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Family Iridaceae
Iris domestica (L.) Goldblatt & Mabb.

Jiao jian cao

Scientific names  Common names
Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. Abaniko (Tag..) 
Belamcanda chinensis var. curtata Makino Palma (Span, Tag.) 
Belamcanda chinensis f. flava Makino Blackberry lily (Engl.)
Belamcanda chinensis var. taiwanensis S.S.Ying Freckle face lily (Engl.)
Belamcanda chinensis f. vulgaris Makino Leopard flower (Engl.)
Belamcanda flabellata Grey Leopard lily (Engl.)
Belamcanda pampaninii H.Lécv. Salmon blood lily (Engl.)
Belamcanda punctata Moench  
Bermudiana guttata Stokes  
Epidendrum domesticum L.  
Ferraria crocea Salisb.  
Gemmingia chinensis (L.) Kuntze  
Gemmingia chinensis f. aureoflora Makino  
Gemmingia chinensis f. rubriflora Makino  
Iris domestiica (L.) Goldblatt & Mabb.  
Ixia chinensis L.  
Ixia ensifolia Noronha  
Moraea chinensis (L.) Thunb.  
Moraea guttata (Stokes) Stokes  
Pardanthus chinensis (L.) Ker Gawl.  
Pardanthus nepalensis Sweet  
Pardanthus sinensis Van Houtte  
Vanilla domestica (L.) Druce  
Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is a synonym of Iris domestica (L.) Goldblatt & Mabb. The Plant List
Iris domestica (L.) Goldblatt & Mabb. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Dasba, Basbichandi.
CHINESE: Ye xuan hua, She gan, Jiao jian cao.
FRENCH: Fleur-leopard, Iris tigre
GERMAN: Leopardenblume, Pantherblume.
INDIA: Balamtandam, Valamcandam, Surajkaanti, Dasbaba
INDONESIA: Brojo `lintang, Suliga, Jamaka, Semprit, Wordi, Kiris, Katna
JAPAN: Hi-ogi.
NEPAL: Tarbare.
SPANISH: Abanico, Palma.
THAI: Waan meetyap, Waan haangchaang.
VIETNAMESE:P Xa can, Re quat, La cho.
OTHERS: Pokok kipis.

Gen info
- Iris domestica belongs to the family Iridaceae, which comprises about 60 genera and 800 species worldwide.
- Iris domestica, hi-ogi in Japan, is the floral emblem of the month-long summer Gion festival. Hi-ogi refers to the sword-shaped, iris-like, medium green leaves thought to resemble a formal, medieval Heian period court lady's fan made from cypress.
- The "blackberry" name refers to the flowers that develop into pear-shaped seed pods that split open to reveal "blackberry-like" seed cluster. (44)

• Abaniko is an erect and tufted perennial rhizomatous herb with a thick creeping rootstock, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are 2-ranked, strongly imbricated, narrow lanceolate, sword-shaped, 40 to 60 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide, and overlapping at the base. Inflorescence is dichotomously branched, terminal and erect. Spathes are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are numerous and pedicelled, opening 1 or 2 at a time, 4 to 6 centimeters across. Perianth-tube is very short, and the segments narrowly elliptic, spreading, yellowish outside, reddish-yellow inside with reddish spots. Capsules are obovoid, membranous and loculicidal. Seeds are nearly spherical in shape, with lax and shining testa.

