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Family Boraginaceae
Ehretia philippinensis A. DC.

Scientific names Common names
Ehretia lanyuensis Tang S.Liu & T.I.Chuang Aliboñgog (Ism.)
Ehretia philippinensis A. DC. Alibuñgog (C. Bis.)
Ehretia takaminei Hatus. Anonañgin (Bik.)
  Bayukon (Tag.)
  Halimumog (Tag.)
  Kalamuñgog (P. Bis.)
  Kutup (Sul.)
  Liñguñgug (Mbo.)
  Ludungla (Bon.)
  Salimomo (Tag.)
  Talibobong (Bik.)
Ehretia philippinensis A.DC. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Alibuñgog is a small tree growing to a height of 5 meters or more with crooked branches and smooth, slender branchlets. Leaves are alternate, oblong-ovate to broadly lanceolate, about 10 centimeters long and 4.5 centimeters wide, entire, pointed at the tip, and somewhat rounded at the base. Inflorescences are usually terminal, and at most as long as the leaves. Flowers are white and fragrant, clustered upon short pedicels. Calyx is small and ovately segmented. Corolla is somewhat enlarged at the cylindric base with the narrow lobes ultimated reflexed. Fruit is rounded, about 3 millimeters in diameter, juicy, and orange with a reddish tinge when mature.

- An endemic species found in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes from the Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.

- Yields cyanogenetic glycosides: Simmondsin, ehretioside A1, A2, A3, and B, and polyalcohol.
- Stem bark yielded rosmarinic acid. (2)

- Considered counter-irritant, emollient, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhea, anti-dysenteric.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, roots.


- Poultice of green leaves and stem bark scraped into a pulp are applied to painful and inflamed areas for as long as six hours, and the dressing application renewed once or twice in twenty hours as needed. The poultice has been applied to areas of painful and swollen joints, facial inflammation, post-traumatic swellings, inflamed swollen hangnail and cellulitis.
- Dr. Camomot's "Macerate" preparation: an aqueous maceration is prepared from soaking of fresh leaves (about 50 leaves, weighing about 100 gms) in a basin of well-water at room temperature. After one week, the leaves turn dark green with a menstruum of deep brown color. Decantation and passage through a cotton sieve yields about 900 cu cm of alibuñgog extract.
- Decoction of stem-bark or whole root used for diarrhea, dysentery, frequent blood stools accompanied by tenesmus.
Also used as a mouthwash to relieve toothache.

Cynogenetic Glycosides:
Study yielded six cyanogenetic glycosides compounds: Simmondsin, ehretioside A1, A2, A3 and B, and polyalcohol. (1)
Antihistamine Release Activity: Study of n-butanol and ethyl acetate stem bark extracts of E. philippinensis isolated rosmarinic acid and methyl rosmarinate which showed an antihistamine release activity against compound 48/40 (a very potent histamine liberator). Five cyanoglucosides (four new and one known) were also isolated. (2)
• Toxicity / Bark: In a study in mice, crude stem bark extract of E. philippinensis was found to be moderately toxic when administered intraperitoneally and slightly toxic orally. (4)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Stem Bark: Study of stem bark using different animal models showed anti-inflammatory activity equipotent to aspirin. (4)
• Antimicrobial / Roots and Leaves: Study evaluated crude extracts of roots and leaves of Ehretia philippinensis for antimicrobial properties. All extracts produced zone of inhibition on both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Erythromycin was used as standard. (5)


© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated June 2018 / September 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Ehretia beurreria / Rare Books from the MBG Library / Illustrated Garden
Simpol LR, Otsuka H, Ohtani K, Kasai R, Yamasaki K. Nitrile gluco-sides and rosmarinic acid, the histamine inhibitor from Ehretia philippinensis. Phytochemistry. 1994;36:91–95.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Plants from the genus Ehretia Linn. / LI Li, PENG Yong, YAO Xia, XU Li-jia, WULAN Ta-na, LIU Yong, SHI Ren-bing, XIAO Pei-gen / Chinese Herbal Medicines, 2010, 2(2): 106-111
Nitrile glucosides and rosmarinic acid, the histamine inhibitor from Ehretia philippinensis / Lourdes R. Simpol, Hideaki Otsuka, Kazuhiro Ohtani, Ryoji Kasai, Kazuo Yamasaki / Phytochemistry, 01/1994; 36(1):91-95. / DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97019-5
Ehretia philippinensis A.DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
Ehretia philippinensis A. DC. / PROSEA
Antimicrobial Properties of Crude Ethanolic Extract from Roots and Leaves of Ehretia philippinensis A. DC. Against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Ma. Cristina Soledad E. Atotubo and Vanessa Mae R. de la Torre / Thesis: June 2017 / De La Salle University--Dasmariñas, College of Science and Computer Studies

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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