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Family Vitaceae
Tetrastigma harmandii Planch.

Scientific names Common names
Tetrastigma harmandii Planch.           Unresolved Alupidan (Bis.)
Tetrastigma sorsogonense Elmer       Unresolved Arinat (Ilk.)
  Ayo (Tag.)
  Dipig (Bon.)
  Hayok (Tag.)
  Iyo (Tag.)
  Kalit-kalit (Tag.)
  Langnikit (C. Bis.)
Terastigma harmandii Planch. is an unresolved name. The Plant List

Gen info
- Terastigma is a genus of plant in the grape family, Vitaceae.
- The genus contains over 100 species, 45 of which are reported in China.
- Species are found in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Malaysia, and Australia.
- Plants are lianas that climb with tendrils and have palmately compound leaves.
- Species in the genus are notable for being the sole hosts of parasitic plants in the family Rafflesiaceae, one of which, Rafflesia arnoldii, produces the largest single flower in the world. (3)
- Etymology: Terastigma is derived from Greek and means "four stigmas"m referring to the four-lobed stigma. (3)

Ayo is a woody vine growing to a length of 10 meters. Stems are somewhat compressed, woody, rough, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are usually 3 to 5, but sometimes 7 leaflets. Leaflets are elliptic-oblong, 5 to 12 centimeters long, coarsely toothed, smooth and shining. Flowers are pale green, faintly fragrant, numerous, umbellately disposed on the ultimate branches. Fruit is smooth, brownish, rounded, fleshy, and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter.

- In thickets at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Apayao, Abra, Lepanto, La Union, Nueva Viscaya, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro and Panay.
- Also occurs in Indo-China.

- From the genus, more than 240 compounds have been reported, including 74 flavonoids, 14 terpenoids, 19 steroids, 21 phenylpropanoids, 14 alkaloids, among other constituents.

- Pulp of the fruit is green, sour but edible; suitable for making preserves.
- Fruit and leaves used as condiment.
- Leaves, agreeably sour, cooked with other foods for flavoring.
- Decoction of plant used as a powerful diuretic.
- Externally, lotion made from the plant used for scabies. (4)
- Rope: Vine sometimes used to produce a rope, albeit, of poor quality.

Antimicrobial / Cytotoxicity:
Based on in vitro bioassay, T. harmandii plant extract performed more efficiently against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as compared to Salmonella typhimurium. No significant difference on cytotoxicity was noted on different concentrations except on the 12th hour of observation. (2)


Updated June 2022 / July 2020 / September 2016

                                                  PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / RVitaceae : Tetrastigma harmandii / Infructescence / Copyright © 2011 by Leonardo L. Co (contact: benctan@berkeley.edu) [ref. DOL29111] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Tetrastigma harmandii Planch. is an unresolved name / Synonyms / The Plant List
Tetrastigma harmandii Planch. LEAF AGAINST Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium
/ Fajardo, Patricia Anne A.; Gonzales, Dania Grace F; and Lamorena, Trecee Anne G / Prezi
Terastigma / Wikipedia
Minor products of Philippine forests / Ed. by William H Brown, Vol 1 No 3

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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