•  A perennial, erect, glabrous herb, 50-150 cm tall, with short, creeping, stoloniferous rhizome with round scars of old stems, usually without leaf remnants; stem corymbosely branched in the upper part. Most leaves crowded in the lower half of the stem, distichous and folding over, ensiform and obliquely linear-lanceolate, 20-60 cm × 2-4.5 cm, nearly erect, with long spathaceous base and somewhat distinct veins, vivid green to glaucous, pellucid-margined; one short leaf present at the base of each branch of stem. Inflorescence a cyme, only top branches with flowers, each cyme with 2 membranous floral sheaths (spathes), (3-)6-12 flowered. Flowers rather small, shriveling spirally after flowering; pedicel terete, 2-4 cm long, persistent, with indistinct articulation below the ovary; perianth actinomorphic, tepals short connate at base, oblong, 2-3.5 cm long, outer 3 slightly longer than inner 3, clawed, spreading, yellow outside with orange margins, bright orange with dark red blotches inside, outer tepals with longitudinal dark red nectaries at base of upper side; stamens 3, placed before the outer tepals, 1.5-2 cm long, with free filiform filaments and linear, basifixed anthers; ovary inferior, ovoid and slightly trigonous, 8-10 mm long, 3-celled, short-beaked, style about 15 mm long, orange-yellow, 3-fid with style-arms gradually thickened upwards. Fruit an oblong or obovoid, trigonous capsule with 3 deep longitudinal furrows, 1.5-3 cm long, opening with 3 loculicidal valves, many-seeded. Seeds subglobose, 4-5 mm in diameter, glossy black, remaining attached to the central placenta by the raphe for some time after the fruit opens. (41)

- Native to the Philippines.
- Planted for ornamental purposes, flowering most of the year.
Also native to Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Hainan, Himalaya, India, Inner Mongolia, Japan, Korea, Malaya, Manchuria, Myanmar, Nepal, Primorye, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam.
- Now cultivated in most warm countries.

- Caution: Mention is made of folkloric use of root juice as abortifacient in the first trimester of pregnancy. (No studies found) (43)
- Rhizomes are bitter and acrid.
- Traditionally considered aperient, purgative, antipyretic, diuretic, expectorant, deobstruent, carminative and resolvent.

- Pulp considered stomachic.
- Studies have shown anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, antibacterial, estrogenic properties..

- Study yielded two major isoflavonoid glucosides: iridin and tectoridin. (1)
- Rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis yielded three new compounds, belalloside A (1), belalloside B (2), and belamphenone (3), along with 13 known compounds, resveratrol (4), iriflophenone (5), irisflorentin (6), tectorigenin (7), irilin D (8), tectoridin (9), iristectorin A (10), iristectorin B (11),  hispiduloside (12), androsin   (13), irigenin (14), iridin (15), andjaceoside (16). (see study below) (2)
- Study of ethanol extract of rhizomes yielded three compounds: isorhamnetin, hispidulin and dichotomitin. From the n-BuOH extract, iridin, tectoridin, daucosterol, vittadinoside or stigmasterol-3-O- glucoside. Four compounds were isolated from n-BuOH extracts: iridin, tectoridin, daucosterol, vittadinoside or stigmasterol-3-O-glucoside. (10)
- Ethyl acetate extract of roots isolated 18 compounds: (1), dausterol (2), quercetin (3), kaempferol (4), shikimic acid (5), gallic acid (6), ursolic acid (7), betulin (8), betulonic acid (9), betulone (10), tectoridin (11), irisflorentin (12), 4′,5,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone (13), tectorigenin (14), irilins A (15), iridin (16), irigenin (17), and iristectongenin A (18). (14)
- Dried rhizomes extracted with 80% ETOH and studied for isoflavones yielded 13 compounds, 10 of which were identified: tectoridin (1), acetovanillone (2), 4-hydroxy-acetophenone (3), β-sitosterol (4), β-daucosterol (5), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyl-3',5'-di methoxyflavone (6), luteolin (7), apigenin (8),5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanones (9), isorharmnetin (10). (39)
- Ethanol extract of rhizomes yielded five compounds characterized as isoirigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (1), tectorigenin (2), irigenin (3), irilin D (4) and irisflorentin (5).
- Study of leaves isolated eight isoflavones viz., iristectorin A (1), iridin (2), tectoridin (3), tectorigenin (4), irisflorentin (5), genistein (6), genistin (7), and prunetin (8). (36)

Parts utilized
Rhizomes, roots, leaves.

