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Family Fabaceae
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre
Shui huang pi

Scientific names Common names 
Cajum pinnatum (L.) Kuntze Bagnei (Bon.) 
Cystisus pinnatus L. Balikbalik (Tag.)
Galedupa pinnata (L.) Taub. Balok (Tag.)
Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi Balok-balok (Tag., Bik.)
Pongamia glabra Vent. Balotbalot (Tag.)
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre Baluk-baluk (C. Bis.)
Pongamia pinnata var. typica Domin Balu-balu (Sul.)
Accepted infraspecifics (2) Balut-balut (Mag.)
Pongamia pinnata var. minor (Benth.) Domin Banit (Tag.)
Pongamia glabra var. minor Benth. Baobao (Mbo.)
Pongamia glabra var. hannii Domin Bayog-bayok (Tag., C. Bis.)
Pongamia pinnata var. pinnata Bayok-bayok (C. Bis.)
Dalbergia arborea Willd. Butong (Bis.)
Derris indica (Lam.) Benn. Kadol (Tag.)
Derris indica var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Benn. Magit (Mag.)
Dolichos arboreus Roxb. ex Wight & Arn. Malok-balok (P. Bis.)
Galedupa arbprea Roxb. Marobahai (Tagb.)
Galedupa indica Lam. Marok-barok (Bik., S.L. Bis.)
Galedupa maculata Blanco Maruk-baruk (C. Bis.)
Galedupa pongam Raeusch. Pongam (Engl.)
Galedupa pungum J.F.Gmel. Indian beech (Engl.)
Millettia novoguineensis Kaneh. & Hatus. Pongame oil tree (Engl.)
Pongamia galedipa Wall. Poonga oil tree (Engl.)
Pongamia glabra var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Prain  
Pongamia grandifolia Zoll. & Moritzi  
Pongamia mitis (L.) Kurz  
Pongamia mitis var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Merr.  
Pongamia pinnata var. glabrescens Pierre  
Pongamia pinnata var. xerocarpa (Hassk.) Merr.  
Pongamia xerocarpa  Hassk.  
Robinia amara Lour.  
Robinia mitis L.  
Bani is a common name shared by: (1) Bani Pongamia pinnata Linn. and (2) Papua, bani, Nothopanax fruticosum.
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre is an accepted specirs. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Um al shuur.
ASSAM: Karchuw.
BENGALI: Dahar-karanja, Karanja, Natakaranja.
BURMESE: Thiuwia.
CHINESE: Ye dou, Shui huang pi mitis, Shui liu doul, Hon ge.
FRENCH: Abre de pongolote.
HINDI: Karanja, Kanji, Papar.
INDIA: Karanja.
INDONESIA: Bangkong, Ki pahang laut, Kranji.
JAVANESE: Bangkong.
KANNADA: Honge maraa, Honge, Hulagilu.
MALAYALAM: Ungu, Pongu.
MALAYSIA: Mempari, Kacang kayu laut, Pari-pari, Biansu.
LAOS: (Do:k) ko:m ko:y.
ORIYA: Koranjo.
NEPALI: Karanji, Karauini.
PUNJABI: Sukhehein, Karanj, Paphri.
SANSKRIT: Karanjaka. Ghrtakarauja, Guchpushpak, Ghritpuur, Udkirya, Karanja, Naktahva, Naktamala, Siddha-pungu.
SINGAPORE: Seashore mempari.
TAMIL: Pungai, Pongam.
TELUGU:  Pungu, Gaanuga.
THAI: Khayi (Chumphon), yi-nam (Peninsular).
VIETNAMEse: D[aa]y m[aa]u. D[aa]y kim, Kh[oor] s[aa]m hoa, Day mau.

Gen info
- Pongamia pinnata is a species of tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is the sole species in the genus Pongamia.

• Bani is a smooth tree growing to a height of 8 to 25 meters. Leaves are compound, 20 to 25 centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets that are smooth, ovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, with the terminal one larger than the others, pointed at the tip and usually rounded at the base. Flowers are fragrant and numerous, purplish, pink or nearly white, 1.5 centimeters long, borne on axillary and hairy racemes 15 to 20 centimeters long. Pods are woody, smooth, and oblong, 5 to 7 centimeters long, 5 to 8 millimeters thick, beaked at the apex, with a single seed measuring 3.5 to 5 centimeters long.

Pongamia pinnata is a legume tree that grows to about 15–25 m (50–80 ft) in height with a large canopy that spreads equally wide. It may be deciduous for short periods. Trunk is straight or crooked, 50–80 cm (20–30 in) in diameter, with gray-brown bark, which is smooth or vertically fissured. Wood is white colored. Branches are glabrous with pale stipulate scars. Imparipinnate leaves of the tree are alternate, short-stalked, rounded, or cunete at the base, ovate or oblong along the length, obtuse-acuminate at the apex, and not toothed on the edges. They are a soft, shiny burgundy when young, and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses, with prominent veins underneath. Flowers occur in small clusters of white, purple, and pink, blossoming throughout the year. Raceme like inflorescences bear two to four flowers that are strongly fragrant and grow to be 15–18 mm (0.59–0.71 in) long. Calyx of the flowers is bell-shaped and truncated, while the corolla is a rounded ovate shape with basal auricles and often with a central blotch of green color. Croppings of indehiscent pods can occur by 4–6 years. Brown seed pods appear immediately after flowering, and mature in 10 to 11 months. Pods are thick-walled, smooth, somewhat flattened, and elliptical, but slightly curved with a short, curved point, containing one or two bean-like brownish-red seeds, but because they do not split open naturally, the pods need to decompose before the seeds can germinate. The are about 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) long with a brittle, oily coat, and are unpalatable in natural form to herbivores.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Along the seashore throughout the Philippines.
- In some localities it extends inwards (Laguna) and near the border of lakes.

