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Family Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd.

Jin he huan

Scientific name  Common names 
Acacia acicularis Willd. Aroma (Span., Tag.) 
Acacia densiflora (Small) Cory Kandaroma (Ilk.) 
Acacia edulis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Romas (Tag.) 
Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd. Kambang jipoun (Sul.) 
Acacia ferox M.Martens & Galeotti Ant acacia (Engl.)
Acacia indica (Poiret) Desv. Cassie flower (Engl.) 
Acacia lenticellata F.Muell. Huisache (Engl.)
Acacia minuta (M.E.Jones) R.M.Beauch. Mimosa bush (Engl.)
Acacia pendunculata Willd. Needle bush (Engl.)
Acacia smallii Isely Sweet acacia (Engl.)
Farnesia odora Gasp.  
Farnesiana odora Gasp.  
Mimosa acicularis Poir.  
Mimosa farnesiana Linn  
Mimosa indica Poiret  
Mimosa pendunculata (Willd.) Poir.  
Mimosa suaveolens Salisb.  
Pithecellobium acuminatum M.E.Jones  
Pithecellobium minutum M.E.Jones  
Poponax farnesiana (L.) Raf.  
Vachellia densiflora Small  
Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Am  
Acacia is a name shared by many species of Philippine plants, both scientific and common names: (1) Acacia concinna, acacia, a prickly shrub found in La Union, Benguet, and Ilocos Sur provinces of northern Luzon; (2) Albizzia lebbect, acaci, langil, mimosa; (3) Samanea saman, rain tree, acacia, for Acacia concinna; (4) Acacia farnesiana, aroma; (5) Acacia glauca, ipil-ipil; (6) Acacia niopo, kupang; (7) Acacia crassicarpa.
Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Futnā, Sunt alanbr.
ASSAMESE : Tarua kadam.
BENGALI : Guva babul, Guya babla, Guya babula, Guya bebula.
BURMESE: Huan lon gyaing, Mawk-nawn-hkam, Nan-lon-kyaing.
CHINESE: Ya zao shu, Jin he huan.
CZECH : Akácie farnesova, Vonná mimóza .
DANISH : Duftakacie.
FRENCH: Acacia jaune, Acacia de Farnèse, Acacia odorant, Acacie odorante, Cassie ancienne, Cassie odorante, Cassier de Farnèse, Cassier du levant.
GERMAN : Antillen-Akazie, Cassia-Blütenöl, Farnesische Akazie, Süsse Akazie, Schwammbaum, Westindische Akazie.
GREEK: Akakia i farneziani, Amperiá, Gatzia.
GUJARATI: Gandhelo babul, Gandhelokhair, Gu baval, Jheribaval.
HINDI: Belati babool, Belati babul , Belaiti kikar, Dei babul, Deobabul, Gabur, Ghand babul, Gukikar, Passi babul, VVilayati babul, Vilayati kikar.
JAPANESE: Kingoukan, Kingoukan, Kingoukan.
KANNADA: Banni mara, Guh babul, Jali, Karijali, Pissi babul, Sannajali, Vilayati babul, Vilayati kikar.
MALAYALAM : Kariveelum, Pikharu vil, Pivelam, Pivelum.
MARATHI : Deobabul, Gubabul, Gukikar, Guyababul, Vilayatibabul, Yeribabul.
MEXICO: Huizache.
NEPALESE : Ganhaune khayar.
ORIYA : Gonddhoguanria, Gudoyaboburo, Kapur, Vitkira.
POLISH : Akacja farnesa .
PORTUGUESE : Acácia-de-dioscoróides,, Acácia-esponja, Esponjeira (Brazil), Espinilha, Espinilho.
RUSSIAN: Akatsiia Farneza, Akatsiia farnezskaia.
SANSKRIT : Arimaedah, Arimeda, Arimedaka, Asimeda, Irimeda, Godhaskanda, Girimeda, Kalaskandha, Krimishatrava, Marudruma, Rimeda, Vita, Vitkhadira.
SINHALESE : Seenidda.
SPANISH: Aroma, Aroma amarilla, Aromo, Aromo creole (Cuba), Aromo macho, Cachito, Cuji aromo, Cuji cimarrón, Espinial, Espinillo blanco, Espino blanco (El Salvador), Espino ruco (El Salvador), Huisache (Mexico), Huisache dulce, Mimosa.
SWEDISH : Doftakacia.
TAMIL : Kadivel, Kasthurivel, Kasturi velam, Odaimaram, Pikkaruvel, Pivel, Vedda vala, Vedda vela, Vedumul, Vedavali.
TELUGU : Arimdamu, Kamputumma, Kasturitumma, Kusthuri, Murikitumma, Murki tumma, Nagatumma, Nuga tumma, Piketumma, Piyyatumma.
THAI: A jao chiu, Boo ngaa in doh nee siia, Daawk khahm dtaI.
TURKISH : Akasya, Akasya çiçeği, Akasyası, Amber agact..
URDU : Knebawal.
OTHERS: Chingonglei hangampal (Manipur, India).