- Rhizomes used as expectorant.
- Used for purifying the blood, for liver and pulmonary complaints.
- In Malaya, used as a remedy for gonorrhea.
- In Malabar, used as alexipharmic.
- In Cochin-China (Vietnam), roots used for aperient and resolvent properties.
- Used as antidote to snakebites.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used for pharyngitis, tonsillitis, cough, wheezing, bronchitis and mumps, blood purification, tumors of the face and breast. B. chinensis is an ingredient in the Chinese product--San Jin Xi Gua Xuang--used for sore throat, mouth and tongue ulcers.
- In Vietnam, used as diuretic. Used for swollen liver and spleen, and to treat snake bites. In Indonesia, leaves chewed with Piper betle leaves after childbirth. In Sumatra, used as poultice for lumbago. In Malaysia, rhizome used in medicinal bath after childbirth. (41)
- Root juice used as abortifacient in first trimester. (42)

Phenolic Content / Rhizomes / Anticancer: Three new compounds were identified– belalloside A, belalloside B and belamphenone along with other compounds resveratrol, iriflophenone, irisflorentine, tectoridin, among the 13 others. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were shown to stimulate not only MCF-7, but also T-47E human breast cancer cell proliferation.(see constituents above) (2)
Antifungal: A study on the antifungal activity of Belamcanda chinensis isolated a compound identical to tectorigenin (5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)-6-methoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one). This compound showed marked antifungal activity against dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton. (3)
Phytoestrogens / Anticancer: Study demonstrated a role for tectorigenin and irigenin in regulating the number of prostate cancer cells by inhibition of proliferation through cell cycle regulation. (4)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidative: Study of tectorigenin and tectoridin isolated from BC rhizomes was shown to have antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities in CCl4-intoxicated rats. (5)
Aldose Reductase Inhibition / Tectoridin / Antidiabetic: Aldose reductase is the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, and plays an important role in diabetic complications. Study isolated 12 phenolic compounds from the rhizomes of B. chinensis, with tectoridin and tectorigenin exhibiting the highest aldose reductase inhibitory potency. Administered in STZ-induced diabetic rats, it showed significant inhibition of sorbitol accumulation in the lens, RBC and sciatic nerves. (6)
Irigenin / Anti-Inflammatory: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of six flavanoids isolated from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis. Irigenin exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PGE2) production. (8)
Tectorigenin / Prostate Cancer: Study of showed who tectorigenin and other compounds extracted from B. chinensis can significantly rectify the aberrant expression of genes involved in prostate cancer. Irigenin from the rhizomes presents as a leading compound for anti-inflammation. (7)
Isoflavonoids / Antioxidant / Antimutagenic / Rhizomes: Isoflavonoid fractions from a methanolic extract of BC rhizomes inhibited chemically induced mutations in S typhimurium TA98 and TA100 and also showed capability to scavenge free radicals. Results suggest additional value of the plant as a phytoestrogenic and chemopreventive agent. (9)
Phytoestrogens / Regulation of Steroid Receptors and Co-Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells: BCE showed beneficial effects on prostate cancer and rectifies the expression of key elements in hormone-refractory prostate cancer affecting tumor cell viability and proliferation. (13)
Antitumor Activities / Roots: Study of ethyl acetate extract of roots isolated 18 compounds.
Shikimic acid, betulin, betulonic acid and betulone showed potent cytotoxic activities against tumor cell lines. Compound 7 suggested a mechanisms of growth inhibition via induction of tumor cell apoptosis. (See constituents above) (14)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Study of Bc leaf extract on normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant lowering of fasting blood glucose levels. Results suggest the isoflavone glycosides, not polysaccharides, to be the active fraction of BCL in diabetes treatment. (15)
Antitumor / Antioxidant / Roots: Various extracts of BC root were studied for in vitro antitumor activity against PC3, Bcap-37, and BGC-823 cell lines. Results showed an ethyl acetate extract and isolated fractions to have significant antitumor activity against the three cell lines. It also showed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging effects. (16)