- Also native to Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Christmas I., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Queensland, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya. (36)

- Contains alkaloids demethoxy-kanugin, gamatay, glabrin, glabrosaponin, kaempferol, kanjone, kanugin, karangin, neoglabrin, pinnatin, pongamol, pongapin, quercitin, saponin, ß-sitosterol and tannin.
- Seeds yield a thick, reddish brown oil known as pongam oil (also called pangamol or hongay oil) employed medicinally and as an illuminant and in the manufacture of soaps and candles.
- Seeds yielded six compounds (two sterols, three sterol derivatives and one disaccharide) together with eight fatty acids (three saturated and five unsaturated). Metabolite yield consisted of ß-sitosteryl acetate and galactoside, stigma sterol, its galactoside, and sucrose. Of the fatty acids, oleic acid occurred in highest amount (44.24%), followed by stearic (29.64%) and palmitic (18.58%) acids.
- The bark contains a bitter alkaloid.
- Fatty acids in the oil include myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, lignoceric, dihydroxystearic, linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids.
- A watery extract yields mucilage, which is gelatinized by ferric chloride.
- Study of a 50% ethanol syrup of stem bark yielded seven flavonoids, pongaflavone (1), karanjin (2), pongapin (3), pongachromene (4), 3,7-Dimethoxy-3', 4'-methylenedioxyflavone (5), millettocalyxin C( 6), 3,3',4', 7-tetramethoxyflavone (7). (25)
- A methanol extract of dry stems yielded a new chlorinated flavonoid, 2′,6′-dichlore-3′, 5′-dimethoxy-[2′′,3′′:7,8]-furanoflavone (1) together with 29 known compounds, including flavonoids (compounds 2–17), isoflavonoids (compounds 18–23), chalcones (compounds 24–25), flavonones (compounds 26–27), triterpenes (28–29) and alkaloid (30). (see study below) (
- Study of various extracts yielded alkaloids, anthraquinone glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, carbohydrates and steroid.
- GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of leaves yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids, saponins.
- Study of defatted seeds of Pongamia pinnata yielded five sugars viz., d-mannose, d-glucose, d-xylose, raffinose, L-fructose, along with five amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine acid, tryptophan and threonine.
- Phytochemical screening of crude extracts of leaf, bark, flower and root yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, tannins, carbohydrates, phenols, coumarins, saponins, phlobatannins, and steroids. (see study below) (52)
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloid, steroid, carbohydrate, tannin, flavonoids, terpenoid, coumarins, phenol and quinone. (56)
- Phytochemical screening of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves yielded flavones, alkaloids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids, gum and mucilage, flavonoids, saponins, and steroid hormones. (see study below) (

- Seed has a bitter taste, probably from the resinous bitter principle.
- Seeds are febrifuge, tonic and antiseptic.
- Bark decoction give a blue-black color with iodine solution.
- Oil is used as antiseptic and stimulant, stomachic and chologogue. It is applied to skin diseases, scabies, sores and herpes. For eczema, the oil is mixed with zinc oxide.
- An embrocation of equal parts of oil and lemon juice applied in muscular and articular rheumatism, psoriasis, porrigo capitis, and pityriasis.
- Oil also used in pityriasis versicolor and other fungal skin afflictions.
- Oil taken internally as stomachic and chologogue for dyspepsia and sluggish livers.
- In Ayurvedic medicine, the root and bark are anthelmintic.
- In Ayurveda and Unani medicine, used as anti-inflammatory, anti-plasmodial, antinoniceptive, antihyperglycemic, anti-lipidoxidative, anti-diarrheal, anti-ulcer, anti-hyperammonic and antioxidant.
- Studies have suggested antibacterial, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, anti-lice, anti-lipid peroxidative, gastroprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-hyperammonemia, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-psoriatic, nephroprotective, phytoremediative, anti-anxiety, CNS depressant properties.

Parts used
Seeds, leaves, roots, stems, bark.

- In the Philippines, decoction of leaves given to children for bronchitis and cough.
- Juice of leaves used for itches and herpes.
- In the Island of Guimaras, bark used by the natives as abortifacient.
- Decoction of leaves used for a variety of gastric maladies (tympanism, dyspepsia, diarrhea).
- Decoction of leaves used as bath for rheumatic joints.
- Juice of stems, leaves, and roots for painful joints.
- Juice of roots used for cleaning foul ulcers and closing fistulous sores.
- For hemorrhoids, poultice of finely pounded leaves, rolled into an elongated mass, insert into rectum as a suppository, at bedtime.
- For skin diseases, roasted seeds are pounded and applied over affected areas.
- For skin ulcers, leaves of crushed roots or leaves are applied over affected areas.
- Mixture of oil and zinc oxide used for eczema.
- In Tanjore, juice of roots mixed with coconut milk and lime water used as a remedy for gonorrhea.
- Oil also used for pityriasis versicolor and other fungal skin problems.
- Seed oil used to treat scabies, herpes and rheumatism.
- Poultice of leaves used for wounds infested with maggots.
- Juice of roots with coconut milk used for treatment of gonorrhea.
- Flowers used for diabetes.
- Used to relieve vaginal itching.
- Bark yields a black gum used for treating wounds from poisonous fish.
- In India, fruits and sprouts used for abdominal tumors, bronchitis, chronic fevers, whooping cough; young shoots used for rheumatism. Seed oil used in scabies, leprosy, hemorrhoids, ulcers, liver pain and lumbago.
- In Sri Lanka, seeds used for keloid tumors. Decoction of leaves used for pain.
- In Vietnam, plant derived powder used for tumors.
- Oil used as liniment for rheumatism.
- Leaf juice used for cold, cough, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gonorrhea and leprosy.
- Young leaves applied to bleeding hemorrhoids.
- Bark used internally for bleeding piles.
- Powdered seeds, after decortication, used as specific for whooping cough; also used as febrifuge and tonic in asthenic and debilitating conditions.
- Roots used for cleaning gums, teeth and ulcers.
- Oil: Seed oil used as illuminant and in the manufacture of soaps and candles.
- Rope: Bark used for making strings and rope.
- Fish poison: Roots and seeds are used to poison fish in Australia and Madoera.
- Repellent: Dried leaves used in stored grains to repel insects.
- Fodder: Leaves used as fodder in India.
- Twigs used as chewstick for cleaning teeth.
- Dye: Ash of wood used for dyeing.

