brown center and a paler, entire to ragged margin, sometimes interspersed with few darker scales. Calyx with (4-)5 lobes, petals 4-5, anthers 5, rarely 6, style-head broadly ovoid or subglobose, with 2 small apical lobes. Fruit indehiscent, 2-locular. (1)
- Native to the Philippines.
- Grows primarily in the wet tropical biome.
- Also native to Bismark Archipelago, Maluku, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Taiwan.
- Common in secondary forests, along rivers and along the coast, on sandy clay or limestone, up to 1350 m altitude.
- Rocaglamide, also referred to as rocaglamide-A, is the eponymous member of a class of anticancer phytochemicals known as rocaglamides. Rocaglamides-A was first isolated in 1982 from A. elliptica. (6)
- Aglafolin is a heterotricyclic compound based on a 2,3,3a,8b-tetrahydro-1H-benzo [b]cyclopenta[d]furan framework substituted by hydroxy groups at positions C-1 and C-8b, a methoxycarbonyl group at C-2, a phenyl group at C-3, a 4-methoxyphenyl group at C-3a and methoxy groups at C-6 and C-8, a platelet aggregation inhibitor found in Aglaia elliptifolia and Aglaia odorata. (7)
Flower is fragrant, less than that of Aglaia odorata.
- Studies have shown anticancer, chemotherapeutic, antileukemic, platelet-aggregation inhibitory properties.
- Fruit is edible.
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
In Papua New Guinea, decoction of scraped bark drunk daily for badly swollen stomach. (1)
- Wood: Used for house construction. In Taiwan, the Tao people on Orchid Island use the wood to make boat rowlock or pillars for houses, and refer to the tree as refer to the tree as "maraboa" or "four limbs towards the sky". (4)
• Bioactive Flavolignans / Flavaglines: Flavaglines are formed by cycloaddition of a flavonoid nucleus with a cinnamic acid moiety representing a typical chemical character of the genus Aglaia. A wide variety of biological activities ranges from insecticidal, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral activities. (5)
• Aglafoline / Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation / Antileukemic Activity: Study in search for specific PAF (platelet-activating factor) antagonists (Ko et al, 1992) isolated aglafoline, which selectively inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation in washed rabbit platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. In a following study, coexisting rocaglamide was also tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), PAF, and collagen. Results showed 100 µg/ml of aglafoline completely blocked platelet aggregation caused by PAG, with no effect on ADP or collagen; rocaglamide was either inactive or showed only slight inhibition. Rocaglamide also exhibited significant antileukemic activity. Study has shown rocaglamide kills various leukemic cells through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway with only minor toxicities to normal lymphocytes. (5) Aglafolin is a heterotricyclic compound based on a 2,3,3a,8b-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[b]cyclopenta[d]furan framework substituted by hydroxy groups at positions C-1 and C-8b, a methoxycarbonyl group at C-2, a phenyl group at C-3, a 4-methoxyphenyl group at C-3a and methoxy groups at C-6 and C-8, a platelet aggregation inhibitor found in Aglaia elliptifolia and Aglaia odorata. (7)
• Cytotoxicity / Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation: Study isolated rocagloic acid, a benzofuran with a free carboxyl group at C-2, from the leaves of A. rimosa, which was shown to have significant cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. (5)
• Rocaglamide / Chemotherapeutic: Rocaglamide, also referred to as rocaglamide-A, is the eponymous member of a class of anticancer phytochemicals known as rocaglamides. Rocaglamides are secondary metabolites of the genus Aglaia. Its antitumor activity was first reported as far back as 1973, and rocaglamide-A was first isolated in 1982 from A. elliptica. Rocaglamide and a number of derivatives (didesmethylrocaglamide) are currently used as chemotherapeutic agents in treatment of various leukemias, lymphomas, and carcinomas, and as adjuvant in treatment of certain chemotherapy-resistant cancers. (6)