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Family Fabaceae
Ormosia calavensis Azaola

Scientific names Common names
Ormosia calavensis  Azaola          Bahai (Tagalog)
Pongamia corollaria Miq.          Bangate (Tag.?)
  Magallayaw (Ifugao)
  Tindalog-aso (Tag.)
  Horse-eye beans (Engl.)
Ormosia calavensis is an accepted species. KEW: Plants of the World Online
First published in F.M.Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 2.: 230 (1845)

Gen info
- Ormosia is a genus of legumes in the family Fabacea, comprising 131 living species, mostly trees or large shrubs. Plants in the genus as commonly known as horse-eye beans or simply ormosias.

• Ormosia calavensis is a small sub-canopy tree (up to 20 m high); Bole cylindrical (up to 60 cm diam.); straight (bole up to 8 m long); buttresses buttresses present; spines spines absent; aerial roots aerial roots absent; stilt roots stilt roots absent; Bark gray or dark brown, rough, fissured or pustular, lenticels elongated vertically; Subrhytidome (under-bark) pale yellow; less than 25 mm thick; bark blaze with two layers; faintly to non-aromatic; outer blaze pale yellow, with stripes (brown); inner blaze white (cream-colored), with stripes (brown); bark exudate (sap) absent; terminal buds not enclosed by leaves. Indumentum: Complex hairs absent; stinging hairs absent; mature twig indumentum (hairs) absent. Leaves: Leaves spaced along branches, spiral (leaves occurring singly at a node and arranged spirally up the branchlet), compound (a leaf made up from two or more leaflets); petiole present, not winged, attached to base of leaf blade, not swollen; leaves pinnate (unbranched with more than three leaflets); petiolule slightly swollen; rachis present, absent, absent; leaves with a terminal leaflet (the number of leaflets odd - imparipinnate), broadest at or near middle or equally broad throughout much of length, 2.5-15.0 cm, 1.8-55.0 (-70.0) cm, leaflets opposite, symmetric, terminal developing leaflet buds absent; venation pinnate, secondary veins open, prominent, intramarginal veins absent; leaves lower surface green, upper surface dull dark green, indumentum (hairs) absent or present, indumentum (hairs) dense to sparse; absent; domatia absent; stipules present, free, laterally placed, not encircling the twig, scale-like, not fringed, small, not persistent. Flowers: Inflorescence terminal and axillary, flowers on a branched axis, cones absent; flowers bisexual, stalked, flowers with one plane of symmetry, 8.0-12.0 mm long, diameter large (more than10 mm diam.); perianth present, with distinct sepals and petals whorls, inner perianth white or at base mauve; 5, free; stamens 10, present, at base joined, free of the perianth; ovary superior, carpels joined (when more than one), locules 1; styles solitary, 1. Fruits: Infrutescence arranged on branched axis, fruit 20.0-40.0 mm long, brown to black, not spiny, non-fleshy, simple, dehiscent, legume; seeds 1 (-2), about 10 mm long (9-13 mm long), not winged, broad (as wide as long), seed 1-10 mm diam. (flattened, 8-11 mm wide). (3)

- Native to the Philippines.
- In dipterocarp forests, at low and medium altitudes.
- Also native to Borneo, Caroline Is., Jawa, Maluku, New Guinea, Sulawesi. (1)

- Study of bark extract of  O. calavensis yielded alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids. saponins, and tannins. (see study below)   (4)
- Study of leaf extract for secondary metabolites yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, leucoanthocyanin, saponins, tannin, terpenoids, with absence of triterpene and anthraquinone. (5)

- Studies have suggested anticancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory properties.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, roots.


- No info found on fruit edibility.
- The Manobo tribe of Brgy. Anticala, Butuan City, Philippines use decoction of bark and leaves to treat fever, diarrhea, flu, and relapse.  Paste of roots use on wounds. (4)
- Decoction of bruised leaves used for treatment of stomach aches.
- Crafts: Brightly colored seeds used for making necklaces.

- Wood: Use for light construction, furniture making, cabinetry, and agricultural implements.

Anticancer / Anti-Angiogenesis / Bark:
Study evaluated the barks of Ormosia calavensis and S. agsaboensis for phytochemical content,  anticancer, and anti-angiogenesis potential. MTT assay of bark extract of O. calavensis showed mild toxicity against colon cancer cell line HCT116 (76.97% viability).  The bark extract also showed dose-dependent antiangiogenic activity in the CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) of duck embryos (p<0.05). (4)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study of O. calavensis leaf extract showed anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema in albino mice. Indomethacin was used as postive control. (see constituents above) (5)


September 2023

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Fabaceae : Ormosia calavensis / Fruiting twig / Copyright © 2016 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL110561 / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Fabaceae : Ormosia calavensis / det. by Elmo Bado / Fruit / Copyright © 2016 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL110495] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Photo / Fabaceae : Ormosia calavensis / det. by Kenneth Bornias & Pat Malabrigo / Abaxial surface of leaf / Copyright © 2011 by P B Pelser & J F Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL38397] / Non-Commercial Use / image modified / click on image or link to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Ormosia calavensis / KEW: Plants of the World Online

Ormosia calavensis / Ken Fern: Tropical Plants Database / Useful Tropical Plants
Ormosia calavensis Azaola ex Blanco / Barry Conn, Kipiro Damas / Guide to Trees of Papua New Guinea
Phytochemical Screening, Anticancer , and Antiangiogenic Activity of Bahai (Ormosia calavensis) and
Yakal yamban (Shorea agsaboensis) used as Ethnomedicine of the Manobo Tribe in Brgy . Anticala, Butuan City, Philippines
/ Chiara Elise Young, Mia Raphaella Mallari, Samantha Margaret Ladaga, Florence Jhun Almadin, Loren Grace Anunciado, Jashin Rosal / Journal of Ecosystem Sciences and Eco-Governance, 2022; 4(1) ; pISSN: 2704-4394 / eISSN: 2782-8522
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ormosia calavensis Azola (Bahai) Leaf Extract /  Jellian B Pedong, Melinda C Getalado / IJTSRD: International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 2019; 3(4) / eISSN: 2456-6470
Bahai: Ormosia calavensis / Elizabeth Tomas-Carig / Field Guidebook on Native Trees within the Quirino Forest Landscape

DOI: It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants
                                          New plant names needed
The compilation now numbers over 1,300 medicinal plants. I believe there are hundreds more that can be added to the collection. The last 100 plants came with great difficulty, many by happenstance, some by suggestion of site visitors. The basic information needed are the local plant name (if known), any known folkloric medicinal use, scientific name (most helpful), and, if possible, a photo. Your help will be greatly appreciated.

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