Gen info
- It was first described by Europeans under the name Acacia indica Farnesiana in 1625 by Tobias Aldini from plants grown in Rome in the Farnese Gardens. (54)
- Etymology: The species name 'farnesiana' honors Odoardo Farnese (1573-1626) of the notable Italian Farnese family, which after 1550, under the patronage of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, maintained some of the first private European botanical gardens in Rome, the Farnese Gardens, in the 16th and 17th centuries. (
- The name 'huisache' of Mexico and Texas derives from Nahuatl and means "many thorns."

Aroma is a much branched, spiny shrub or small tree, reaching a height of 2 to 4 meters. Branches are more or less zigzagging, lenticellate, with sharp stipular spines, 1 to 4 centimeters long; branchlet spines are smaller. Leaves are bipinnate, 5 to 8 centimeters long. Pinnae are usually 10 to 12. Leaflets are linear-oblong, 15 to 40, and 4 to 7 millimeters long. Heads are axillary, solitary or fascicled, rounded and about 1 centimeter in diameter. Flowers are numerous, yellow and fragrant. Pods are smooth, brown, nearly cylindrical, 5 to 7 centimeters long, 1 1.5 centimeters wide, straight and curved. Seeds in two series, embedded in dry spongy tissue.

- Open grasslands and thickets at low and medium altitudes, especially common in regions with long dry season.
- Native of tropical America.
- Introduced from Mexico by the Spaniards.
- Pantropic.

- In some places, considered an aggressive colonizer and invasive weed.

- Bark yields a gum, resembling gum arabic. The oil contains benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, a ketone with odor of methone, anisic aldehyde, decyclic aldehyde, and cuminic aldehyde.
- Some studies suggest an alkaloid in the bark gum.
- Yields a greenish yellow and viscid essential oil. Oil contains 30.9 % salicylic acid methyl ester.
- The oil, deprived of its phenols, yields benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, a ketone with the odor of menthone, anisic aldehyde, decyclic aldehyde, and cuminic aldehyde. The presence of geranionl and linalool is probable.
- A study show the oil contains 30.9% of salicylic acid methyl ester.
- The pod contains a tannin which is a glucoside of ellagic acid.
- The bark likewise is reported to contain a tannin.
- Study yielded a novel diterpene glycoside from the seeds—the β-d-glucoside of a diterpene bearing a novel skeleton [formally a 7(6→1)-abeo-ent-kaurene].       (
- Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of pod wall (P) and seeds (S) A. farnesiana yielded alkaloids (PS), amides (PS), amines (PS), carbohydrates (P), carboxylic acid (PS), flavonoids (PS), glycosides (P), phenol (PS), proteins (PS), reducing sugar (P), steroids (PS), tannin (PS), terpenoids (PS), and amino acids (PS). (27)
- Both hexane and chloroform extracts  of fruits yielded tetracosanoic acid (2S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (1) and (3B,22E)-estigmasta-5,22-dien-3-yl ß-D-glucopyranoside (2). A methanol extract yielded methyl gallate (3), gallic acid (4), (3ß,22E)-estigmasta-5,22-dien-3-yl ß-D glucopyranoside (2), (2S) naringenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (prunin, 5), pinitol (6), and sucrose (7). (see study below) 43)
- Study of flowers for essential oil yielded a total of 106 components, constituting 90.1-99.9% of total oils and absolutes. Saturated hydrocarbons tricosane, nonadecane, and heneicosane, along with methyl salicylate characterized the chemical analysis of EOs and absolutes, while hexadecanoic acid and α-amyrine were important constituents of some absolutes. (46)

- Odor of the perfume smells like violet, but more intense.
- Bark is considered astringent and demulcent.
- Fruit is astringent.
- Studies suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic, antimalarial, antidiarrheal, bronchodilatory, antiulcer, phytoremediative, antifungal properties.