Biofuel plant source:
Studied for potential use as biodiesel plant. A pilot project in India showed pongamia biodiesel to require little or no engine modification in up to 20% blend with diesel, with substantial 30% reduction in un-burnt hydrocarbons, 20% carbon monoxide, and 25% particulate matter, no sulfur, with a 10% inbuilt oxygen that is a plus for combustion with a favorable Cetane of 51 (46, the lower limit for good combustion rating). It yields fruits and seeds by the 4th to 7th year, with seed yield from 10-250 kilos per tree. Pongamia's non-edible "Karanja oil" has properties similar to conventional diesel, but with cleaner emissions, nonopolyaromatic, with lesser toxic smoke and soot. Pongamia by-products can be used as cattle feed supplement. The leftover portion of Pongamia seeds contains up to 30 per cent protein and can be fed to cattle, sheep and poultry.
Experimental Study of Oil as Diesel Substitute:
Various blends of non-edible vegetable oil, honge (P. pinnata) in India, prepared and tested over a wide range of engine load showed a 15 to 20 percent pongamia methylester-diesel blend could be a better fuel in terms of fuel efficiency and power developed, with improvement in brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption.
Biodiesel Feedstock / Industrial Applications:
Major fatty acids in Pongamia pinnata crude oil were palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, eicosanoic acid. The oil extracts showed good physic chemical properties with potential as biodiesel feedstock and industrial applications. (28)
Synthesis and Use of Catalyst / Biodiesel from Seed Oil: Study showed the presence of sodium methoxide-treated algae catalyst played a substantial role in increasing the conversion of Pongamia pinnata seed oil in biodiesel production. (51)

Antibacterial: Pongam oil has shown inhibitory effects on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pulilus, Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas mangiferae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and albus, Xanthomas campestris. (2) Phytochemical screening revealed carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins and saponins. Results showed a wide range of antibacterial activity.
Antioxidant / Hypoglycemic / Flowers: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidatve effects of aqueous extract of P. pinnata flowers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects. Not only did it reduce glucose levels and lipid peroxides, but also enhanced antioxidants to a level similar to glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (6)
Effect in Infectious Diarrhea / Leaves:
evaluated a crude decoction of dried leaves for antimicrobial effect and its effect on production of enterotoxins. The decoction had antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activity, but showed reduced production of cholera toxin and bacterial invasion to epithelial cells. Results showed selective antidiarrheal action with efficacy against cholera and enteroinvasive bacterial strains causing bloody diarrheal episodes. (3)
Hyperammonemia is a major contributor to the neurologic abnormalities of hepatic encepalopathy. Study showed a anti-hyperammonemic effect attributed to a nephroprotective effect by detoxifying excess urea and creatinine, free-radical scavenging and its antioxidant property. (7)
Anticonvulsant: Ethanolic extract showed significant anticonvulsant activity by lowering the duration of extension phase. The effect is attributed to flavonoids.
Anti-Lice: Study showed the petroleum ether extract to possess excellent anti-lice activity. It presents a potential in using P pinnata leaves against P humanus capitis situations resistant to synthetic anti-lice agents. (
Anti-Ulcer / Gastroprotective: Phytochemical tests yielded the presence of flavonoids in the methanolic seed extract of Pongamia pinnata. It showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effects. The effect may be attributed to flavonoids with actions on the mucosal offensive and defensive factors. (10)
Karanjin / Gastroprotective / Antioxidant : Study evaluated the gastroprotective properties of karanjin from karanja (P. pinnata) seeds in adult male albino rats with experimentally induced ulcers. Karanjin exhibited ulcer protection and inhibition of oxidative stress. Results suggest karanjin can be an effective anti-ulcer agent, and being non-toxic, can be used in combination with other nutraceuticals in the management of oxidative stress-induced disease conditions. (14)
Antihyperglycemic / Anti-lipidperoxidative / Flower: Study of flower extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic and anti-lipid-peroxidative effects with enhancement of antioxidant defense systems. Results suggest a potential for a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. (15)
Antioxidant / Flowers: Ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. pinnata were tested for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoids as quercetin equivalents. Extracts exhibited significant antioxidant activity. (18)
Biofuel / Pongame: Pongame oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of P. pinnata. Study investigated the potential of Pongame oil as an alternative source of bioenergy (biodiesel). Seeds yielded 35% oil by weight. The fuel properties of the oil were very close to high-speed diesel. Results suggest Pongame biodiesel is a good alternative for renewable energy that could reduce dependency on imported foreign oil. (20)
Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of P. pinnata using various assays (DPPH free radical, Nitric oxide scavenging assays, Superoxide ion scavenging assays, ABTS and iron chelating methods). Results showed a significant correlation between extract concentrations and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The activity was presumed related to phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. (19)
CD4-Th2 Cytokine Stimulation: Immune cells produce cytokines in response to various stimuli. The cytokine immune cells milieu have a positive outcome on the immune response generated. In a study of immune stimulation of P. pinnata on healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, results showed P. pinnata extracts induced abundant IL-10 production, suggesting it to be a strong inducer of Th-2 cytokines with a potential to treat Th-1 cytokine mediated pathology. (21)
Anticonvulsant / PTZ-induced Convulsions: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of a leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata in pentylene tetrazole induced convulsion (PTZ) in rats. An ethanolic extract showed significant anticonvulsant activity with lowering of the duration of the extension phase. (23)
Alkaloids and Oil from Seed: Study of karanja seed oil yielded alkaloids and 32% bitter, red brown thick oil
. The alkaloids and oil were recovered from seeds and defatted kernels by two extractions. (24)
Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for in vivo analgesic activity using Eddy's Hot plate method in mice. Results showed significant dose-dependent analgesic activity. Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, amino acids, fixed oils, phytosterols, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity.   (26)
Antiulcer / Leaves: A methanolic extract
produced significant reduction in ulcer index in both HCl - ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer models in Wistar rats. (27)
Anti-Diabetic / Leaves:
Study of a methanolic leaf extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed potent anti-diabetic effects.
Anti-Pyretic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-pyretic activity of methanol extracts of P. pinnata leaves using experimental animal models. Results showed significant anti-pyretic activity using the brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. (
Antiviral / Herpes Simplex Virus / Seed: Study evaluated P. pinnata for antiviral properties against herpes simplex virus. A crude aqueous seed extract completely inhibited the growth of HSV-1 and HSV-2 at concentrations of 1 and 20 mg/ml, as shown by complete absence of of cytopathic effect.
Lack of Diuretic Activity / Leaves: A water extract of P. pinnata does not possess significant diuretic activity in rats as was claimed in traditional and folkloric medicine. (32)
Hepatoprotective / IR Induced Hepatic Reperfusion Injury: Study investigated the possible protective effect of P. pinnata hydroalcoholic leaf extract on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Results showed the leaf extract at a dose of 400 mg/k/day reduced I/R induced organ injury through its ability to balance the oxidant/antioxidant state. (33)
Potential for Neurodegenerative Diseases: Study of dichloride methane extract of dry stem yielded a new chlorinated flavonoid together with 29 known compounds. Pongaglabol methyl ether (20, lonchocarpin (24) and glabrachromene II (25) were selected as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases because of their significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities. (see constituents above) (34)
Acute Oral Toxicity / Seeds: Study of crude seed extracts for acute toxicity in female albino Wistar rats showed safety up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. (37)
Antibacterial: In a study for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, an ethanolic extract of Pongami pinnata showed to be more effective than aqueous and methanolic extracts. (see constituents above) (38) Study of seed extracts showed good bactericidal activity against selected Hospitalized pathogens with maximum activity exhibited on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with inhibition zone of 20 mm by methanol extract and 18.5 mm by ethanol extract in comparison to Ceftazidime. (53)
Protective in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Cerebrovascular Insufficiency States / Roots: Study evaluated an ethanolic root extract on oxidant-antioxidant status and histopathological changes in acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat forebrain. Results showed attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion induced increase in lipid peroxidation, SOD activity, and fall in T-SH (tissue sulfhydryl) values, together with amelioration of histopathological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the frontoparietal region of the rat brain. There was also alleviation of anxiety and listlessness, with improvement of learning and memory deficits. Results suggest a protective role in ischemia-reperfusion injury and cerebrovascular insufficiency states. (
Cardioprotective / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the effect of petroleum ether extract of stem bark of P. pinnata on cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Results showed decrease in blood glucose, improved ECG and hemodynamic parameters, controlled levels of cardiac biomarkers, and improved oxidative stress. The extract presents a promising remedy against diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Antipsoriatic Ayurvedic Ointment / Bark: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of bark of Pongamia pinnata in a commercial preparation SUEX GEL for antipsoriasis effect in a rat ultraviolet ray photodermatitis model. The irradiated rat skin treated with SUEX FEL containing aqueous extract of bark of P. pinnata showed significant reduction in total epidermal thickness, retention of stratum granulosum and absence of neutrophil movement. Results suggest efficacy for potential use in the treatment of psoriasis.
Antihistaminic / Antispasmodic / Seeds: Study evaluated the antihistaminic and anti-spasmodic potential of ethanol extract of Pongamia pinnata seeds using isolated goat tracheal chain and chicken ileum preparation. Results showed a significant decrease in contraction induced by histamine in isolated goat tracheal chain and chicken ileum preparation.

