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Family Moraceae
Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq.

Scientific names Common names
Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq. Baleteng-kapalan (Tag.)
Urostigma crassirameum Miq. Collared fig (Engl.)
Accepted Infraspecifics Strangling fig (Engl.)
Ficus crassiramea subsp. crassiramea  
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda (Miq.) C.C.Berg.  
Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq. is an accepted name. KEW: Plants of the World Online

Other vernacular names
BORNEO: Kayu ara, Karak kijang.

Gen info
- Genus ficus belongs to the Moraceae family with 40 genera and over 1000 species.
- Ficus is one of the most important plant groups in the tropical  rain forest ecosystems and a major food source for frugivores.
- In the Philippines, Ficus is the fifth most speciose genus, comprising 104 species. A study in the three forest reserves of Central Mindanao University in Bukidnon revealed 12 species. While Ficus balete was the most abundant and widely distributed, Ficus crassiramea was the most visited by frugivores. (3)
- Etymology: The species epithet 'crassiramea' derives from Latin 'crassus' meaning 'thick', and 'ramus' meaning 'branch' -- referring to the stout twigs.
- Ficus crassiramea
can start as an epiphyte in a tree branch, eventually sending aerial roots downward, sometimes encircling the trunk of the host tree and constricting its growth, sometimes out-competing and killing the host tree.

Ficus crassiramea is a hemiepiphytic tree with a large spreading canopy, growing up to 30 m tall. Bole is up t 61 cm diameter. It can Twigs are 5-18 mm thick with minute hairs concentrated at the stipular scars. Leaves are spirally arranged; stalked leaves with leathery leaf blades, long, narrow, 8-38 cm long by 3-16 cm wide, with rounded ends. Each leaf blade has 6-12 pairs of lateral veins, with the basal pair departing 0.2-1.0 cm above the base of the midrib towards the blade margins. Petiole is 2-8 cm long and 2-5 mm wide. Stiipules are usually 2-5 cm long. Axillary synconia are usually paired or single on the twig with three yellow, circular basal bracts, mostly 5-20 mm long, covering 1/6 to 2/3 of each synconium.  Round synconia are 8-35 mm across, yellow to dark red with ripe, with ostioles 2-10 mm across.

- Native to the Philippines.
- Also native to Bismark Archipelago, Borneo, Jawa, Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam.

- In swamps and coastal forests at elevations up to 100 m. In alluvial sites, near or along sides of rivers and streams.

- No studies found.

- Supports a wide range of bird species.
- Ficus species preferred by frugivores.

Parts used
Roots, bark, leaves.


- Roots, bark, and leaves pounded into a paste and applied to snake bites.

No studies found.


September 2022

IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ficus crassiramea --fruiting branches / Ria Tan   / click on image teo go to source apage / CC by NC-SA /  Useful Tropical Plants
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Ficus crassiramea -- closeup of fruits  / Tg Aru beach / Copyright © Anthea Phillipps / click on image to go to source apage / Non-Commervial Use / THE FIGS OF BORNEO

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ficus crassiramea / Plants of the World Online
SR: Status and distribution in Singapore of Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq. (Moraceae) / X Y Ng, R C J Lim, H T W Tan et al / Nature in Singapore, 2014; 7: pp 135-141
Ficus-frugivore interaction in the forest reserves of Central Mindanao University: Its importance to forest restoration / L G Aribal, A G Toledo-Bruno, E C P Jumawid / AES Bioflux, 2016; 8(2): pp 157-164
SR: FIG TREES PHILIPPINES (Filipino Interest Group for Philippine Figs)

Ficus crassiramea / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Ferns

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

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