Parts utilized
Bark, flowers, leaves

- Roasted pods used in sweet and sour dishes.
- Flowers used in preparing tea.
- Ripe seeds put through a press to make oil for cooking. However, there are anecdotal reports of seeds used to kill rabid dogs, the activity attributed to an unnamed toxic alkaloid.
- In the Philippines, the aroma bark is considered astringent, in decoction is used in the treatment of prolapse rectum and as an injection for leucorrhea.
- Poultice of young leaves used for ulcers and sores previously washed by a decoction of same leaves.
- In San Luis Potosi decoction of roots has been used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
- Lotion of leaves used sores and skin afflictions.
- In Martinique, the flowers used as stimulant and antispasmodic.
- In West Tropical Africa, the roots, containing gum, is chewed for sore throat.
- In India, decoction of bark with ginger used as astringent wash for teeth; also used for bleeding gums. Also used for coughs and cold.
- Bruised tender leaves taken with water for gonorrhea.
- Pulverized dried leaves applied as dressing for wounds.
- Leaves prescribed for affections of the bladder.
- Lotion of leaves is applied externally for sores and skin diseases.
- Internally, leaves used for diarrhea.
- In Martinique, used as stimulant and antispasmodic.
- In Java bark is used as an emetic.
- In Costa Rica infusion of bark is astringent.
- In Uruguay, a decoction of flowers used for diseases of women.
- In Mexico, ointment from flowers are used for headaches; as infusion, for dyspepsia. Also used to treat dysentery and tuberculosis.
- Decoction of the green pods used for dysentery and skin inflammations.
- Decoction of fruit used for dysentery and inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes.
- Oil employed as adjunct to aphrodisiacs in spermatorrhea.
- Flower infusion used as aphrodisiac.
- In Uruguay, decoction of flowers used for female diseases.
- In Guatemala, flower infusion used as stomachic; also used for dyspepsia and neuroses.
- In Columbia, bark decoction used for bathing in typhoid.
- In Costa Rica, decoction of gum from trunk used for diarrhea; the pod infusion for diarrhea, leucorrhea and uterorrhagia.
- Elsewhere, decoction of root used in hot baths for stomach cancer. Plaster from pulp used to alleviate tumors.
- In the Andro village of Manipur, India, decoction of leaves used for piles. (32)
- In medieval Persian medicine, plant derived drug used orally and topically for treatment of impotence. (33)
- In Tamil Nadu, India, leaf pasted used for knee and joint pain; also used for infertility. (37)
- Gum arabic: Bark exudes a gum similar to gum arabic. Mucilage can be prepared from the gum.
- Perfume: Flowers known commercially as cassie flowers. Tree is grown extensively in France for the flowers fragrant perfume. Cassie perfume used for bouquets and hair pomades. Diluted with other odors it imparts a true flowery fragrance.
- Toothbrush: Woody branches used in India as tooth brushes.
- Tanning: The tannin-rich bark is used for tanning leather.
- Dye: A black dye is obtained from the pods. In some parts of India, the bark and pods are used as dye-stuff and for tanning.
- Feed: In Mexico, the pods studied as alternate feed for sheep. source

- Ritual: One of the temple trees (Sthalavriskshas) used in religious worship in Tamil Nadu, southern India. (37)