α-Glucosidase Inhibiting Isoflavones / Leaves: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors antagonize the activity of α-glucosidase, delaying absorption of carbohydrates and preventing the sharp increases in blood sugars after meals. Study evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of BCL. Thirteen isoflavones were isolated. Six of the thirteen (swertisin, 2"-O-rhamnosylswertisin, genistein, genistin, mangiferin and daidzin) showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Swertisin was the most abundant of the isoflavones and may be the principal component responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibition. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory / Inhibiting Isoflavones / Leaves: Study screened Formosan plants and Chinese herbs for anti-inflammatory activity. B. chinensis was found to be one of the active species. Study isolated two new isoflavone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-3′-methoxy-6,7:4′,5′-bis(methylenedioxy)isoflavone (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,3′-dimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone (2), along with 8 known compounds (3-10). Compound 9, isotectorigenin, exhibited potent inhibition of elastase release by human neutrophils in response to Met-Leu-Phe/Cytochalasin B. (18)
Tectorigenin Monohydrate / Isoflavone: Study isolated a tectorigenin monohydrate, an isoflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4- hydroxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one monohydrate, which showed to have antimicrobiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. (19)
Tissue Specific Metabolites: Study showed the hydrophobic compounds, especially flavonoid or isoflavonoid aglycones and xanthone mainly accumulate in the cork, while the hydrophilic compounds, namely the flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides are usually found in the cortex or center. (20)
Anti-Hyperlipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of flavone-rich leaf extract of B. chinensis in mice fed a high fat diet. Results showed alleviation of hyperlipidemia, at least in part, by up-regulation mechanisms of AMPK and PPARα. (21)
Tectorigenin / Antibacterial / Anti-MRSA: Tectorigeninc (TTR) is an O-methylated isoflavone from the rhizome of B. chinensis. Study showed TTR has anti-MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) activity. TTR has a role in increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and decreasing activity of ABC transporter. Results suggest a potential for the use of TTR-based products in the treatment of MRSA. (22)
Phytoestrogens / Antiproliferative / Prostate Cancer Cells: Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal plant derived compounds with estrogenic activity that have been implicated in protecting against prostate cancer progression. In vitro studies showed a role for tectorigenin and irigenin in regulating prostate cancer cell number by inhibiting proliferation through cell cycle regulation. (23)
Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production: Study of methyl chloride fraction of rhizomes yielded 17 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. (24)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Evaluation / Tectorigenin: Tectorigenin is a main compound of B. chinensis. On subacute toxicity testing in mice, no toxic symptoms were observed at doses up to 300 mg/kg. It showed an analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced acute visceral pain in mice, and significant reduction of carrageenan-induced edema in an inflammatory rat model.  (25)
Tectorigenin / Anti-Proliferative / Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: Study demonstrated the potential of B. chinensis extract and tectorigenin as anticancer drugs in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumor cells (TGCT) by inhibition of proliferation and regulating the expression of stem cell factors. The effects may be based on histone-dependent mechanisms such as direct hyperacetylation of transcription factors. (26)
Irisflorentin / Reduction of Allergic Contact Hypersensitivity Responses / Roots: Irisflorentin in an isoflavone component derived from the roots of B. chinensis. Study investigated the effects of irisflorentin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (dendritic cells). Results showed irisflorentin can improved CHSR by blocking DC function. Study provides insight into potential role of irisflorentin as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant through its ability to modulate the properties of dendritic cells. (27)
In Vitro Estrogenic Activities: Study evaluated the estrogenic activities of 70% EtOH extracts of 32 traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Belamcanda chinensis, P. corylifolia and P. multiflorum showed a higher estrogenic relative inductive efficiency with RIE ranging from 83.7 to 52.1 (RIE of E2 was 100).  (28)
Anti-Osteoporotic Effects: Study evaluated the effect of medicinal herbs on osteoporosis, especially induced by estrogen deficiency, in an animal model. The B. chinensis extract containing tectorigenin had a strong hypothalamotropic and osteotropic effect without effects on the uterus or the mammary gland.  (29)
