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Family Clusiaseae
Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz.

Scientific names Common names
Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz Baniti (Tag.)
Garcinia elliptica Choisy                  [Illegitimate] Gourka (Engl.)
Stalagmitis dulcis Cambess.            Unresolved Yellow mangosteen (Engl.)
Xanthochymus dulcis Roxb..    
Xanthochymus javanensis Blume.   Unresolved  
Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
MALAY: Moendo, Mondo, Mundo.
THAI:: Ma phut.
VIETNAMESE: Bua ngot, Tai..

Gen info
- Garcinia dulcis belongs to the Clusiaceae family, the same botanical family of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana.
- The family Clusiaceae is native to Asia, Australia, tropical and southern Africa, and Polynesia. The number of species in about 400.
- Although it resemb
les mangosteen, the phylogenetic relationship between both plants are very distant. Analysis based on sequence data of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA among 17 Garcinia species suggest G. dulcis is closely related to G. tinctoria and G. xanthochymus. (3)

Garcinia dulcis is a medium-sized, much branched perennial tree, with a short trunk and growing to a height of 3 meters. Bark is dark brown and rough, exuding a white latex. Leaves are opposite, lanceolate, 10 to 30 centimeters long and 3 to 5 centimeters wide, pale green when young and dark green and shiny on the upper surface when mature; lower leaves are often hairy; midrib is prominent with numerous veinlets in parallel. Petiole is short, about 2 centimeters long. Flowers are yellowish white, borne in the axil, and exuding a sour smell. Fruits are globose, 5 to 8 centimeters in diameter, slightly pointed in both ends, compressed and crowned by a persistent stigma. Fruit skin is thin, smooth, and green, turning orange when ripe. Seeds are brown, 1 to 5, each 2.5 centimeters long, enveloped in a pleasant tasting pulp. (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also found in Java, Borneo, Malaysia, Thailand.

- Study for ripe-fruit aroma for volatile compounds yielded ninety compounds, mainly terpenoids of which linalool, a-terpineol and hexadecanoic acid were most abundant. (3).
- Studies for secondary metabolites have yielded 68 compounds classified into five groups: xanthones (46), chromones (2), benzophenone (3), flavonoids (16), and triterpenoids (1). Flavonoid is the primary compound of leaves, while xanthones are found predominantly in stems, roots, fruit, seeds and flowers. (4).
- Study focused on compounds that have antibacterial activity with MICs of less than 100 µg/mL, namely: garcinol (1), cambogin (2), xanthochymol (3) lupalbigenin (9), GB-2a (10), garcigerine A (27), dulcisxanthone (48), garcinon B (51), garcinon D (52), cowanin (53), and a-mangostin (54). (see study below) (4)
- Study of flowers of G. dulcis isolated dulcisxaanthones C-F and dulcinone together with 22 known compounds.   (5)
- Extraction of branches yielded a xanthone with a novel oxygenation patter [1,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone], along with triterpenoid friedelin and the known flavonoids 3'-3(methylbut-2-enyl)naringenin, 13,118-biapigenin and podocarpus flavone A. (7)
- Study of G. dulcis leaves isolated a new prenylated biflavonoid, dulcisbiflavonoid A, along with five biflavonoids. (12)
- Study of bark yielded a new xanthone, dulciol A (1), along with two known xanthones, [[12b-hydroxydes-D-garcigerin (2) and toxyloxanthone B (3). The roots yielded four novel xanthones with a 1,1-dimethylallyl group, dulciols B-E (4-7), along with eight known xanthones, garciniaxanthones A, B, and D, globuxanthone, and subelliptenones C, D, and F. (14)
- Study of roots for chemical constituents isolated three new benzophenone xanthone dimers, garciduols A-C (1-3) and a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-7-ethoxyxanthone (4) along with five known xanthones, 2,5-dihydroxy-1-methoxy- (5), 1,4,5-trihydroxy- (6), 1,3,5-trihydroxy- (7), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy- (8) and 1,3,6-trihydroxy-8-isoprenyl-7-methoxyxanthone (9). (16)

- Studies have suggested antioxidant, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antimalarial, apoptotic, antihyperlipidemic, antibacterial properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, bark, fruit.


