- Melia is a genus of flowering trees in the Carmelia family. The name is derived from Melia, the Greek name used by Theocritus (x. 371- c. 287 BC) for Franciskus onus, which has similar leaves. (33)
Melia dubia is a deciduous trees growing to 20 m high, bark 6-8 mm thick, dark brown, rough, lenticellate, exfoliations rectangular, long and broad, attached by the distal end, exfoliated surface brown; outer part pink, inner fibrous; young shoots and inflorescence scurfy tomentose. Leaves 2-3 pinnate, (rarely 1-pinnate), imparipinnate, attenuate, estipulate, rachis 10-30 cm long, terete, slender, swollen at base, scurfy tomentose when young; pinnae 3-7 pairs, 10-20 cm long; leaflets 2-11 on each pinnae, opposite, estipellate; petiolule 3-10 mm long, slender; lamina 4.5-9 x 2-4 cm, ovate-lanceolate, base oblique, acute, obtuse, round or attenuate, apex acuminate, margin crenate, glabrous at maturity, coriaceous; lateral nerves 6-10 pairs, pinnate, slender, prominent; intercostal reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, 5-6 mm long, greenish-white, in axillary panicles; calyx lobes 5, 2 mm long, ovate, pubescent; petals 5, 7-10 x 1-3 mm, obovate, thick, simple, pubescent within; staminal tube 7 mm, white, scabrid, ribbed, apically dilated, 10-dentate, tooth 2-fid, mouth woolly; disc annular; anthers exserted; ovary superior, oblong 1 mm, 5-celled; ovules 2 per cell; style to 4.5 mm, terete; stigma capitate. Fruit a drupe, 2 x 1 cm, dorsally compressed with longitudinal ridges, yellow, fleshy; seeds 3 or 4, 1 cm.
(Dr N Sasidharan, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi) (23)
- Native range is Indian Subcontinent to Peninsula Malayia. (1)
- Native to Assam, India, Malaya, Myanmar, Neoal, Sri Lanka, Vietnam.
- Indigenously growing in the eastern Visayas, along beaches, narrow alluvial plants, and in undulating to sloping landscapes up to 370 m above sea level, in grassland and abandoned clearings. (22)
- Common in Ilocos Norte, Quezon, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon and in Mindoro, Negros, Cebu Siquijor; Bohol, and Mindanao along the seashore, and in thickets, secondary forests, at low and medium altitudes.
- Study isolated salannin, a bitter principle from the fruits of M. dubia, previously found in Melia azadirachta. (5)
- Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and glycosides. (See study below) (10)
- Leaf extract evaluation yielded the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, terpenoids (diterpenes and sesquiterpenes) antioxidants, phenolic derivatives, and lipophylic organic compounds. Phytochemical compounds were linolenic acid, palmitic acid, caryophyllene, humulene, aromadendrene, probucol, germacrene-d, phthalic acid 6-ethyl-3-octyl, butylated hydroxy toluene. (See study) (15)
- Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of bark yielded
carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, gums, and mucilages. (see study below) (17)
- Phytochemical study of fruits isolated three secondary metabolites, including 21α-O-methylmelianodiol (1), 21ß-O-methylmelianodiol (2) and (21S,23R,24R)-21,23-epoxy-24-hydroxy-21ß-methoxytirucalla-7,25-dien-3-one (3). (34)
- Study of Melia dubia leaves isolated 2-chlorobenzimidazole
. The compound is involved in many synthesis processes and is used as a building block to synthesize a-amino 6-benzimidale-pyrimidines. . (26)
- Phytochemical screening of M. dubia leaves revealed the presence of
alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates, phlobatannins, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, triterpenoids, glycosides, and proteins.- Proximate analysis of leaves on dry matter basis
yielded moisture (73.72%), ash (99%), crude protein 7.25 mg, crude lipid 5.27%, vitamin B 50.80%. acid insoluble ash 22.68%, water soluble ash 36.65%, alcohol soluble extractive 31.80%, water insoluble extractive 19.65%, and vitamin C 0.28%, . Quantitative analysis yielded total alkaloids 132 mg/g, phenols 106 mg/g, tannins 46.60 mg/g, saponins 144 mg/g, terpenoids 92 mg/g, and flavonoids 40 mg/g, Study showed it to be a rich source of minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, manganese, and zinc.(see study below) (27)
- GC-MS study of methanol extract of powdered bark
yielded cycloheximide.. cholesterol, fluorescein, o-acrylate, 11 cis-retinal, cetyl alcohol, tridecyltrichloroacetate, thymol, methyl palmitate, cyclandelate, dibutyl phthlate, methyl stearate, enoxolone or glycyrrhetinic acid that can find application in pharmacology and cosmetology. (27)
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, bacteriostatic, fungistatic, wound healing, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory properties.