Synergistic Hypoglycemic Effect of Pongamia glabra and Ficus glomerata:
Study showed a synergistic antihyperglycemic effect of low doses of methanolic extracts of Pl glabra and Ficus glomerata in comparison with individual treatments in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.01) synergistic antihyperglycemic effect with low doses of combination therapy.   (45)
Anti-Ulcer and Anti-Secretory / Roots:
Study evaluated the anti-ulcer potential and antisecretory properties of methanol extract of P. pinnata root extract against gastric ulcerations induced by aspirin, alcohol, and pylorus ligation models. The methanol extract at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001) inhibition of ulcer formation. In vitro antioxidant activity evaluation showed significant correlation between concentration of extract and percentage of inhibition of free radicals. The antioxidant property may be related to flavonoids and polyphenols present in the extract. Results suggest the root extract of P. pinnata is effective against free radical mediated ulcer disease. (47)
Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Seeds / Leaves:
Study reports on a proficient, safer, and sustainable way for preparation of AgNPs using Pongamia pinnata seeds. At its LD50 dose, the AgNPs showed synergistic antibacterial effect with ampicillin when tested against E. coli ATCC 25922. (48) Study reports on the eco-friendly and cost-effective extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of oven dried leaves of P. pinnata. The silver nanoparticles were effective against E. coli (ATCC 8739), S. aureus (ATCC 6538p), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and K. pneumoniae (clinical isolate). (56)
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Flower and Seed: Study showed a flower extract to have good antioxidant activity with an aqueous extract showing maximum activity. The seed extracts showed to have good antimicrobial activity, and an aqueous flower extract showed activity against Brucella melitensis and P. fluorescens. (49)
• Sunscreen Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the photoabsorptive property of different extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata in the ultraviolet region (200-400 nm) in comparison to standard sunscreen drug, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The extracts of leaves showed extremely good absorbance throughout the UV region including the UVA region. Results suggest potential use in formulation of highly effective sunscreen preparations that can enhance and effectively contribute to UV absorbing properties of conventional sunscreen. (50)
• Antimalarial / Bark: Study evaluated the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain). Of all tested extracts, the methanol extract of bark showed potent in vitro antimalarial activity with IC50 11.67 µg/mL. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed it was non toxic against Brine shrimp and THP-1 cells. Results showed the methanolic bark extract has promisingly high (p<0.05) and dose-dependent chemosuppression. (see constituents above) (52)