- Fruit is edible, eaten fresh or made into a jam, or flavoring for other foods. The soft flesh of the ripe fruit has a buttery consistency and pleasant acid flavor. (3)
- In Indonesia, leaves and seeds are traditionally used for treatment of lymphangitis, parotitis, and goiter. In Thailand, extract from crushed stem bark used as antiseptic; fruit juice used as anti-scurvy, antitussive, expectorant, decongestant; for sore throat and as mild laxative. f33
- Extract from crushed root used as antipyretic and detoxicant. (3)
- The Kaulong people of Papua New Guinea apply the orange sap of bark for treatment of tropical ulcer, (3)
- Used for treatment of infected wounds and ulcers.
- Dye: Bark yields a yellow dye with potential use for fabric dyeing and producing V protective fabric. In Java, bark is sued to dye mats.

Antibacterial / Constituents:
Paper reviews the compounds in G. dulcis responsible for its antibacterial activity. Xanthones are the most dominant, followed by flavonoids, benzophenones, chromones, and triterpenoid. Garcigerin A and a- mangostin showed most vigorous activity against S. aureus and MRSA. (see constituents above) (4)
Phenolic Compounds / Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study of seeds isolated dulcisxanthone G, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone, along with 13 known compounds. Isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antioxidant activities.(6)
Anticancer / Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis / HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line / Fruit: Study evaluated the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extract and possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed the peel, flesh, and seed extracts induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50s of 46.33, 38.33, and 7.5 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Highest compound in the flesh extract as hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, along with xanthones and flavonoids. Results suggest the flesh extract has potential as chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. (8)
Morelloflavone and Camboginol / Inhibition of Human Lipoprotein Oxidation / Fruits: Study of fruits isolated a biflavonoid, morelloflavone (1) and a prenylated xanthone, camboginol (2). The two compounds exhibited strong antioxidation effects in both Fe2+-mediated and non-metal induced human LDL oxidations. Alpha-tocopheral (vitamin E) a well-known antioxidant, was less potent than both compounds. (9)
Antihyperlipidemic / Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of methanol extract of G. dulcis fruit on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides of hyperlipidemic rats. There was reduction of LDL and total cholesterol, along with increase in HDL. Results suggest the fruit contain compounds with potential as antihyperlipidemic probably through inhibition of enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. (10)
Morelloflavone / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition: The biflavonoid morelloflavone has been shown to have hypocholesterolemic activity. Study evaluated the effect of morelloflavone on HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Study showed inhibition of enzyme activity by competing with HMG-CoA whereas it was non-competitive towards NADPH. (11)
Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome / Rind: Metabolic syndrome consists of a cluster of conditions i.e. hypertension, hyperlipidemia diabetes, and obesity. Study evaluated the effect of yellow mangosteen (G. dulcis) rind, usually discarded as waste in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Garcinia dulcis fruit rind powder attenuated the changes associated with MS, improved cardiovascular and liver structure and function, and attenuated changes in colonic microbiota. Results suggest G. dulcis fruit rind has potential as functional food to ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. (13)