Fruit, leaves, stems.
- Leaves are cooked; imparts a bitter flavor; used as pot-herb, in curries and soup. (Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World / Hedrick UP / 1972)
- In India, the fruit, with its bitter and nauseous taste, is used for colic.
- Fruit and stem bark are anthelmintic.
- In Concan, juice of green fruit mixed with sulfur and curds, heated in a copper pot, used as application for scabies and sores infested by maggots.
- Malai vembu juice also used for diabetes and chicken pox. (12)
- Herbal combo of papaya leaf juice, malai vembu, and hill neem or common neem has been given to dengue patients, the decoction taken twice daily for a week. (12)
- Wood: A good secondary timber and the most preferred species for the plywood industry. (22) Timber is light and not resistant to white ants; it is fairly durable, and seems very suitable for certain purposes. In Sri Lanka it is used for the outriggers of boats and in Java and Sumatra for the interiors of houses, and it seems to be much in demand for uprights of buildings in Tonkin. (Quisumbing)
- Agroforestry: Potential as a reforestation species.
• Hypoglycemic / Antidiabetic / Fruit: Results of study of total fruit extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice suggests it is not only safe, but also an effective, natural and novel hypoglycemic agent. (2)
|• Antimicrobial / Leaf Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of Melia dubia leaf exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Fusarium oxysporum and C albicans. (3)
• Antiviral Activity: Eighteen plants with ethnomedicinal background were screened for antivral activity against GSV-1. The extract of Melia dubia showed partial viral activity at higher concentrations. (4)
• Salannin: Study isolated salannin, a bitter principle from the fruits of M. dubia, previously found in Melia azadirachta. (5)
• Antimicrobial / Camphene / Skin Pathogens: Study of M. dubia leaf volatile oil yielded a monterpene camphene 21.68%, as major constituent, and showed good antimicrobial activity, inhibiting 88% of skin pathogens. (6)
• Bacteriostatic / Fungistatic / Essential Oils: Melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumonia, Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans. (6)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated extracts of leaves for antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. An ethanolic extract inhibited a-amylase
at a lower concentration than Acarbose. Solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity. High phenolic and flavonoid contents were assumed responsible for antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. (10)
• Quorum Sensing / SdiA Inhibitors / Antioxidant: Study investigated the Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of M. dubia seeds against uropathogenic E. coli on the competitive inhibitor of SdiA, a transcriptional activator of quorum sensing in E. coli. Results showed an ethanolic extract with potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. coli. (11)
• Antimicrobial: Study showed a Melia dubia petroleum ether fraction to exhibit maximum zone of inhibitions for all all the tested human pathogens. (13)
• Larvicidal / Anti-Malarial: Study evaluated various extracts of seed for larvicidal effect on malarial fever mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Highest mortality of 93% and 81% were seen for third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. (14)
• Biopesticidal: Study showed effective bioactivity of acetone extract against teak defoliator, Hybleae puera and Ailanthus defoliator Atteva fabricella and Eligma narcissisus Results suggest a potential of B. dubia as a source of effective biopesticidal and pharmacologic agents. (See constituents above) (15)
• Growth Inhibitory / Antifeedant: Study evaluated growth inhibitory and deterrency of Melia dubia extracts to Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa amigera. Dichlorethane (DCE) and methanol (Me) extracts inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. The DCE was more toxic to larvae than the Me extract. Salannin from the DCE fraction showed antifeedant activity. (16)
• Antibacterial / Bark / Leaves / Flowers / Fruits: Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of bark of Melia dubia showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (17) Study of crude leaf extract of M. azedarach are effective against both gram positive and gram negative strains of bacteria. (27) Methanol extract of MA flowers showed potent antibacterial action in