• Antinociceptive / Leaves: Study investigated the antinociceptive potential of an aqueous leaf extract of P. pinnata in rats using various doses in hot-plate, tail-flick and formalin tests. The ALE showed marked and significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive action on hot-plate and formalin tests. Results suggest the antinociceptive action was mediated centrally (supraspinal) and peripherally and probably mediated via dopaminergic and cholinoganic muscarinic mechanisms. (54)
• In Vitro Cytotoxic Studies / Seed Powder: Study evaluated the cytotoxic nature of the plant using seed powder and callus on Daphne cultures. Results showed better responses with the seed powder extract and suggests a good source of cytotoxic compounds. (55)
• Methylene Blue Dye Adsorbent / Seed Shell Carbon: Study showed Pongamia pinnata seed shell carbon can be used as an effective low cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. (57)
• Phytoremediation / Removal of Heavy Metals from Soil Affected by Industrial Waste: Study reports on the phytoremediation potential of P. pinnata in remediating soils contaminated by Mn-based industrial waste. Results suggest that P. pinnata showed positive indication as hyperaccumulator in remediating soils contaminated by industrial waste. (58)
• Antihyperammonemic Effect / Nephroprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihyperammonemic efficacy of a leaf extract of P. pinnata in ammonium chloride induced hyperammonemic rats. Levels of blood ammonia, circulatory urea, uric acid, non-protein nitrogen and creatinine were significantly decreased in rats treated with PPEt. The antihyperammonemic effect could be attributed to a nephroprotective effect via detoxifying of excess urea and creatinine, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant property. (59)
• Carbon Nanoparticles / Shoots: Study reports on the facile green synthesis of carbon nanoparticles using P. pinnata shoots in the presence of castor oil. The emergence of carbon nanoparticles has potential in biological labeling, bioimaging, and various optoelectronic device applications. (61)
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated various organic extracts of P. pinnata leaves for antibacterial potential against food spoilage and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Organic extracts of chloroform,, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts at concentration of 2500 µg/ml showed promising antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium with zones of inhibition in the range of 8.1 to 18 mm and MIC range of 125 to 1000 µg/mL. Results suggest potential use in the food and pharmaceutical industry. (62)
• Antiviral / Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Activity . Inhibition of HBV DNA Polymerase / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-hepatitis virus activity of P. pinnata extracts by in vitro screening assays. Results showed concentration of 5 mg/ml of aqueous extract significantly inhibited virus binding. Compounds isolated from the seed extract were active chalcone derivatives glabaarachalcone and isopongachromene. The two compounds bound with HBV DNA polymerase protein target. (63)
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the antioxidant properties of of active compounds from P. pinnata seed oil. The active compounds from the seed oil showed variable nitric oxide, superoxide, and iron chelating activities associated with potent antioxidant status. The IC50s of karanjin and pongapin were 7.1 ± 0.6 µM and 9.8 ± 0.2 µM, respectively. (64)
• Enhanced Collagen Expression of Stem Cells: Study evaluated the effects of Pongamia pinnata extract on morphology and proliferation potential of human gingival stem cells using immunofluorescent assays. Results showed beneficial effects on mesenchymal stem cells with enhanced collagen 1 expression. (65)
• Antibacterial / Flowers: Study evaluated the antibacterial potential of various flower extracts of P. pinnata against six potential pathogenic bacteria. The flower extract exhibited promising antibacterial activity against enteric pathogens. viz. E. coli, B. cereus, K. pneumonia, E. aerogenes, and S. aureus.    (66)
• Pongamol / Toxicity Study / Seed: Pongamol was isolated from the seed of the plant. Studies on pongamol has shown induction of quinone reductase, anticonvulsant and CNS-depressant effects and promotion of increased sensitivity to sound and touch. Study evaluated the subacute toxicity of pongamol isolated from Pongamia pinnata on long Evan's rats. Sub-acute toxicity studies showed no abnormalities on body weight, hematologic and biochemical parameters and histopathology. Results suggest pongamol can be subjected to chronic toxicological studies and clinical trial. (67)
• Nematicidal: GC-MS study of methanol extract of P. pinnata yielded 16 phytochemical components. Dominant compounds were n-hexadecanoic acid, stigmasta-3-ol, 5-chloro-acetate (3,5), phytol, 4--piperidinamine N,1-dimethyl and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpiperidine. The compounds exhibited potential nematicidal properties. (68)
• Wound Healing / Bark: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of stem bark for wound healing activity using incision and excision wound models on albino wistar rats. Parameters measured were breaking strength in incision wounds, epithelization period and wound area in excision wounds. The ethanol extract showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in wound breaking strength in the incision model and significant increase in wound healing parameters in the excision model. (69)
• Antibacterial Against MRSA / Flavonoids / Seeds: Study evaluated the antibacterial property of seed extracts of P. pinnata and isolated flavonoids against clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the flavonoids extracted, quercitin was the chief component. The crude extracts showed highest antibacterial activity (75-89%). Extracted flavonoids showed 66-92% activity.      (70)
Bioavailability of Karanjin / Seeds: Karanjin Is a major bioactive furanoflavone of P. pinnata seeds, which has been reported as antioxidant, ATP-ase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory. Study of ethanolic extract of seeds reports on the oral pharmacokinetics of karanjin in Sprague Dawley female rats using a validated RP-HPLC method. Data is deemed applicable for future investigation on karanjin for various therapeutic uses, dosage studies formulations, and route of administration. (71)
Antihyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated P. pinnata leaf extract for possible antihyperlipidemic effect in triton (400 mg/kbw)-induced and atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. There was significant lowering of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, with increase in HDL. Results showed the chloroform extract of leaves possessed significant antihyperlipidemic activity and has potential as adjuvant herbal medicine for treatment of hyperlipidemia. (72)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Seeds: Study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of P. pinnata seeds using acetic acid induced writhing and suppression of edema formation, respectively. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and weak peripheral analgesic activity. (73)
Anti-Alzheimer Activity / Karanjin and Embelin / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-Alzheimer activity of isolated karanjin and embelin from P. pinnata using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze model on Swiss albino mice. Diazepam was used to induce Alzheimer-like effects on mice and piracetam was used as standard. Embelin and karanjin decreased the transfer latency time in a dose dependent manner in EPM test and escape latency time in MWM method. Both compounds and standard significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam and improved learning and memory of mice in a dose and time dependent manner. Results supports the ethnobotanical use of the plants in India for management of nerve or brain related problems. (74)
Anti-Anxiety / CNS Depressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-anxiety and CNS depressant properties of hydroalcoholic extract o P. pinnata leaves. In acute toxicity testing, dose level of 1000 mg/kbw, the extract caused no signs of toxicity or mortality. Using light and dark model methods for anti-anxiety behavior and CNS depressant action using actophotometer in rats, the extract showed strong anti-anxiety and CNS depressant behavior similar to control group diazepam treated animals. (76)
Applications / Review: Interest in Pongamia has focused on its potential of seeds as biofuel source, which contain around 40% oil. The review discusses the multiple applications beyond biofuel production. It has varying levels of tolerance to drought, salinity, and heavy metals in soils. It has potential to mitigate climate change through CO2 sequestration. Beside its medicinal properties, the oil can be used as biopesticide, insect repellent, for soap production, and as source of edible grade vegetable oil. The seed cake can be a source of bioenergy, food and feed protein, organic fertilizer; the flowers as a source of pollen and nectar. It socioeconomic potential comes for its ability to restore degraded and contaminated land. Further studies on the mechanisms of resiliency to abiotic stress, phytoremediation potential, and biotic interactions should be a priority. (77)
• Fiber Potential / Stalk: Study evaluated the potential of using Milletia pinnata stalk for extracting cellulosic natural fibers for use in reinforced composites. Compositional analysis showed the fibers possessed 54% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose,  15% lignin, and 11% ash, with tensile strength of 310 MPa, comparable to cotten and linen. Tensile strength of M. pinnata fiber-reinforced polypropylene composite was 17.96 MPa, similar to other natural fiber-based composites. Study suggests promising wide range of uses including textiles and various composite applications. (78)