Anti-Trypanosomal Iridals: Study evaluated 196 extracts from traditional Chinese plants for potential to treat trypanosomal diseases. Bioassay guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract of Iris domestica led to the identification of several types of iridals with previously unreported anti-trypanosomal activity. (31) Bioassay-guided fractionation identified the myristate ester of iso-iridogermanal as an antitrypanosomal component of Iris domestica. The compound has been shown to be cytotoxic to tumor cells.(34) Previously evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei, bioassay-guided fractionation isolated four known iridals as active components. Chemical modification of the isolates afforded novel stable derivatives that maintained bioactivity. (35)
Tectorigenin / Prostate Cancer Therapy: Study demonstrated the potential of plant constituents, tectorigenin and irigenin, extracted from Belamcanda chinensis as therapies in prostate cancer. Results demonstrate B. chinensis markedly inhibited the development of tumors in vivo and suggests the compounds may be useful in the prevention and treatment of human prostate cancer. (32)
• Isoflorentin / Effect on
α-Synuclein Accumulation / Implications for Parkinson's Disease: PD is a degenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta together with neuron impairment. Isoflorentin from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis was evaluated for its effect in amelioration of PD in Caenorhabditis elegans model. Results showed irisflorentin prevents α-synuclein accumulation in the CE model and improved dopaminergic neuron degeneration suggesting a potential as an anti-parkinsonian drug. It may exert effects by promotion of rpn-3 expression to block apoptosis pathways. (33)
• Anti-Trypanosomal Activity / Cytotoxicity: Bioassay-guided fractionation of Iris domestica isolated a myristate ester of iso-iridogermanal as an antitrypanosomal component. The compound has previously been isolated from I. domestica, as well as other Iris species, and has been shown to be cytotoxic to tumor cells. (34)
• Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Iridals: A petroleum ether extract of Iris domestica was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei. Bioactive-guided fractionation isolated two known iridals, iso-iridogermanal (myristate ester) (2), and anhydrobelachinal (3). The unsaturated aldehydes were reduced to corresponding alcohols, 4 and 5. Two other alcohols were obtains by direct reduction of semi-pure Fractions III and IV, to yield reduced analogs of the known iridals, 26-hydroxy-15-methylindene-spiroirid-16-enal and irodotectoral C, allylic alcohols 7 and 8. Seven of the compounds, 2-8, produced strong activity against T. brucei with IC50s of <10 µg/mL. (35)
• Anti-Inflammatory / BC-2 / Rhizomes: Bioassay-guided fractionation of EtOAc soluble fraction from rhizomes isolated eleven compounds (BC-1 to BC-11), and were evaluated for COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in Raw264.7 cells. BC-2 ((7R,8S)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9'-y-methyl ether) showed most potent inhibitory activity by suppressing LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE-2 production in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest the anti-inflammatory action of BC-2 in RAW246.7 cells involves miR-146a and miR-155, and suggests potential for design of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. (37)
• Invention / Isoflavone in Anti-Tumor Drug or Food: The invention relates to the use of isoflavone compounds from the rhizome of belamcanda chinensis such as tectorigenin, wild iris genin, irisflorentin, wild iris glycoside, or tecoridin in the preparation of anti-tumor drugs or food. In vitro studies have shown the compounds to have inhibitory effects on growth of cells line A549 (human lung cancer cells), LOVO (human colon cancer cells), 6T-CEM (human T-cell leukemia cells) and HL-60 (human leukemia cells). (38)
• Iristectorigenin B / Liver X Receptor Modulator / Hypocholeterolemic Effects: Study isolated a novel liver X receptor (LXR) modulator, iristectorigenin B. from B. chinensis, which stimulated the transcriptional activity of both LXR-α and LXR-ß. In macrophages, iristectorigenin B suppressed cholesterol accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Iristectorigenin B is a dual LXR agonist that regulates expression of key genes in cholesterol homeostasis in macrophage cells without inducing hepatic lipid accumulation. (40)
• Induction of Isoflavones by CuCl2: Previous studies have indicated that isoflavonoid glycosides were induced by CuCl2 in I. domestica calli. Study hypothesized that isoflavone O-UGTs may be induced by Cu2+. A comparative transciptome analysis using I. domestica seedlings treated with CuCl2 yielded eight new active BcUGTs. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the transcription levels of BcUGTs were remarkably induced by Cu2+. (42)