rabbits with Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Effects were comparable to neomycin. (29)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Antibacterial / Leaves and Root: Study evaluated an ethyl acetate extract of leaves and root for mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity. Results showed significant larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. In-vitro antimicrobial screening exhibited a wide range of activity with leaves and root extracts showing inhibition of growth of K. pneumonia, E. coli and S. aureus while the leaf extract showed activity against S. typhi and S. paratyphi. (18)
• Nanoparticles / Leaves / Antifungal: Study reported the bio-fabrication of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of M. dubia. The AgNPs were stable and proved to be excellent activity against tested pathogenic fungi A. niger and C. tropicalis. (19)
• Antiurolithiatic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiurolithiatic activity of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia leaves. The aqueous, acetone and ethanol extracts showed remarkable dose dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal formation. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibitory effect. (20)
• Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated the wound healing efficacy of ethanolic extract of M. dubia leaves on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar rats. The extract was applied topically on the wounds of experimental rats until the wounds healed completely. Total collagen and hexosamine were significantly higher (p<0.001) and period of epithelization was shorter and tensile strength was improved Results suggest improved rate of contraction and tensile strength by increased sythhesis of collagen. (24)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Leaves: Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a leaf extract of M. dubia with the presence of stabilized microwave irradiation and collagen. The AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as gram-positive and gram-negative, respectively, with excellent inhibition zones. (25)
• Antimicrobial / Proximate Analysis / Leaves: Study evaluated the phytochemical content, proximate analysis and antimicrobial effect of leaf extract of Melia dubia. The extract showed a spectrum of inhibition on E, coli and S. aureus for alkaloids, and E. coli and K. pneumonia for flavonoids. Extract was more effectove against fungal strains such as A. flavus for flavonoids and A. niger for alkaloids.Study showed the leaves to be a potential source of nutrition, minerals, and drugs beneficial to humans. (see constituents above) (27)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of two samples of M. dubia leaves for phytochemical contents and antioxidnt activity using ABTS Radical Scavenging Assay, Total Reducing Power Assay, Hydrogen Peroxide Radical Scavenging Activity, and their antimicrobial activity. Both extracts yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and phenolics, one sample yielded terpenoids, Study revealed significant plant secondary metabolites which contribute to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Results demonstrate Melia dubia to be a potential source of a medicinal drug. (28)
• Antioxidant / Anti-Arthritic / Anti-Inflammatory / Fruits: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic fruit extract of Melia dubia. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, steroids, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, and tannins. Total phenolic content was 142.8 mg/g. Free radical scavenging activity was confirmed by DPPH assay with IC50 of 55.4 µg/ml. The reducing power was concentration dependent comparable with standard antioxidant BHA. The plant exhibited good anti-arthritic activity in a dose-dependent manner by protein denaturation method and strong anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration dependent manner using Human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. (29)
• Antifungal Limonoids: Study evaluated three Meliaceae plants for bioactive limonoids: Melia dubia, Aphanamixis polystachia, Swietenia macrophylla, which were found to suppress the mycelial growth of several phytopathogenic fungi, Nine limonoids were isolated of which two (1 and 2) were from M. dubia. The limonoids were tested against five phytopathogenic fungi: Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria spp., and Botrytis cinerea, and three oomycetes Phytophthora species. Limonoids 2, 3, 6, and 8 displayed remarkable broad-spectrum antifungal activity against all test fungi. Compounds 2 and 9 displayed moderate activity against M. oryzae, The results demonstrated antifungal and lead compounds from the limonoids with potential application in the control of fungal plant diseases. (31)
- Seeds in the hypermarket.