Updated September 2020 / January 2018 / October 2016

                                                    PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Pongamia Pinnata Seeds / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pongamia Pinnata Flowers / J M Garg / Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration: Pongamia pinnata Blanco2.417.png / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Flora de Filipinas: 1880 - 1883 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pongamia Pinnata inflorescence / Ulhaspa / CC BY-SA 3.0 / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: mLine drawing /Public Domain (1) image from Minor Products of Philippine Forests / Vol 2 / William H Brown / Figure 32/ Pongamia pinnata (Bani) The Source of Pongam Oil / 1920 / Modified by G. Stuart
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Pongamia Pinnata Pods and seed / Rawlife / Rajeev B / CC BY-SA 4.0 / Image modified / Click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Pongamia pinnata
/ James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
RP TOLD TO LOOK INTO OTHER BIOFUEL PLANT SOURCE / Melody M. Aguiba / 04-February-2007 Manila Bulletin
Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea / Brijesh S. Daswani P. G. Tetali P. Rojatkar S. R. Antia N. H. Birdi T. J. / Zhejiang Univ. - Sci. B (2006) 7: 665. / DOI: 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0665
Pongamia pinnata: Phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological properties: A review
/ VV Chopade, AN Tankar, VV Pande

Effect of Pongamia pinnata flowers on blood glucose and oxidative stree in alloxan induced diabetic rats / R Punitha, K Vasudevan, S Manoharan / Indian J Pharmaco, Feb 2006; Vol 38, Issue 1: pp 62-63 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.19858
Protective influence of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) on blood ammonia and urea levels in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia: antihyperammonemic effect of the leaf extract / Musthafa Mohamed Essa et al / J. Appl. Biomed / Received 28th April 2005. Published online 10th June 2005.
Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Pongamia pinnata Linn in experimental animals / Ashish Manigauha et al / International Journal of PharmTech Research • Vol.1, No.4, pp 1119-1121, Oct-Dec 2009
In Vitro Screening of Anti-lice Activity of Pongamia pinnata Leaves / Anbu Jeba Sunilson John Samuel et al / Korean J Parasitol. Vol. 47, No. 4: 377-380, December 2009 DOI: 10.3347/kjp.2009.47.4.377
Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnasta Linn seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats / T Prabha et al / Indian Journ of Experimental Biology • Vol 47, Aug 2009, pp 649-659.
Phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of leaves of Pongamia pinnata Linn. (Fabaceae) from India / S R Arote et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (22), pp. 6393-6396, 16 November, 2009
An experimental study of Pongamia pinnata L. oil as a diesel substitute / P Mahanta, S C Mishra, Y S Kushwah / Journal of Power and Energy
Gastroprotective Properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) Seeds; Role as Antioxidant and H+, K+-ATPase Inhibitor / Vismaya, Srikanta M Belagihally, Sindhu Rajashekhar et al / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011 / doi:10.1093/ecam/neq027
Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats / R Punitha and S Manoharan / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 105, No 1-2, 21 April 2006, Pages 39-46 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.037
Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Pongamia pinnata (L.) / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
In Vitro Studies on Extracts of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre Flowers as a Potent Antioxidant / Dr. Rajesh Babu Dandamudi / International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science TechnologyVolume 1, Number 1 (2010), pp. 7-11
Biodiesel from Pongamia pinnata L. Oil: A Promising Alternative Bioenergy Source / M Ahmad, M Zafar, M Khan, S Sultana / DOI:10.1080/15567030802092882 /Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Volume 31, Issue 16, 2009
Abundant CD4 Th-2 cytokine stimulation by medicinal plant Pongamia pinnata Linn. on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) / M. Manikannan1, P. Durgadevi, S. Subramaniyan and Elanchezhiyan Manickan* / International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Vol. 4(2), pp. 27-32, 20 January, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/IJPPB11.049
/ SIMIN SHAMEEL, K. USMANGHANI, M. SHAIQ ALI* AND VIQAR UDDIN AHMAD* / Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.9(1), January 1996, pp.11-20
Extraction of Alkaloids and Oil from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) Seed /
M. S. Rahman, M. B. Islam, M. A. Rouf, M. A. Jalil, M. Z. Haque / Journal of Scientific Research > Vol 3, No 3 (2011)
Study on flavonoids from stem bark of Pongamia pinnata / Hao Yin, Si Zhang, Jun Wu / Zhong yao cai--Zhongyaocai -- Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 08/2004; 27(7):493-5.
Analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn. Leaves / Rahul Deo Yadav*, S. K. Jain, Shashi Alok, Shallu Sharma / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2011: 3(5) pp 179-182
ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA IN RATS / *Anupriya Pandey Vaibhavi Jakhetia and Sonu Sharma / Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics; 2013, 3(3), 85-89
Detail study on the Properties of Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja) for the Production of Biofuel / Bobade S.N. and Khyade V.B. / Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 2(7), 16-20, July (2012)
Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats /
Selvaraju Kavipriya, Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan, Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai, Gangaipillai Arum / Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 2013; 1(2): 113-117 / doi:10.12980/JCLM.1.2013J9
ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA / Jimidi.Bhaskar* Venkateshwarlu Goli, Sravan Prasad Macharla, N.L Gowrishankar, Ch.Dhanalakshmi, Kanakam.Vijay Bhaskar / Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Vol. 3 (7), 2011,628-630
Antiviral properties of the seed extract of an Indian medicinal plant, Pongarnia pinnata, Linn., against herpes simplex viruses: in-vitro studies on Vero cells / M. ELANCHEZHIYAN, S. RAJARAJAN", P. RAJENDRAN, S. SUBRAMANIAN and S. P. THYAGARAJANT / J. Med. Microbiol. - Vol. 38 (1993), 262-264
Lack of diuretic activity of water extract of leaves of Pongamia pinnata L. in rats / SA Deraniyagala, WD Ratnasooriya, S Priyadharshini, TRK Perera / J Pharm Negative Results 2014; 5: pp 19-21 / DOI: 10.4103/0976-9234.136782
Natural therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases from a traditional herbal medicine Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre / Jiayuan Li, Zhe Jiang, Xuezheng Li, Yue Hou, Fen Liu, Ning Li, Xia Liu, Lihua Yang, Gang Chen, J. Li, Z. Jiang, X. Li, Y. Hou, F. Liu, N. Li, X. Liu, L. Yang, G. Chen / Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2015, 25 (1), pp 53-58 / DOI 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.11.015
CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PONGAMIA PINNATA HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC LEAF EXTRACT AGAINST ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS / Behera Saiprasanna, S. Manohar Babu, Y. Roja Ramani, Choudhury Prasanta Kumar, Panigrahi Rajeshree / International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 3, 2012