- Cultivated.

- Seeds in the cybermarket.

Updated August 2023 / Feb 2019 / Sept 2018 / Aug 2017 / June 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Illlustration: :Iris domestica (as Ixia chinensis L.) / William Curtis / Plate 171 from The Botanical Magazine Vol 5, 1972 / Public Domain / Wikimedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Flower close-up / dracobotanicus -- Wayne Dumbleton / Creative Commons Attribution / click on image or link to go to source page / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Seeds / File:Belamcanda chinensis seeds / Doronenko / 16 September 2007 / GNU Free Documentation License Attribution / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Belamcanda chinensis / Brighterorange / CC BY-SA 2.5 / click on image or link to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
New flavone and isoflavone glycoside from Belamcanda chinensis
Chinese Chemical LettersVolume 18, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 158-160
Phenolic constituents of rhizomes of the Thai medicinal plant with proliferative activity for two breast cancer lines / Monthakantirat, O; De-Eknamkul, W; Umehara, K; Yoshinaga, Y; Miyase, T; Warashina, T; Noguchi, H /
J. Nat. Prod., 2005;  68 (3): pp 361–364 / DOI: 10.1021/np040175c
Detection of Antifungal Activity in Belamcanda chinensis by a Single-cell Bioassay Method and Isolation of Its Active Compound, Tectorigenin / OH Ki-Bong; KANG Heonjoong; MATSUOKA Hideaki /
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 2001; 65(): pp 939-942 / DOI:10.1271/bbb.65.939
Antioxidant activities of isoflavones from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats / Jung SHLee et al / Archives of Pharmacal Research / 2004V.27(no.2)
Isoflavonoids from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis and their effects on aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat tissues
/ Sang Hoon Jung, Yeon Sil Lee et al / ARCHIVES OF PHARMACAL RESEARCH, Vol 25, Number 3, 306-312 / DOI: 10.1007/BF02976631
Tectorigenin and other phytochemicals extracted from leopard lily Belamcanda chinensis affect new and established targets for therapies in prostate cancer / Paul Thelen, Jens-Gerd Scharf et al / Carcinogenesis vol.26 no.8 pp.1360--1367, 2005 / doi:10.1093/carcin/bgi092
Inhibitory Effects Of Irigenin From The Rhizomes Of Belamcanda Chinensis On Nitric Oxide And Prostaglandin E(2) Production In Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells / hn KS, Noh EJ, Cha KH, Kim YS et al / Life Sci. 2006 Apr 11;78(20):2336-42. Epub 2005 Nov 2
Antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of isoflavonoids from Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC / Dorota Wozniak, Bogdan Janda et al / Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenes, Feb 2010; Volume 696, Issue 2: pp 148-153 / doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2010.01.004
Study of chemical constituents of Belamcanda chinensis / Qin Min-Jan, Ji Wen-Ilang et al / Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, 2004-05/
Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. / Catalogue of Life, China
Belamcanda chinensis / Vernacular names / GLOBin MED
Phytoestrogens from Belamcanda chinensis regulate the expression of steroid receptors and related cofactors in LNCaP prostate cancer cells / Paul Thelen, Thomas Peter, Anika Hünermund, Silke Kaulfu, Dana Seidlová-Wuttke†, Wolfgang Wuttke, Rolf-Hermann Ringert and Florian Seseke / JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2007 BJU INTERNATIONAL, 100, 199–203 / doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.06924.x