Inhibition of Melanin Production / Stem Bark and Fruits: Study evaluated compounds from G. dulcis for skin lightening activity and its cytotoxicity. Study isolated 12 known compounds. Compounds 1, 2, and 4, morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7-sulphate and surgaol, were less cytotoxic and more effective as skin-lightening agents compared to hydroquinone. Results suggest potential for development as depigmentation/skin lightening agents. (see constituents above) (15)
Hepatoprotective / Fruit Rind: Study of fruit rind extract of Garcinia dulcis showed hepatoprotective activity in Wistar rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Antioxidant activity of the plant was observed in all models, with dose-dependent percentage inhibition. Pretreatment decreased SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin level significantly and increased the production of total protein in a dose dependent manner. (16)
Herbal Shampoo / Pediculicidal Activity: Study evaluated the efficacy of an herbal shampoo made from Garcinia dulcis added with either Citrus aurantium essential oil or Eucalyptus globulus EO against head lice in both in-vitro and in-vivo tests. Results showed LC50s against nymphs for G. dulcis + C. aurantium and G. dulcis + E. globulus shampoos were 0.00001 and 0.00004 ml/cm2, respectively. in vivo tests, the shampoos showed 100% cure rate after the second application, much more effective than tested chemical pediculicide. Results suggest the shampoos can be highly effective pediculicide alternatives and safety for use in humans. (17)
Antimalarial / Bark: Study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of dichloromethane-ethyl acetate-methanol fractions of Mundu's bark (G. dulcis). Fraction V from Mundu's bark exhibited antiplasmodial activity at dose of 50 mg/kbw and 100 mg/kbw with parasite growth inhibition values of 47.255% and 12.761%, respectively. (18) Study evaluated the in vivo antimalarial activity of ethyl acetate extract of G. dulcis stem bark against Plasmodium berghei induced mice. The highest antiplasmodial activity and decrease of leucocyte count was seen with extract dose of 50 mg/kbw. Phytochemical screening of stem bark yielded flavonoid, saponin, and tannin. (21)
Vasorelaxant / Camboginol: Study evaluated the vasorelaxant effect of camboginol from G. dulcis. Experiments in isolated thoracic aorta showed vasorelaxant action of camboginol with pD2 of 9.67 and 8.01 in normotensive and 2K1C hypertensive rats, respectively. Mechanism of actions involved endothelial nitric oxide and prostacyclin signaling pathway and opening of the ATP-activated potassium channel. Camboginol also enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in isolated vessel from 2K1C rats. The mechanism of vasorelaxation of camboginol may involve its antioxidant activity. Results suggest potential benefit for long term treatment as anti-hypertensive. (19)
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves of G. dulcis. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method. Linear progression analysis showed IC50 value of flavonoid component was 25.02 mg/L. The flavonoid compound showed 15.33mm inhibition for S. aureus and 15.1mm inhibiting zone for E. coli. (20)
Morelloflavone / Amelioration of Atherosclerosis: Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid and an active ingredient of the plant has been shown to inhibit VSMC (vascular smooth muscle cell) migration through inhibition of multiple migration-related kinases. The exact role of morelloflavone in atherosclerosis is unknown. Study evaluated the effect of 0.003% morelloflavone in mice chow. Oral morelloflavone significantly reduced the atherosclerotic areas of mouse aortas (26% reduction) without change in plasma lipid profiles or weights. Oral dose morelloflavone retards atherosclerosis by limiting the migration of VSMC into the intima in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Morelloflavone may have potential as a novel oral antiatherosclerotic agent. (22)