Anti-Inflammatory / Cytotoxicity:
Study yielded four new diterpenes–acasiane B, farnesirane A, farnesirane B with three known diterpenes and eight flavonoids. Some of the compounds exhibited cytotoxicity to human cancer cell lines while some showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity. (1)
Vibrio cholera inhibition:
Study of 32 medicinal plants showed the ethanolic extracts of A farnesiana and Artemisia ludoviciana effectively inhibited bacterial growth of Cholera vibrio strains, effects on enterotoxin production and adhesion were also studied. (3)
Natural Herbicide:
In a study screening 6 potentially allelopathic plant species, the seed extract of A. farnesiana exhibited 32% inhibition of growth of L. aequinoctialis. (4)
Anti-Inflammatory: (1) A study of 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity. Acacia farnesiana plant extract showed activity against induced hind-paw edema. (2) Study of ethanolic extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in both carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granulation models.
Antimalarial: In a study of 10 vegetal extracts, eight including Acacia farnesiana showed good activity against Plasmodium falcifarum. (6)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study of ethanol extract showed a response to all antioxidant assays in a concentration dependent manner. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The extract yielded flavonoids galloylglycoside and flavonoids glycosides. Quercetin deoxyhexoside was tentatively identified as the major constituent of the extract. Absence of toxicity was observed from the brine shrimp lethality assay. (10)
Antidiarrheal / Acute Toxicity Evaluation: Study of extracts of stems and leaves using a charcoal meal method showed inhibition of movement of gastrointestinal content. Results support the use of T. mucronatum and A. farnesiana as antidiarrheal agents. Extracts did not induce immediate toxicity in the experimental test conditions. LD50 (g/kg) of aqueous and ethanol extracts were 1.499 and 0.775, respectively. (13)
Antimicrobial: Study of various extracts of fruits showed the benzene, chloroform, methanol, and water extracts showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal species (Candida tropicalis). (14)
Antihyperglycemic Activity: Study evaluated an active fraction from an aqueous extract for anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed promising anti-diabetic activity. The active fraction was devoid of conspicuous toxic symptoms. (15) Study evaluated extracts of Acacia farnesiana for anti-hyperglycemic activity. A water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. Activity was found in the soluble fraction. Results suggest a direct stimulatory effect of the active fraction on glucose uptake without involvement of insulin, which may be the major mechanism. (17)
Phytoremediation / Lead: Study showed the suitability of A. farnesiana for lead-phytostabilization purposes. Lead concentrations below 500 mg/L had no significant effect on lipid peroxidation and enhanced the glutathione content. (16)
Defluoridation / Adsorbent: Study evaluated activated Acacia farnesiana carbon as adsorbent for removal of Fluoride ions from aqueous solution. Results showed effective removal of F ions by indigenously prepared activated carbon, and presents an alternative adsorbent as commercial activated carbon for water treatment for removal of Fluoride ions. (18)
Antiulcer / Adsorbent: Study evaluated the ulcer healing activity of Acacia farnersiana methanol leaf extract against ulcer induced model in rats. Results showed the methanol extract significant reduced the ulcer index compared to control Ranitidine. (19)
Acetylcholinesterase and NADH Oxidase Inhibitory Activity: Acetylcholinesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and termination of nerve impulses in the cholinergic system. A methanolic extract of aerial parts exhibited significant AChE inhibitory and NADH oxidase inhibitory activity. (
Anti-Inflammatory / Lectin-Like Protein: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL (Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein) in a carrageenan model. AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of sixth ß-strand (posterior beta sheets) and two ß strands in the frontal region. Study suggests AFAL probably has the capacity to interfere in the inflammatory process through reduction of IL-8 and simultaneously exert its activity of binding to carbohydrates as demonstrated by inhibition tests and competition with selectins. (
Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids: Study of seed oils yielded the presence of unusual fatty acids, cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CFA), characterized as 7-(2-octacyclopropen-1-yl) heptanoic acid (malvalic acid) (5%) and 8-(2-octacyclopropen-1-yl) octanoic acid (sterculic acid) (4%). The fatty acid profile suggests the possibility for potential industrial application. (
Bronchodilator / Anti-Inflammatory: Study reports the smooth muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effect of a glycosidal fraction obtained from unripe pods of Acacia farnesiana. Results showed a direct relaxant effect on bronchial muscles and inhibition of carrageenan and formaldehyde induced inflammation. (
Antioxidant / Protection Against Oxidative Induced Damage: The antioxidant protection of acacia pods extracts (Acacia shaffneri and Acacia farnesiana) suggest the possible transference of antioxidant components and protective effects to animal products (milk, meal, and by-products) from Acacia pods with this vegetation is included in the diet. (
Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: In a study of ethanolic extracts of five plants viz., Acacia farnesiana, S. alata, S. grandiflora, S. cumini, and T. divaricata, all tested extracts showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity. All extracts exerted anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by reduction of interleukin (IL)-6 secretion and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a production. (
Damage to Membranes of Vibrio cholerae: Study evaluated the effects of various extracts of edible and medicinal plants on Vibrio cholerae cells. Results showed methanolic plant extracts (Ocimum basilicum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Artemisia ludoviciana, Acacia farnesiana) were most active with MBC (minimum bactericidal concentrations) ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. The extracts were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells causing increased membrane permeability, decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and decrease in cellular ATP concentration. Results suggest potential alternative for control of V. cholerae contamination in foods and diseases associated with the microorganism. (29)
Essential Oil / Antifungal: Study evaluated the essential oils of two Thai medicinal plants: Frankincense oil (Boswellia carteri Bird.) and Cassio oil (Acacia farnesiana Linn.) against 7 species of economically important rice pathogenic fungi vis. A brassicola, A flavus, B oryzae, F moniliforme, F proliferatum, P arisea and R solani. Results showed the antifungal properties on both mycelial growth and spore germination. (31)