Chemical Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC Roots and Their Antitumor Activities / Mingchuan Liu, Shengjie Yang, Linhong Jin, Deyu Hu, Zhibing Wu and Song Yang */ Molecules, 2012; 17: 6156-6169 / doi:10.3390/molecules17056156
Hypoglycemic effect of Belamcanda chinensis leaf extract in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats and its potential active faction. / Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2010.07.005
In vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC / Mingchuan Liu, Shengjie Yang, Linhong Jin, Deyu Hu, Wei Xue, Song Yang* / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 6(43), pp. 5566-5569, 10 November, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.1360
The α-Glucosidase Inhibiting Isoflavones Isolated from Belamcanda chinensis Leaf Extract
/ Chongming Wu1, Jingyao Shen, Pingping He, Yan Chen, Liang Li, Liang Zhang, Ye Li, Yujuan Fu, Rongji Dai, Weiwei Meng, *and Yulin Deng* / Rec. Nat. Prod. 6:2 (2012) 110-120
Anti-inflammatory natural products from Belamcanda chinensis / JJ Chen, ML Wu, TL Hwang, WJ Wu, YH Tsai, YJ Chen / Planta Med 2013; 79 - PI26 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1352116
Tectorigenin monohydrate: an isoflavone from Belamcanda chinensis
/ Benguo Liu,* Yuxiang Ma, Han Gao and Qiong Wu / Acta Cryst. (2008). E64, o2056 / doi:10.1107/S1600536808030833
Tissue-specific metabolites profiling and quantitative analyses of flavonoids in the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis by combining laser-microdissection with UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS and UHPLC-QqQ-MS / Chen YJ, Liang ZT, Zhu Y, Xie GY, Tian M, Zhao ZZ, Qin MJ / Talanta. 2014 Dec;130:585-97. / doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.07.004. Epub 2014 Jul 9.
Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effect of Flavone-Rich Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. (Iridaceae) Leaf Extract in ICR Mice Fed High-Fat Diet / Hai-Wei Zhao, Fang Lv, Wei-Wei Meng, Hao Dang, Zhi-Long Sun, Yan Chen, Rong-Ji Dai, Yu-Lin Deng and Chong-Ming Wu / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Researc, October 2014; 13(10): pp 1653-1658 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i10.12
The Antibacterial Assay of Tectorigenin with Detergents or ATPase Inhibitors against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / Dae-Ki Joung, Su-Hyun Mun, Kuang-Shim Lee, Ok-Hwa Kang, Jang-Gi Choi, Sung-Bae Kim, Ryong Gong, Myong-Soo Chong, Youn-Chul Kim, Dong-Sung Lee, Dong-Won Shin, and Dong-Yeul Kwon / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/716509
Chemical constituents from Belamcanda chinensis and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells / Jin Woo Lee, Chul Lee, Qinghao Jin, Moon-Soon Lee, Youngsoo Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Mi Kyeong Lee, Bang Yeon Hwang / Archives of Pharmacal Research , Volume 38, Issue 6 , pp 991-997 / DOI: 10.1007/s12272-014-0529-8
Toxicity, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of tectorigenin
/ Le Minh Ha, Do Thi Nguyet Que, Do Thi Thanh Huyen, Pham Quoc Long, and Nguyen Tien Dat / Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, June 2013, Vol. 35, No. 3 , Pages 336-340 (doi:10.3109/08923973.2013.770521)
Phytoestrogens regulate the proliferation and expression of stem cell factors in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumors / Astrid Hasibeder Vivek Venkataramani Paul Thelen Heinz-Joachim Radzun / International Journal of Oncology, Volume 43, Issue 5, Nov 2013: Pages: 1385-1394 / DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2013.2060