- Wild-crafted.
- Extracts, seeds the cybermarket.

July 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Lithograph:/ Xanthochymus dulcis: :File: Collecti Tropenmuseum: part of the National Museum of World Cutures / CC bu SA 3.0 / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph:/ Mundu: Garcinia dulcis: Fruits and leaves / click on image to go to source page / © Fruit Warehouose

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Garcinia dulcis / Synonyms / The Plant List
Sorting Garcinia names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The Univers ity of Melbourne. Australia.

Phytoconstituents and Biological Activities of Garcinia dulcis (Clusiaceae): A Review / Nanthaphong Khamthong and Nongporn Hutadilok-Towatana / Natural Product Communications, 2017; 12(3): pp 453-460
Chemical compounds and antibacterial activity of Garcinia dulcis (Roxb)kurz. / Hady Anshory Tamhid / Indonesian Journal of Medicine and Health, April 2019 / DOI: 10.20885/JKKI.Vol10.Iss1.art11
Phenolic Compounds from the Flowers of Garcinia dulcis / S Deachathai, W Mahabusarakam, souwalak Phongpaichit et al / Phytochemistry, April 2006;  67(5):464-469 / DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.10.016
Phenolic compounds from the seeds of Garcinia dulcis / Suwanna Deachathai, Souwalak Phongpaichit and Wilawan Mahabusarakam / Natural Product Research, 2008; 22(15): pp 1327-1332 / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410601130406
Xanthone and Flavonoid Constituents of Garcinia dulcis (Guttiferae) / Leslie J Harrison, Lup San Leong, Yuan-Wah Leong, Guat-Lee Sia, Keng-Yeow Sim and Hugh T W Tan / Natural Product Letters, 1994; 5(2): pp 111-116 / https://doi.org/10.1080/10575639408044043
Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line / Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Nor Ezani Ahmad, Monica Suleiman, Asmah Rahmat, and Azizul Isha / Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Special Issue; Vol 2015, Article ID 916902 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/916902
Inhibition of Human Lipoprotein Oxidation by Morelloflavone and Camboginol From Garcinia Dulcis / Nongporn Hutadilok-Towatana, Suyanee Kongkachuay, Wilawan Mahabusarakam / Nat Prod Res., June 2007; 21(7): pp 655-662 / PMID: 17613824 / DOI: 10.1080/14786410701371256
The effect of mundu fruit Garcinia dulcis Roxb Kurz methanol extract on lyphoprotein profile and trygliseride white rat Rattus norvegicus L / Arum Setiawan, Laila Hanum, Elvi Rusmiyanto Pancaning Wardoyo / Journal of Biological Researches, 2015; 19(2): pp 74-77 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.23869/bphjbr.19.2.20146
Morelloflavone from Garcinia dulcis as a novel biflavonoid inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. / Ku-Aida Tuansulong, Nongporn Hutadilok Towatana, Ken Fujise et al /Phytotherapy Research, 2010 / DOI:10.1002/ptr.3286 / Corpus ID: 19231015
A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis / Arun Saelee, Souwalak Phongpaichit, and Wilawan Mahabusarakam / Natural Product Research, 2015; 29(20): pp 1884-1888 / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1010087
Physiological and Metabolic Effects of Yellow Mangosteen (Garcinia dulcis) Rind in Rats with Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome / Oliver D John, Peter Mouatt, Marwan E Majzoub, Torsten Thomas, Sunil K Panchai, Lindsay Brown / Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2020, 21(1) /  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010272
Five New Xanthones from Garcinia dulcis / Munekazu Linuma, Tetsuro Ito, Hideki Tosa, Toshiyuki Tanaka, and Soedarsono Riswan / Journal of Natural Products, 1996; 59(5): pp 472-475 / https://doi.org/10.1021/np960340r
Evaluation of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of fruit rind extract of Garcinia dulcis (Roxburgh) Kurz / Nabajyoti Gogoi, Ankur Gogoi, Bijoy Neog, Dibyojyoti Baruah, Khumanthem Deepak Singh / Pharmacognosy Research, 2017; 9(3): pp 266-272 / DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.210330
Three New Benzophenone-Xanthone Dimers from the Root of Garcinia dulcis / Munekazu Iinuma, Hideki Tosa Tetsuro Ito, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Soedarsono Riswan / Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1996; 44(9): pp 1744-1747 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.44.1744
Efficacy of New Herbal Shampoos from Garcinia dulcis Kurz, Citrus aurantium L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill as Pediculicides for Head Lice (Pediculus humans capitis) Control / Sittichok S and Soonwera M / International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 2018; 14(4): pp 597-612 / ISSN: 2630-0613
IN VIVO TEST OF ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY FROM DICHLOROMETHANE-ETHYL ACETATE-METHANOL FRACTIONS OF MUNDU'S BARK(GARCINIA DULCIS (ROXB.) IN SWISS WEBSTER MICE / Mamik Ponco Rahayu, Nuraini Harmastuti, Gunawan Pamudj, Dimas Klodengan R, Supargiyono Supargiyono, Mahardika Agus Wijayant / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, May 2017, Special Issue / DOI  https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10s2.19513
Vasorelaxant mechanisms of camboginol from Garcinia dulcis in normotensive and 2-kidneys-1-clip hypertensive rat / Nattaya Thongsepee, Wilawan Mahabusarakam, Wachiryah Thong-asa, and Siriphun Hiranyachattada / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., Nov-Dec 2018; 40(6): pp 1248-1258
Antibacterium and Antioxidant Flavonoid from the Leaves of Mundu (Garcinia dulcis (Roxb) kurz) / Sri Rezeki Samosir, Mimpin Ginting, Helmina Br. Seinbiring / International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering, July 2019; 6(1)
Antimalarial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Garcinia dulcis kurz stem bark / Gunawan Pamudji Widodo, Mamik Ponco Rahayu / Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 2010; 21(4)
Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid inhibitor of migration-related kinases, ameliorates atherosclerosis in mice / Decha Pinkaew, Nongporn Hutadilok-Towatana, Ba-Bie Teng, Wilawan Mahabusarakam, and Ken Fujise / American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Jan 2012 / https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00669.2011

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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