Pongamia pinnata / Synonyms / KEW: Plants of the World Online
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Pongamia pinnata L., Curcuma longa L. and Mentha arvenis L. Against Staphylococcus aureus / Sasmita Panigrahi, Sujata Mahapatra / International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.9, No.02 pp 205-212, 2016
Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of the Leaves of Pongamia Pinnata Linn / Prashanth G.K, G.M. Krishnaiah / International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, November 2014; Vol. 3, Issue 11 / ISSN: 2319-8753
Study on cow urine and Pongamia pinnata Linn seed in farmyard: A natural, cost effective, ecofriendly remedy to bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of paddy / A. M. Murugan*, S. Shanthi, C. Arunachalam, N. Sivakumar, S. Elamathy and K. Rajapandian / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(40), pp. 9591-9598, 17 May, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.4166
Effect of ethanolic extract of root of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre on oxidative stress, behavioral and histopathological alterations induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and long-term hypoperfusion in rats / Raghavendra M. et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 45, Oct 2007, pp 868-876
Cardioprotective Activity of Pongamia pinnata in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats /
Sachin L. Badole, Swapnil M. Chaudhari, Ganesh B. Jangam, Amit D. Kandhare, and Subhash L. Bodhankar / BioMed Research International, Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/403291
Antipsoriatic activity of ayurvedic ointment containing aqueous extract of the bark of Pongamia pinnata using the rat ultraviolet ray photodermatitis model / Divakara P., Nagaraju B., Buden R. P., Sekhar H. S. and Ravi C. M. / Advancement in Medicinal Plant Research, Vol 1, Issue 1; January 28, 2013: pp 8-16
Antihistaminic and Antispasmodic Potential of Pongamia pinnata / Suralkar M. M. and Sarda P. P. / Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res. 2014; 4 (2): 120-122
SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF BARK EXTRACTS OF PONGAMIA GLABRA AND FICUS GLOMERATA IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Sanjeev Heroor*, Arunkumar Beknal, Nitin Mahurkar / World Journal of Pharmacy and Phamaceutical Sciences, Vol2, Isssue 6.
Chemical Examination of the Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre / Yadava .R. N., Chakravarty Archana / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2014; 6(2); 282-283
Anti-ulcer and anti- secretory properties of the Pongamia Pinnata root extract with relation to anti -oxidant studies. / *Prakash Patil , Prasad. K, Nitin. M, Sreenivasa Rao. K. / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 1, Issue 2, April-June 2010
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pongamia pinnata seed: Characterization, antibacterial property, and spectroscopic investigation of interaction with human serum albumin. / Maidul Beg, Anukul Maji, Amit Kumar Mandal, Somnath Das, Mt Nasima Aktara, Pradeep K Jha, Maidul Hossain / Journal of Molecular Recognition, 2016 Sep 28, 30(1) / https://doi.org/10.1002/jmr.2565
STUDY OF SUNSCREEN ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS, METHANOL AND ACETONE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF PONGAMIA PINNATA (L.) PIERRE, FABACEAE / Priyank A. Shenoy, Sachin S. Khot, Manisha C. Chavan, Jagruti V. Takawale, Sonia Singh / IJGP:International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2010; Vol 4, No 4 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-8258.74137
Synthesis and use of a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from Pongamia pinnata seed oil with dimethyl carbonate / Balaji M Panchal & Hazem M Kalaji / International Journal of Green Energy, Vol 14, Issue 7 (2017)
Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) / P.V.V. Satish and K. Sunita* / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2017) 17: 458 / DOI 10.1186/s12906-017-1958-y
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Pongamia pinnata linn on Pathogens of Clinical Isolates / Mary Shobha Rani, C D Dayanand*, Jeevan Shetty Pradeep Kumar Vegi, and A V Moideen Kutty / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 1(8); 3013: pp 645-651
Antinociceptive activity of the aqueous leaves of P ongamia pinnata in rats
/ WD Ratnasooriya, SA Deraniyagala, S Priyadharshini / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, Vol 6, Issue 3; March 2016: pp 15-22
In Vitro Cytotoxic Studies Of Pongamia Pinnata Pierre Using Aqueous Extracts Of Seed Powder And Callus / Rajani Shirsat and Aruna Rai / Octa Journal of Biosciences
Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried leaves of pongamia pinnata (L) pierre
/ Rajesh W. Raut*, Niranjan S. Kolekar, Jaya R. Lakkakula, Vijay D. Mendhulkar, Sahebrao B. Kashid / Nano-Micro Letters, June 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 106-113 / DOI:10.5101/nml.v2i2.p106-113
Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Pongamia Pinnata Seed / Manoj L Meshram and Dilip H Lataye / International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, Vol 3, Issue 11, Nov 20014
Phytoremediation Potential of Urban Tree (Pongamia pinnata) in Removing Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils Affected by Mn-Based Industrial Waste
/ Nurul Nabila Binti Mhd Azman / Thesis: 2015 / Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Protective influence of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) on blood ammonia and urea levels in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia: antihyperammonemic effect of the leaf extract / Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Perumal Subramanian, Ganapathy Suthakar, Tamilarasan Manivasagam, Kadiyala Babu Dakshayani / Journal of Applied Biomedicine, 3; 2005
Biodiesel Synthesis from Pongamia pinnata oil over Modified CeO2 Catalysts / Venkatesh, Sathgatta Zaheeruddin Mohamed Shamshuddin,* Manjunatha Shyamsundar, Vanagoor Thammannigowda Vasanth /J. Mex. Chem. Soc vol.58 no.4 México oct./dic. 2014
Facile green synthesis of carbon nanoparticles using medicinally potent Pongamia pinnata shoots / B.S. Naveen Prasad, T.V.N. Padmesh, K.S. Uma Suganya, K. Govindaraju, V. Ganesh Kumar / Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Pages 12-16, April 2016
Antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Pongamia pinnata from India / Vivek Bajpai, Auqur Rahman, Savita shukla et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2009; 47(12) / https://doi.org/10.3109/13880200903019218
Inhibition studies of HBV DNA polymerase using seed extracts of Pongamia pinnata.
/ Mathayan M, Jayaraman S, Kulanthaivel L, Suresh A / Bioinformation, 31 July 2019; 15(7): pp 506-512 / DOI: 10.6026/97320630015506 / PMID: 31485136 / PMCID: PMC6704329 
Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Seed Components of Pongamia Pinnata -A Comparative Study / Arpita Ghosh Mitra, Suvra Mandal, Priyabrata Das, Swati Dasgupta, Soma Mukhopadhyay, Asish Mukhopadhyay, Julie Banerjee and Manoj Kar / Organic and Medicinal Chemistry.Sept 2018; 7(5) / DOI: 10.19080/OMCIJ.2018.07.555723 / ISSN: 2474-7610
Short term application of Pongamia pinnata enhances the collagen I expression of stem cells / Hyunjin Lee, Md. Salah Uddin, Yong-In Kim, Sangho Choi and Jun-Beom Park / Biomedical Research, 2017; Volume 28, Issue 20
Sub-Acute Toxicological Studies of Pongamol Isolated from Pongamia pinnata / Md. Abdullahil Baki, 2Alam Khan. M Abdul Alim Al-Bari, Ashik Mosaddik, G. Sadik and K.A.M.S.H. Mondal / Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2007; 2(2): pp 53-57