Irisflorentin Modifies Properties of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells and Reduces the Allergic Contact Hypersensitivity Responses / Ru-Huei Fu, Chia-Wen Tsai, Rong-Tzong Tsai, Shih-Ping Liu, Tzu-Min Chan, Yu-Chen Ho, Hsin-Lien Lin, Yue-Mi Chen, Huey-Shan Hung, Shao-Chih Chiu, Chang-Hai Tsai, Yu-Chi Wang, Woei-Cherng Shyu, and Shinn-Zong Lin / Cell Transplantation, 2015' Vol. 24: pp. 573–588 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368915X687002
In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms / C.Z. Zhang, S.X. Wang, Y. Zhang, J.P. Chen, X.M. Liang / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98 (2005) 295–300
Anti-osteoporotic Effects of Medicinal Herbs and their Mechanisms of Action / Yan Zhang, Mansau Wong, Chunfu Wu* / Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2006, 1 ( 3-4 )
Iris domestica / Synonyms / The Plant List
Anti-Trypanosomal Iridals Isolated From Iris Domestica / A Liyana Pathiranage, J Moore Stubblefield, A Newsome, N Dunlap / Planta Med 2016; 82 - PC42 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1578744
Studies on chemical constituents of Belamcanda chinensis / Ying-Kun Qiu, Y.-B. Gao, B.-X. Xu, K. Liu / Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences 41(15):1133-1135 · August 2006
Irisflorentin improves α-synuclein accumulation and attenuates 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration, implication for Parkinson’s disease therapy / Yue-Mi Chen, Shih-Ping Liu, Hsin-Lien Lin, Ming-Chia Chan, Yen-Chuan Chen et al / Biomedicine (Taipei). 2015 Mar; 5(1): 4.  / doi: 10.7603/s40681-015-0004-y
Antitrypanosomal activity of an iridal from Iris domestica and initial structure-activity relationships / N Dunlap, AL Pathiranage, J Stubblefield, A Newsome / Planta Med, 2015; 81 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1556460
Antitrypanosomal activity of iridals from Iris domestica / Anuradha Liyana Pathiranage, Jeannie M Stubblefield, Xiaolei Zhou, Norma K Dunlap / Phytochemistry Letters, Dec 2016; 18: pp 44-50 / DOI:  10.1016/j.phytol.2016.08.025
Isoflavones in Leaves of Belamcanda chinensis / ZHANG Liang, ZHANG Yu-kui, CHEN Yan, JIA Shao-hua, DAI Rong-ji, MENG Wei-wei, LI Liang, DENG Yu-lin / Natural Product Research and Development, 2011-01
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of (7R,8S)-Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol-9′γ-Methyl Ether from the Rhizome of Belamcanda Chinensis: Role of Mir-146a and Mir-155 / Bui Thi Binh, Tran Thi Hien, Do Thi Ha, Pham Duc Chinh, Le Viet Dung and Nguyen Thi Bich Thu / Biomed Pharmacol J, 2016; 9(3) / DOI :  http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bpj/1029
Application of isoflavone compound in preparation of anti-tumor drug or food  / CN101797247B CHINA
Studies on Bio-active Constituents of Belamcanda Chinensis and Eleutherine Americana / Feng Chuan Wei / Master Thesis, 2010 / Second Military Medical University
Iristectorigenin B isolated from Belamcanda chinensis is a liver X receptor modulator that increases ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells / Hee-jin Jun, Minh-Hien Hoang, Jin Woo Lee, Jia Yaoyao, Ji-Hae Lee, Dong-Ho Lee. Hak-Ju Lee, Woo-Duck Seo, Bang Yeon Hwang, Sung-Joon Lee / Biotechnol Lett, 2012; 34: pp 2213–2221 / DOI 10.1007/s10529-012-1036-y
Belamcanda chinensis (PROSEA) / N Bunyapraphatsara, RHMJ Lemmens / Pl@ntUse
Iris domestica (iso)flavone 7- and 3′-O-Glycosyltransferases Can Be Induced by CuCl2 / Xiang Zhang, Yan Zhu, Juun Ye, Ziyu Ye, Ruirui Zhu, Guoyong Xie, Yucheng Zhao, Minjian Qin  / Front. Plant Sci., 2021; Vol 12 / DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.632557
Belamcanda chinensis / Plants For A future
Iris domestica / Mark Hovane / The Kyoto Garden Experience

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