• Antiproliferative Against Cancer Cell Lines / DNA Cleavage Activity / Pod: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of various solvent extracts (n-hexane, dichlormethane, and methanol) of A. farnesiana pod on four cancer cell lines viz., chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562), breast cancer (MCF-7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Colo205) and DNA cleavage activity on CT DNA. The n-hexane contract showed activity against MCF-7 (21.70%) cell line and methanol extract against K562 (24.5%) and HepG2 (23.3%) cell lines. DNA cleavage was exhibited by extracts and fractions. (34)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Globulins / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of proteins isolated from A. farnesiana seeds. Five different protein fractions isolated (albumin, globulin, prolamin, acidic and basic glutelins) were evaluated for protein pattern, hemagglutinating and proteolytic activities. Globulins reduced paw edema inducted by carrageenan in a dose-dependent manner along with reduction of myeloperoxidase activity. Pre-treatment with globulins reduced abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid as well as paw licking time induced by formalin. (35)
• Anti-Urolithiatic: Study evaluated the in vitro anti-urolithiatic activity of A. farnesiana. Highest dissolution of calcium oxalate crystals was observed in the aqueous extract. Neeri was used as standard drug. (36)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the invitro anthelmintic activity of methanolic leaf extract of A. farnesiana against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Albendazole was used as standard drug. Results showed significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml in measures of time for paralysis and death. (38)
• Antibacterial / Cytotoxic / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts of A. aroma and its toxicity on Vero cell. Extracts showed in vitro inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria spp. The extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cells. Concentrations below 1000 µg/ml were considered non-toxic. Studies validate the external use of A. aroma extracts as complementary or alternative medicines to combat pathogenic organisms. (39)
• Anti-Ulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated the ulcer healing activity of Acacia farnesiana leaves in ethanol-induced ulcers in male Wistar albino rats. Results showed a methanol extract of leaf (200mg/kg) showed greater ulcer protection (58.35 compared to 61.12 % of RD). (40)
• Arsenic Tolerance / Phytostabilization Potential: Study evaluated the tolerance and bioaccumulation of As by A. farnesiana. Results showed a remarkable tolerance to AsV and also an ability to bioaccumulate considerable amounts of As, suggesting potential use for phytostabilization purposes. (41)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Seeds: Study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using A. farnesiana seed extract as reducing agent under microwave irradiation. The in vitro antibacterial screening of AgNPs showed the bio-capped AgNPs have higher inhibitory actio for E. coli and S. aureus followed by B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. The AgNPs also showed good antioxidant property. (42)
• Antitubercular and Antidysentery Activities: Study evaluated various extracts for chemical composition and activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dysentery bacteria. Extracts showed antitubercular (MIC 100-200 µg/mL) and antidysentery activity (MIC 100-200 µg/mL). Methyl gallate and its acetylated derivative showed activity against sensible strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv with MICs of 50-25 µg/mL, respectively. Flavanone prunin showed activity against MDR M. tuberculosis G122 (MIC 50 µg/mL). Methyl gallate, gallic acid and prunin showed activity against C. jejuni (MIC 50 µg/mL). (see constituents above ) (43)
• Damage to Cell Membranes of V. cholera: Study evaluated the changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH, and ATP synthesis in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to various plant extracts. Acacia farnesiana, Ocimum basilicum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Artemisia ludoviciana were the most active against V. cholerae. The plant extracts were able to disrupt cell membranes of V. cholerae cells causing increased membrane permeability, decrease in cytoplasmic pH,, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. The plant extracts have potential as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and diseases associated with the organism. (44)
• Novel Encapsulated Herbicide Delivery Mechanism / Mimosa Bush Control: Study evaluated a novel herbicide delivery mechanism that minimizes risk of spray drift and potential non-target damage. The formulation involves implantation of the encapsulated granular herbicides into the stem of intact plants or into the stump after cutting off plants close to ground level. Aminopyralid + metsulfuron-methyl was consistently most effective on cut stump and intact plants, while clopyralid provided highest mortality when applied to cut stumps and single-stemmed intact plants. Highest efficacy was achieved on single stemmed plants. The method resulted in reduction in use of herbicide and environmental contamination while improving speed of treatment. (45)
• Antioxidant / Analgesic/ Antidiarrheal: In a study of methanol extract and its different fractionates, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction (EASF) exhibited highest free radical scavenging capacity (IC50 21.49 µg/mL) compared to standard BHT (IC50 20.41 µg/mL). Phenolic content was 39.26 mg GAE /g extract. At 400 mg/kbw, the extract reduced castor oil-induced diarrhea in a mice model, statistically significant (P<0.05) 47.62% compared to standard loperamide at 66.67% reduction of diarrheal feces. Central and peripheral analgesic activity of the crude methanol extract was evaluated by tail flick and acetic acid-induced writhing methods in Swiss albino mice. In tail flick method at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kbw, there was 221.09 and237.09% elongation of pain response time, compared to morphine at 518.34%. The same doses cause 63.27 and 69.39% reductions in acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice, compared to  ASA with 75.51% inhibition. Results suggest the ME possesses antioxidant, antidiarrheal, and analgesic activities. (47)
• Whole Pods (Flesh and Seeds) as Alternative Feed for Sheep: Two studies evaluated the use of pods of Huizache (A. farnesiana) in measures of performance and digestibility in hair growing ewe lambs. Results showed huizache pods may be an alternative feed when included up to 12% of dry matter in diets for sheep growing moderately. (48)
• Lectin-Like Protein / Phytopathogens / Antibacterial / Seeds: Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) showed bacteriostatic effects against Gram negative Xanthomas axonopodis pv. passiflorae and gram-positive Clavibacter michiganensis, probably due to ability of AFAL to interact with the bacterial cell wall it induced macroscopic change. Antibacterial effect of flavonoids (rutin, quercetin and morin) was observed with low concentrations against both bacterial strains.  Against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, AFAL showed reduction in larval mobility. Results suggest that lectins probably play a role in plant defense not only against invertebrate phytopathogens, herbivores and fungi but also against bacteria. (49)
• SecoCassine Diterpenoids / Cytotoxicity / Roots: A preliminary study showed a methanolic extract of root  of A. farnesiana with selected cytotoxicity against HSC-3 cancer cell line. after partitioning, n-hexane- and EtOAc- soluble fractions led to isolation of six new diterpenoids, farnesiranes CI, CII, DII, EI, and EII, together with 18 known compounds. Farnesirane CI in 30 µM showed cytotoxic activity against HSC-3 cell line. (
• Hypoglycemic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential of leaves extracts from Delonix elata and Vachellia farnesiana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats, using measures of HbA1c, protein and lipid profiles, creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, MDA, serum insulin, GPx and CAT levels. Results showed the extracts exhibited significant antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity. (