GC-MS DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF PONGAMIA PINNATA (L) PIERRE (FABACEAE) / Sevukani Mohamed Ibrahim and *Mariappan Vaitheeswaran / World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences / ISSN: 2278-4357
Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Pongamia pinnata Bark / S K Bhandirge, A S Tripathi, R K Bhandirge, T P Chinchmalatpure, H C Desai, A V Chandewar / Drug Res (Stuttg), 2015; 65(6): pp 296-299 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1384537
Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids Extracted from Seeds of Pongamia pinnata Linn on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Mary Shobha Rani Inala, C. D. Dayanand, Nagarjuna Sivaraj, P. M. Beena and A. V. M. Kutty / British Microbiology Research Journal, 2015; 10(1): pp 1-8 / ISSN: 2231-0886 / DOI: 10.9734/BMRJ/2015/20002
Bioavailability of karanjin from Pongamia pinnata L. in Sprague dawley rats using validated RP-HPLC method / Naresh Shejawal, Sasikumar Menon, Sunita Shailajan / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, March 214; Vol. 4 (03), pp. 10-14 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.40303 / ISSN 2231-3354
Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Pongamia pinnata Leaf Extracts / M S. SIKARWAR, Mrityunjaya B. PATIL / Turk J Pharm Sci, 2014; 11(3): pp 329-338
TO STUDY ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF KARANJA (PONGAMIA PINNATA PIERRE) SEED CHURANA IN SWISS ALBINO MICE / Gupta Chandni and Upadhayaya Ashwani / WJPMR: World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 2017; 3(10): pp 135-137 / ISSN: 2455-3301
Anti-Alzheimer activity of isolated karanjin from Pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre and embelin from Embelia ribes Burm.f. / Prachi Saini, L Lakshmayya, Vinod Singh Bisht / Pharmacological Study, 2017; 38(1): pp 76-81 / DOI: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_174_16
Pongamia pinnata / Wikipedia
Pharmacological evaluation for Anti-Anxiety and CNS depressant activity of hydro-alcoholic leaves extract of Pongamia pinnata / Jagannath Panda, Mr Biswajit Samantaray, Gurudutta Pattnaik /  Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2021; 11(4S): pp 22-25 / DOI: 10.22270/jddt.v11i4-S.4962
A critical review of Pongamia pinnata multiple applications: From land remediation and carbon sequestration to socioeconomic benefits / Erika Degani, MVR Prasad, Anant Paradkar, Rodica Pena, Amin Soltangheisi, Ihsan Ullah, Benjamin Warr, Mark Tibbett / Journal of Environmental Management, 2022; Vol 324: 116297 /  DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116297
Millettia pinnata: a study on the extraction of fibers and reinforced composites / P B Mohankumara, Shraddha Prashant Thakare, Vijaykumar Guna, G R Arpitha / Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 2020; 7: Article No 3 / DOI: 10.1186/s40643=019-0292-2

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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