- Wild-crafted.
- Plants in the cybermarket.

Updated September 2022 / July 2019 / May 2017 / April 2016

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / SEEDS / Acacia farnesiana / Steve Hurst - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database - Not copyrighted image / USDA / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Flowers / Acacia farnesiana / Forest & Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii - Creative Commons Attribution / alterVISTA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Acasiane A and B and Farnesirane A and B, Diterpene Derivatives From the Roots of Acacia farnesiana / Planta medica / 2009, vol. 75, no3, pp. 256-261
Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. sweet acacia / FABACEAE / John A. Parrotta, Biological Scientist, Research & Development, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Washington, DC 20090-6090
Extracts of Acacia farnesiana and Artemisia ludoviciana inhibit growth, enterotoxin production and adhesion of Vibrio cholerae / Santos Garcia et al / World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Volume 22, Number 7, July 2006 , pp. 669-674(6) / DOI: 10.1007/s11274-005-9087-z /
Searching for a natural herbicide: the role of medicinal plants / Allan, Sally., Adkins, Steve / School of Land and Food Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia Qld 4072.
Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema / Phytomedicine, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 446-451 / M.Meckes, A.David-Rivera, V.Nava-Aguilar, A.Jimenez
Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants / G Gravito et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct 11;107(3): pp 460-462 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.033

Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. / James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished
Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves of Acacia farnesiana Willd / Hukkeri V et al / Indian drugs • 2002, vol. 39, no12, pp. 664-666
Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry / Jularat Udomsilp et al / As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S24-S30
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxicity Activities of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Leaves Ethanolic Extract / Salfarina Ramli, Ken-ichi Harada, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi / Pharmacognosy Journa, July 2011; 3(23): pp 50-58 / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.23.8
Vachellia farnesiana / Wikipedia
Sorting Acacia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
ACUTE TOXICITY AND DECREASED PERISTALSIS IN MICE CAUSED BY TAXODIUM MUCRONATUM AND ACACIA FARNESIANA EXTRACTS / Steve de la Cruz, Eduardo Rodríguez, Hortencia Dávalos, Adela Astudillo-Vázquez / Rev. Latinoamer. Quím., 2012; 40(1)
Anti-Diabetes Activity Of Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd In Alloxan Diabetic Rats / R. Bino Kingsley*, S. Aravinth Vijay Jesuraj , P. Brindha, A. Subramoniam, Atif M / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.5, No.1, pp 112-118, Jan-Mar 2013
Lead bioaccumulation in Acacia farnesiana and its effect on lipid peroxidation and glutathione production /
Amalia Maldonado-Magaña & Ernesto Favela-Torres & Fernando Rivera-Cabrera & Tania L. Volke-Sepulveda / Plant Soil (2011) 339:377–389 DOI 10.1007/s11104-010-0589-6
Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd
/ Bino Kingsley, Saminathan Kayarohanam, Pemaiah Brindha, and Appian Subramoniam / Pharmacognosy Magazine, Apr-Jun 2014; 10(Suppl2). / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133277
ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF ACACIA FARNESIANA (L.) (AROMA) A LESSER KNOWN FOLK - MEDICINAL PLANT / Dwarakanath V*, B Dhanasree, B Jayasimha Goud, S Nizamuddin Basha / IJPBS, Volume 3, Issue 1, JAN-MAR 2013: pp 145-152.
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and NADH oxidase by Acacia farnesiana / Nashrin Tengku, Syahiran Raja / Panacea Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013; 1(1): pp 6-8
Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation / Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes, Bruno Anderson Matias da Rocha, Raphael Batista da Nóbrega, José Caetano Silva-Filho, Claudener Souza Teixeira, Benildo Sousa Cavada, Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha, Sergio Henrique Ferreira, Jozi Godoy Figueiredo, Tatiane Santi-Gadelha, and Plinio Delatorre / BioMed Research International, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/253483
Occurrence of Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids in Acacia Farnesiana Seed Oil and its Possible Industrial Utilization / Kariyappa S. Katagi and Kallappa M Hosamani / INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH, Vol 3, Issue 5, May 2013
A novel diterpene glycoside from the seeds of Acacia farnesiana / Niranjan P. Sahu, Kazuo Koike, Sukdeb Banerjee, Basudeb Achari, Zhonghua Jia, Tamotsu Nikaido / Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 38, Issue 48, 1 December 1997: Pp8405–8408 / DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(97)10233-7 /
Acacia farnesiana / Synonyms / The Plant List
Antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri and Acacia farnesiana pods extracts: in vitro and in vivo assays / Claudia Delgadillo Puga et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineThe official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) 2015;15:435 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0959-y
Qualitative Analysis of Legume Pericarp (Pod Wall) and Seeds of Acacia Farnesiana L.
/ Sanjay Biradar, Bhagyashri Rachetti / IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), Volume 6, Issue 3 (May. – Jun. 2013), PP 43-46
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIBACTERIAL, AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THAI MEDICINAL PLANTS / Monika Mueller, Kantaporn Janngeon, Rinrampai Puttipan, Frank M. Unger, Helmut Viernstein, Siriporn Okonogi / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 7, Issue 11, 2015.
List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids / Wikipedia
Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae / Eduardo Sánchez, Santos García* and Norma Heredia / Appl. Environ. Microbiol., October 2010, Vol 76 No 20; 6888-6894
Antifungal properties of essential oils from Thai medical plants against rice pathogenic fungi / Jularat Udomsilp, Apinya Piyo, Peerayot Khang-Khun and Pitipong Thobunluepop* / Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 2009, Special Issue, S24-S30
Plants used in the treatment of piles by the scheduled caste community of Andro village in Imphal East District, Manipur (India) / Thiyam Tomba Singh, Hanjabam Manoranjan Sharma, Anoubam Radhapyari Devi, Hanjabam Rajanikanta Sharma / Journal of Plant Sciences, 2014; 2(3): 113-119 / doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20140203.13
Review of Impotence: Natural remedies for impotence in medieval Persia / M Khaleghi Ghadiri and A Gorji* / International Journal of Impotence Research (2004) 16, 80–83 & 2004
/ SOUL SHEKHAR SP, MANJULATHA K, SATYANARAYAN ND / Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2017; Vol 10, Issue 9: pp 197-201 /
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19548
The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of proteins extracted from Acacia farnesiana seeds
/ L.S.S. LEAL, R.O. SILVA, T.S.L. ARAUJO, V.G. SILVA,  A.L.R. BARBOSA, J.V.R. MEDEIROS, J.S. OLIVEIRA, C.A. VENTURA / Rev. bras. plantas med. 2016;  18(1) / DOI: 10.1590/1983-084X/15_018
EVALUATION OFIN VITRO ANTI UROLITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA FARNESIANA / Srikanth M., Suresh Kasala, Ramanjaneyulu K., Himabindhu J. and J. Sai Kiran / WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, 2017; 6(11): pp 1080-1084 / DOI: 10.20959/wjpps201711-10442
Ethnomedicinal uses of Sthalavrikshas (temple trees) in Tamil Nadu, southern India / M. Gunasekaran & P. Balasubramanian / Ethnobotany Research & Applications
Evaluation of In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia farnesiana
/ Srikanth.M, Suresh Kasala, Prasad M, Arun Raj.M, Ramanjaneyulu K, Himabindhu J / Indian Jornal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Research, May 2017; 9(2): pp 1-5
Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Acacia aroma extracts / Claudia M. Mattana, Sara E. Satorres, Franco Escobar, Carola Sabini, Liliana Sabini, María Fusco and Lucía E. Alcaráz / Emir. J. Food Agric., 2012; 24(4): pp 308-313
ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF ACACIA FARNESIANA (L.) (AROMA) A LESSER KNOWN FOLK - MEDICINAL PLANT / Dwarakanath V, B Dhanasree, B Jayasimha Goud, S Nizamuddin Basha / International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2013; 3(1): pp 145-152
Tolerance, arsenic uptake, and oxidative stress in Acacia farnesiana under arsenate-stress
/ Nemi Alcantara-Martinez, Sandra Guizar, Fernando Rivera-Cabrera, Blanca E Anicacio-Acevedo, Leticia Buendia-Gonzalez, and Tania Volke-Sepulveda / International Journal of Phytoremediation, 2016; 18(7) / https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2015.1118432
Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Acacia farnesiana (Sweet Acacia) Seed Extract Under Microwave Irradiation and Their Biological Assessment / S Yallappa, S K Peethambar, A N Rajeshwara, N D Satyanarayan / Journal of Cluster Science, 2013; 24: pp 1081-1092 /
DOI:L 10.1007/s10876-01300599-7
Chemical composition of Acacia farnesiana (L.) wild fruits and its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and dysentery bacteria / Erika Hernandez-Garcia, Abraham Garcia, Maria del Rayo Camacho-Corona et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2019; Volume 230: pp 74-80 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.031
Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of  Vibrio cholerae / Eduardo Sanchez, Santos Garcia, Norma Heredia / Applied abnd Environmental Microbiology, 76(20) /
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03052-09
Novel Encapsulated Herbicide Delivery Mechanism: Its Efficacy in Mimosa Bush (Vachellia farnesiana) Control / Amelia A Limbongan, Shane D Campbell. Victor J Galea / Plants, 10(11)
DOI: 10.3390/plants10112505
Study of Volatile Components of Acacia farnesiana Willd. Flowers / Papaefthimiou Evangelia, Vagias Constantinos, Couladis Maria and Tzakou Olga / Records of Natural Products, 2017; 11(5): pp 474-478 /
DOI: 10.25135/rnp.
Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. Growing in Bangladesh Exerts In-Vitro Antioxidant and In-Vivo Analgesic and Anti-Diarrheal Activities
/ Md Sadman Hasib, Md Sazzadul Bari et la / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal, 2020; 23(2): pp 181-186 / DOI: 10.3329/bpj.v23i2.48339
Huizache (Acacia farnesiana) whole pods (flesh ad seeds) as an alterantive feed for sheep in Mexico / L R Garcia-Winder, S Goñi-Cedeño, C M Arriaga-Jordan et al / Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2009; 41: pp 1615-1621 / DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9355-2
Effects of a lectin-like protein isolated from Acacia farnesiana seeds on phytopathogenic bacterial strains and root-know nematode / T Santi-Gadelha, B A M Roach et al / Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 2012; 103(1): pp 15-22 / DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2012.02.003
Seco-cassine diterpenoids and cytotoxic activities of the constituents from the roots of Acacia farnesiana
/ Y C Chen, H H Liu, H Z Lee / Planta Medica International Open, 2017; 4(S01): pp 1-2 /
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608138
SR: Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil by Acacia farnesiana L. Willd. and Spraying Glutathione / Ahmed R Al-Tameemi, Taha Y Al-Edany, Ali H M Attaha / University of Thi-Qar Journal of Science, 2021. 8(1): pp 59-66
Antioxidative and Hypoglycemia Effects of Delonix elata and Vachellia farnesiana Leaves Extracts on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats / Sameera A Alghamdi / Current Science International, 2019; 8(4): pp 655-666 / DOI: 10.36632/csi/2019.8.4.6 / eISSN: 2706-7920 / pISSN: 2077-4435
SR: Edematogenic and antinociceptive activities of the lectin isolated from the albumin fraction of Acacia farnesiana / L M de Almeida, A F de Pires et al / Ciencia Animal, 2015; 25(3): pp 19-22
Vachellia farnesiana / Wikipedia


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